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Gupta D.K.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Huang H.G.,Bijie Tobacco Company of Guizhou Province | Nicoloso F.T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Schetinger M.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 5 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2013

Plantlets of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) were exposed for 28 days to three different metal/metalloid (Hg, Pb and As) with different levels (Hg 1; As 25, 50, 100 and Pb 100 and 400 μM) to analyze the possible phytochelatin initiation and affects on growth and photosynthetic pigments vis-à-vis metal accumulation potential of plants. The plantlets showed significant Hg, As and Pb accumulation in roots (150, 1267.67 and 2129 μg g-1 DW respectively); however, a low root to shoot metal translocation was observed. It was interesting to note that all tested macronutrient (Mg, K, Ca) was higher in shoots and just opposite in case of micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn), was recorded highest in roots. The growth of plantlets (analyzed in terms of length and dry weight) was negatively affected by various metal treatments. In addition, the level of photosynthetic pigments alters significantly in response to all metal/metalloid treatment. In response to all tested metal/metalloids in plants only As induced phytochelatins (PC2, PC3 and PC4) in roots, and in shoots, GSH was observed in all tested metal/metalloids. In conclusion, P. glomerata plantlets could not cooperatively induce phytochelatins under any of Hg and Pb levels. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Zhang S.J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang S.J.,Agricultural Quality Inspection and Testing Center | Li T.X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Huang H.G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Athyrium wardii (Hook.) is a promising herbaceous plant species for phytostabilization of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated sites with large biomass and fast growth rate. However, little information is available on its tolerance mechanisms toward Cd. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Cd migration, accumulation and detoxification, the present study investigated subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in the mining ecotypes and corresponding non-mining ecotypes of A. wardii via greenhouse pot experiment. Subcellular fractionation of Cd-containing tissues demonstrated that the majority of the element was mainly located in soluble fraction in cell walls. This indicated that both the vacuoles and cell walls might be evolved the Cd tolerance mechanisms to protect metabolically active cellular compartments from toxic Cd concentrations. Meanwhile, Cd taken up by the plant existed in different chemical forms. Results showed that the majority of Cd in plant was in undissolved Cd-phosphate complexes (extracted by 2 % CH3COOH), followed by water-soluble Cd-organic acid complexes, Cd(H2PO4)2, pectates and protein form (extracted by deionized water and 1 M NaCl), whereas only small amount of Cd in roots was in inorganic form (extracted by 80 % ethanol), which suggests low capacity to be transported to aboveground tissues. It could be suggested that Cd integrated with undissolved Cd-phosphate complexes in cell wall or compartmentalization in vacuole might be responsible for the adaptation of the mining ecotypes of A. wardii to Cd stress. © 2013 Islamic Azad University (IAU). Source

Wu C.,Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science | Li Y.,Qiannan Tobacco Company of Guizhou Province | Shi H.,Qiannan Tobacco Company of Guizhou Province | Feng Y.,Zunyi Tobacco Corporation of Guizhou Province | And 3 more authors.
Tobacco Science and Technology | Year: 2014

To accurately evaluate the comprehensive trait of new flue-cured tobacco varieties (lines), the data of 12 trait indexes (including natural leaf number, yield, percentage of high grade leaf, grade index, nicotine content, reducing sugar content, potassium content, bacterial wilt disease index, climate spot disease index, appearance quality score, stem content and total score of sensory evaluation) obtained in 2012 Guizhou regional test were analyzed with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. GGE biplot analysis was used to analyze comprehensive evaluation results, conduct varieties (lines) evaluation and testing points evaluation, and analyze the adaptable areas of each variety (line). The results showed that Guiyan 2, 2010A4 and MT-2 obtained better and stabler comprehensive evaluation value; YQ-1 obtained better comprehensive evaluation value in District 1 (Longgang and Weining), as did Guiyan 2 in District 2 (Zunyi, Guiding and Kaili) and 6517 in District 3 (Yinjiang). According to evaluation of testing points, those in Guiding and Zunyi were good in representativeness and discrimination; those in Yinjiang, Weining and Longgang were good in discrimination, but not as good in representativeness; those in Kaili were good in representativeness, but not as good in discrimanation. Source

Wang K.,Zhejiang University | Wang K.,Ningbo University | Chen X.-X.,Ningbo University | Zhu Z.-Q.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the dissipation of available benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soils co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and pyrene (PYR) during aging process. The available residue of BaP in soil was separated into desorbing and non-desorbing fractions. The desorbing fraction contributed more to the dissipation of available BaP than the non-desorbing fraction did. The concentration of bound-residue fraction of BaP was quite low across all treatments. Within the duration of this study (250 days), transformation of BaP from available fractions to bound-residue fraction was not observed. Microbial degradation was the dominant mechanism of the dissipation of available BaP in the soil. The dissipation of available BaP was significantly inhibited with the increment in Cd level in the soil. The addition of PYR (250 mg kg-1) remarkably promoted the dissipation of available BaP without reducing Cd availability in the soil. The calculated half-life of available BaP in the soil prolonged with the increment in Cd level; however, the addition of PYR shortened the half-life of available BaP by 13.1, 12.7, and 32.8 % in 0.44, 2.56, and 22 mg Cd kg-1 soils, respectively. These results demonstrated that the inhibiting effect of Cd and the promoting effect of PYR on the dissipation of available BaP were competitive. Therefore, this study shows that the bioremediation process of BaP can be more complicated in co-contaminated soils. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Li Z.,Guizhou University | Liu S.,Guizhou University | Song Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Liu W.-J.,Guizhou University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

To investigate the optimal medium composition for antibacterial substance production by Aspergillus niger xj in liquid-state fermentation (LSF). The disc diffusion method was used to assay the production. Statistical methodologies, including the Plackett- Burman design (PBD) and the central composite design (CCD), were employed to investigate the individual crucial component of the medium that significantly affected the production. The optimum values of the critical components for the maximum antibacterial substance production were obtained as follows: x1(MgSO4)=-0.3417 (0.2982 g/L), x2(Tween- 80)=-0.28878 (0.242245 ml/L) and the predicted diameter of the inhibitory zone value was 27.39847 mm. Using the optimized condition, the diameter of inhibitory zone reached 27.74±3.07 mm. By using PBD and CCD, we determined the optimal composition for antibacterial substance production by Aspergillus niger xj in LSF. Source

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