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Koch Bihār, India

Mohan K.,Bihar Veterinary College | Prakash B.S.,National Dairy Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production

The objective of this study was (1) to establish the duration of behavioral estrus signs and timing of ovulation in Murrah buffaloes (n = 10) and (2) to determine relationship between behavioral estrus signs with change in plasma estrogen concentrations in animals treated with Heatsynch protocol. Estrus and its behavioral signs were detected at hourly intervals by visual observations per rectal examination of genitalia and bull parading four times in a day for 30 min each. Among the behavioral signs of estrus, swollen vulva was the best indicator of estrus followed by excitement and chasing by bull (90%). Among the duration of behavioral estrus signs, the first and longest duration of estrus signs was swollen vulva, which was seen up to 21. 6 ± 1. 1 h after onset of estrus. The mean total duration of estrus symptoms from appearance to disappearance of all the behavioral estrus symptoms was 40. 2 ± 1. 8 h. Endocrine profile during the periestrus period showed that the mean peak concentrations of total estrogen 330. 9 ± 108. 3 pg/ml occurred at 9. 6 ± 1. 0 h after estradiol benzoate injection. The average number of estrus symptoms observed per animal during Heatsynch treatment was 7. 1. Ovulation occurred after 50. 0 ± 2. 0 h after estradiol benzoate treatment and 26. 7 ± 2. 0 h after end of total estrogen surge, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that all signs of behavioral estrus occurred after the preovulatory rise in estrogens. The first sign of estrus was swollen vulva, and this symptom persisted the longest. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Singh P.K.,Patna University | Chandramoni,Patna University | Kumar K.,Patna University | Kumar S.,Bihar Veterinary College
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding wheat or rice based complete ration as mash or block form on feed intake, nutrient utilization, blood biochemicals and growth in growing crossbred female calves. Wheat and rice straw based complete feeds having different proportion of roughages in mash form were densified into blocks by applying the pressure of 3,000 psi for dwell time of 30 sec in the complete feed block making machine. Physical characteristics like weight, dimension, bulk density, post compression expansion and durability were evaluated. The highest bulk density (562.2 kg/m3) and the lowest post compression expansion (28.18%) was observed in rice straw (50% inclusion level) based complete feed block. The blocks were denser and durable without any change in nutritional composition, however, rice straw based feed blocks were more durable with less post compression expansion as compared to wheat straw based blocks. Crossbred female calves (24) of 10-12 months age were divided into 4 groups of 6 calves each on the basis of body weight. Calves were fed mash form of 50% wheat (WM50) or rice (RM50) straw whereas corresponding other group was offered compressed complete feed blocks of wheat (WB50) or rice (RB50) straw based diet ad lib. and 2 kg green oat. Feeding trial lasted for 90 days. A digestion trial of 7 days duration was conducted to assess nutrient utilization and blood samples of animals were collected on 85th day of the experimental feeding to anlayse blood bio-chemicals. Average daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency did not differ in crossbred calves of different groups, however, body weight gain and feed intake was higher in calves fed block as compared to mash form of feed. The digestibility of DM, CP, EE and NFE did not differ among the groups. The blood glucose, total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations, and AST and ALT activities were similar among different groups. It is concluded that feeding of complete ration in block form is beneficial in terms of feed intake, nutrient utilization, growth and feed conversion efficiency in growing crossbred female calves. Source

Kumari R.R.,Bihar Veterinary College | Kumar P.,DLFM | Mondal T.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Background: Chromium (Cr), a naturally occurring heavy metal, exists in many states, but the trivalent Cr (III) and hexavalent Cr (VI) forms are the most common in the environment. Acute and chronic toxicity in both animal and man are mainly caused by Cr (VI) compounds. Studies on hematological parameters in sub-acute toxicity of potassium chromate in broiler chicks are limited. Aims & Objective: The study was envisaged to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E and Selenium on haematological parameters in sub-acute oral toxicity of potassium chromate [Cr (VI)] in broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: Potassium chromate (K2CrO4) used as test compound and Vitamin E and Se powder as Tocosel® contained 5 g of Tocopherol acetate and 30 mg of sodium selenite per 10 gm. LD50 was calculated before initiating the experiment by graphical probit analysis method. Experiment was conducted in randomly divided four equal groups (n=6) of day old chicks. Chicks of each group were maintained up to the age of 45 day and sacrificed on 46th day. Chicks of control group (T1) were provided only with basal diet and drinking water. While groups T2 and T3 was fed different concentrations of K2CrO4 and T4 as treatment group supplemented with Vitamin E and Se. Results: LD50 of K2CrO4 in broiler chick was calculated as 277.95 mg/kg. Feeding potassium chromate [Cr (VI)] in group T2 (1/5th of LD50) and T3 (1/3rd of LD50) for 30 days, decreased haemoglobin percentage, haematocrit values, total erythrocyte count and total leucocyte count while increased the clotting time in a dose dependent manner. In group T4 chicks fed 1/3rd of LD50 of K2CrO4 and simultaneous treatment of Vitamin E and Se, normalised these haematological values, signifying its protective effect in sub-acute hexavalent chromium toxicity produced by potassium chromate. Conclusion: It may be concluded that above mentioned changes might have reduced erythrocyte number, leucocyte number, haemoglobin value and increased clotting time. Vitamin E and Se containing glutathione peroxidase are among the principle in vivo chain breaking antioxidants, thus had protective effect. Source

Tiwary R.,Bihar Veterinary College | Amarpal,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Aithal H.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kinjavdekar P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.

Objective: To investigate the utility of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNCs) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in articular cartilage repair. Design: An osteochondral defect of 3 mm diameter and 5 mm depth was created in patellar groove of the left knee joint in each of 36 New Zealand White rabbits. The defect was filled with RPMI-1640 medium in group A (control), autologous BMNCs in group B, and autologous BMNCs plus IGF-1 in group C (n = 12). Healing of the defect was assessed by gross, scanning electron microscopic, radiographic, and histological examinations up to 90 days. Results: Gross and scanning electron microscopic examination of the healing site revealed superior gross morphology and surface architecture of the healing tissue in the animals of group C as compared to other groups. Radiographically on day 90, the defect area was not distinguishable from the surrounding area in group C, but a small circular defect area was still evident in groups A and B. The regenerated tissue was mostly hyaline in group C and fibrocartilage in groups A and B. The cells were well organized and showed better deposition of proteoglycans in groups C and B than in group A. Conclusions: It was concluded that implantation of bone-marrow-derived nucleated cells may facilitate the healing of osteochondral defects; however, the combination of BMNCs and IGF-1 induces faster and histologically better healing than the BMNCs alone. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Ansari M.M.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Sharma S.P.,Bihar Veterinary College
Buffalo Bulletin

The present experimental urothroplasty was undertaken in sixteen male buffalo calf models apparently in good health status using urinary and caecal grafts. The surgical technique was evaluated on the basis of clinical observation, determination of blood urea nitrogen, histopathological and postoperative complication for a period of 60 days post-operatively. Urethroplasty using formalin preserved urinary bladder and caecal grafts acted as a scaffold around which there was gradual regeneration of urethral tissue and resolution of grafted material by 60th post-operative day. However, both these techniques were worthy and feasible in buffalo calves, yet caecourethroplasty was preferred, because it was easier and safer than the cystourethroplasty. Source

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