Bihar Agricultural University

Sabour, India

Bihar Agricultural University

Sabour, India
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Swain P.,National Rice Research Institute | Raman A.,International Rice Research Institute | Singh S.P.,Bihar Agricultural University | Kumar A.,International Rice Research Institute
Field Crops Research | Year: 2017

In shallow rainfed rice agro-ecosystems, drought stress can occur at any growth stage and can cause a significant yield reduction. During recent years, some rice varieties possessing tolerance of reproductive-stage drought stress have recently been developed. Tolerance of vegetative-stage drought stress is also required to improve rice productivity in drought-prone regions. In this study, we evaluated a set of rice breeding lines for their response to a range of different types of vegetative-stage drought stress in order to propose standardized phenotyping protocols for conducting vegetative-stage drought stress screening trials and also to identify genotypes combining tolerance of vegetative- and reproductive-stage drought stress. A soil water potential threshold of −20 kPa during the vegetative stage was identified as the target for effective selection under vegetative stage with grain yield reduction of about 50% compared to irrigated control trials. Genotypes identified as showing high yield under reproductive-stage drought stress were not necessarily the genotypes showing best performance under vegetative-stage drought stress. Genotypes IR72667-16-1-B-B-3, IR78908-126-B-2-B, and IR79970-B-47-1 showed tolerance of both vegetative-stage and reproductive-stage drought stress. For most, the genotypes that were best under vegetative stage drought or even vegetative stage + reproductive stage drought were different from the genotypes that were best under reproductive stage drought. Based on the cultivar superiority measure, IR69515-6-KKN-4-UBN-4-2-1-1-1 and IR78908-126-B-1-B were the stable genotypes (indicated by low Pi) under both irrigated control and severe vegetative stress conditions, genotypes IR83614-203-B and IR78908-80-B-3-B were stable under irrigated control conditions and moderate stress, whereas IR72667-16-1-B-B-3 was stable under both moderate and severe vegetative-stage stress conditions. © 2017 The Authors

PADBHUSHAN R.,Bihar Agricultural University | KUMAR D.,Punjab Agricultural University
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2017

Knowledge of different fractions and availability of boron (B) is essential while studying the response of crops to B. Fractionation provides information about the chemistry of B and quantifies its bioavailability. Such information is potentially valuable for predicting bioavailability, B leaching, dynamics, transformation between chemical forms in soils and environmental impacts. Total B (T-B) is quantified into five fractions: readily soluble (Rs-B), specifically adsorbed (Spa-B), oxide bound (Ox-B), organically bound (Org-B) and residual B (Res-B). Of these, Rs-B is the fraction present in soil solution and adsorbed weakly by soil particles, and is most readily available for plant uptake. It accounts for 1–2% of T-B. The second most plant available form is Spa-B; it may be adsorbed onto clay surfaces or associated with organic matter (OM) in soil. The remaining fractions, Ox-B, Org-B and Res-B, are unavailable for plant uptake. The major portion (generally 87·4–99·7%) of T-B is composed of Res-B. Overall, the relative proportion of B in various fractions is in the order of Res B > Org-B > Spa-B > Rs-B > Ox-B. Several factors such as soil pH, soil OM, clay minerals, iron and aluminium oxides and calcium carbonate content may change the relative proportion of B in various fractions and the transformations among different soil B fractions. Some of the B fractions are correlated with others and exhibit responses in terms of plant growth. Non-specifically adsorbed (Nsa-B) and Spa-B are positively and significantly correlated to some sub-fractions of Ox-B, such as B occluded in manganese oxyhydroxides (Moh-B). The most readily available forms of B for plants are Nsa-B, Spa-B and Moh-B. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017

Gantait S.,University Putra Malaysia | Das A.,Bihar Agricultural University | Mandal N.,Instrumentation and Environmental Science
Sugar Tech | Year: 2015

The present review illustrates the pharmacological properties and production of planting materials through in vitro organogenesis of Steviarebaudiana (Bertoni). The plant is native to Paraguay; however, the main producers of stevia are Japan, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Korea, Brazil, Malaysia and India. This plant is recorded as having a non-caloric natural sugar, alternative to artificially produced sugar substitutes and hence traditionally has been used to sweeten beverages. This article enumerates an overview on pharmacological and micropropagation aspects which are of use to researchers for further exploration for the indispensable improvement of this potential herb with medicinal importance. © 2014, Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Nimmy M.S.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Kumar V.,Bihar Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2016

Salinity is a major abiotic stress that negatively affect plant growth, survival and productivity. In the present study we have identified six putative salt inducible Arabidopsis ortholog genes from chickpea genome belonging to different functional categories as per gene ontology classification. Salt responsive expression of genes was validated by semiquantitative RT-PCR which revealed their possible role in salt stress response. Comparison of promoter regions of these six genes of chickpea with promoter region of 44 putative salt responsive genes of Arabidopsis revealed three conserved motifs of different lengths specific to chickpea genes. The genes identified in this study may serve as promising candidates in studies of salt tolerance mechanisms of chickpea. © 2016, Indian Society for Plant Physiology.

Arshad A.M.,Bihar Agricultural University | Aishatul B.,Aligarh Muslim University
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2015

Sixteen most efficient out of two hundred thirty six isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregates were collected from agricultural soil of forty districts in Uttar Pradesh, India and were subjected to heavy metals sorption, pesticides tolerance and ochratoxin A production to find the best isolate for commercial exploitation in biosorption of heavy metals processes utilization in the preparation of biopesticides formulations. Metal tolerance in term of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 350-400 μg/ml for Ni+2 and Cr+6 and 150-175 μg ml1 for Cd+2 against the tested isolates of A. niger. Biosorption of all metals was found higher at 4 mM initial metal concentration. In single-metal system A. niger isolates adsorbed Ni+2 6.3-67, 25.5-29.6 and 17 3-20.2 mg g1 biomass; Cd+2 7.2-8.6, 19.4-21.4 and 16.8-18.1 mg g1 biomass; and Cr+6 7.4-8.5, 18.2-19.5 and 16.0-16.6 mg g1 biomass at 2, 4 and 6 mM metal concentration respectively. Highly significant (P≤ 0.0001) varying compatibility with the best performance of SkNAn5 of A. niger isolates for maximum inhibition in the growth of the fungus (ED90) and safe tolerance limits (ED50) was observed with pesticides such as carbendazim, captan, mancozeb, metalaxyl, thiram and carbofuran. Detection of mycotoxin production assay was done with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and none of the isolates was found having production of ochratoxin A (< 1ηg g1) for health security.

Chauhan B.S.,International Rice Research Institute | Singh R.G.,Bihar Agricultural University | Mahajan G.,Punjab Agricultural University
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Tillage has been known to cause soil erosion and cost time and resources and this affects productivity and inflates the cost of production. Therefore, over the past few years in many countries, there has been a growing trend toward conservation agriculture (CA) to enhance sustainability without compromising land productivity. Three important pillars of CA are minimal tillage operations, permanent residue cover, and rotation of primary crops. Adoption of CA, however, influences weed populations differently from conventional agriculture. Weed control in CA is a greater challenge than in conventional agriculture because there is no weed seed burial by tillage operations and soil-applied herbicides are not incorporated, resulting in reduced efficacy. The behavior of weeds and their interaction with crops under CA tend to be complex and not fully understood. A large proportion of weed seed bank remains generally on or close to the soil surface after crop sowing under CA. Weed species, in which germination is stimulated by light, are likely to be more problematic in CA. In addition, in the absence of tillage, perennial weeds may also become more challenging in this system. On the other hand, weed seeds present on the soil surface are more prone to desiccation and greater predation activity of insects, especially ants. Crop residues, when uniformly and densely present, under CA could suppress weed seedling emergence, delay the time of emergence, and allow the crop to gain an initial advantage in terms of early vigor over weeds. Where pre-emergence herbicides are applied, crop residues may also intercept a considerable proportion of the applied herbicide and may result in lower herbicide efficacy. Approaches such as stale seedbed practice, uniform and dense crop establishment, use of cover crops and crop residues as mulch, crop rotations, and practices for enhanced crop competiveness with a combination of pre- and post-emergence herbicides could be integrated to develop sustainable and effective weed management strategies under CA systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Padbhushan R.,Bihar Agricultural University | Kumar D.,Punjab Agricultural University
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

A greenhouse experiment with green gram on boron (B) deficient calcareous soils was conducted for two years at Ludhiana (Punjab), India to study soil B fractions and response of green gram to B application. Three soils with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content 0.8 (Soil I), 2.1 (Soil II) and 4.6 (Soil III) percent were collected from different sites of Ludhiana and Bhatinda districts, Punjab, India. The treatments comprised of five levels of soil applied B (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 mg B kg−1). The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) factorial design with three replications. Readily soluble B comprised 0.39 to 0.76 percent in Soil I, 0.32 to 0.54 percent in Soil II, and 0.21 to 0.34 percent in Soil III of the total B, taking into account of all the levels of B applied at both stages of crop growth. Readily soluble B increased with increasing application rates of B and decreased from grand growth stage (40 days after sowing) to maturity of the crop. Specifically adsorbed, oxide bound, residual, and total B was higher in Soil III as compared to Soil II or Soil I. At maturity, specifically adsorbed B converted into other fractions to maintain equilibrium in soil solution. Organically bound B was greater than oxide bound B. Among all fractions, the residual fraction accounted for the major fraction of the total B. Soil application of lowest level of B was adequate to cause significant increase in dry matter yield and seed yield of green gram regardless of type of soil. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kumari M.,Bihar Agricultural University | Bairwa S.L.,Bihar Agricultural University
Annals of Agri Bio Research | Year: 2016

The present study assesses the socio-economic status of pigeonpea growers in Bhagalpur and Banka districts of Bihar. The results showed that about 40% of sample farmers were of large categories followed by small and marginal farmers in adopted villages. The study also depicted that with increase in size of holding proportion of cultivated land with respect to total owned land decreased. The majority of female workers were engaged in household works but a substantial proportion was also engaged in agriculture. A larger proportion of sample farmers had agriculture as the main occupation in both the control (59%) and adopted villages (72.22%). Secondary sources of income were prevalent more in control villages (15.56%). In adopted villages, 95% of households owned a two wheelers or bicycle, while only about half of the households possessed other assets like television set and ownership of others. Dependency ratio was quite higher in control villages, while majority of the sample farmers adopted rabi season for pulse production primarily under sole cropping system by using local variety mainly from owned source. The seed which was used by the farmers initially originated mainly from other progressive farmers. The upland followed by medium land with poor quality of land and bund was used by majority of the farmers for pigeonpea production. The study also showed that 90% of the farmers adopted seed age of more than 10-15 years and broadcasting was the most commonly used method for sowing of any crop in Bihar. This finding indicates that proportion of farmers approaching research station to meet their seed requirement was quite low for pigeonpea production which also indicates the poor extension service.

Kumari M.,Bihar Agricultural University | Bairwa S.L.,Bihar Agricultural University
Annals of Biology | Year: 2016

Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an important protein rich annual pulse crop, grown throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Pigeonpea occupies 6.5% of world total pulses area and contributes 5.7% of total pulses production. Its share in India's pulse production is around 16%. Pigeonpea is also an important pulse crop grown in Bihar. The present study showed the various trends in area, production and productivity of pigeonpea in India and Bihar over the periods. Appropriate statistical techniques including tabular and growth rate analyses were used to analyse and interpret the data to accomplish the objectives of the study. The results showed that in Bihar, there was a huge variability in area and production of pigeonpea during 2000-12; however, the productivity during the same period was more stable which indicated that there was a scope to increase production potential of pigeonpea in the state if adequate policy measures were taken by the government. In case of India, the study showed that during the period 1981-90, area under pigeonpea increased at a compound growth rate of 2.31% per annum, while the production and productivity also registered positive growth.

Kumar S.,Bihar Agricultural University | Sharma R.P.,Bihar Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Rainfall analysis for Pusa, Purnia, Sabour and Patna representing North west alluvial plains (Zone I), North East alluvial plains (Zone II), and South Bihar alluvial plains (Zone IIIA and IIIB), respectively using annual and weekly rainfall data was carried out for Bihar state. The overall mean annual rainfall was lowest (1031 mm) for zone III B and highest (1466.7 mm) for zone II. But coefficient of variation was highest (30.8%) for Pusa (zone I) and lowest (23.7%) for Patna (zone III B). A long term significant decreasing trend in annual rainfall was observed in Patna (zone IIIB). At Pusa and Purnea, 25th to 34th SMW are favorable weeks forfield preparation/sowing and transplanting of rice crop due to more than 75 per cent probability of rainfall of 10-30 mm. At Sabour, probability of rainfall more than 20 mm is 75 per cent during 25th-33rd week while for Patna; it is during 27th-34th SMW. So, sowing and field operations may be delayed by two weeks in Patna region. The study reveals that crops and varieties could be selected through the analysis of wet spell durations with the onset of monsoon in the given region. When monsoon is late or dry spell is encountered, practice direct seeded rice or intercropping of green gram or black gram. Under stress situations, less water requirement crops like sorghum, ragi, finger millet, etc. can be adopted in the region.

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