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Twining B.S.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Baines S.B.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2013

Trace metals are required for numerous processes in phytoplankton and can influence the growth and structure of natural phytoplankton communities. The metal contents of phytoplankton reflect biochemical demands as well as environmental availability and influence the distribution of metals in the ocean. Metal quotas of natural populations can be assessed from analyses of individual cells or bulk particle assemblages or inferred from ratios of dissolved metals and macronutrients in the water column. Here, we review the available data from these approaches for temperate, equatorial, and Antarctic waters in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The data show a generalized metal abundance ranking of Fe≈Zn>Mn≈Ni≈Cu≫Co≈Cd; however, there are notable differences between taxa and regions that inform our understanding of ocean metal biogeochemistry. Differences in the quotas estimated by the various techniques also provide information on metal behavior. Therefore, valuable information is lost when a single metal stoichiometry is assumed for all phytoplankton. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Emerson D.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2012

Today high Fe(II) environments are relegated to oxic-anoxic habitats with opposing gradients of O2 and Fe(II); however, during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons, atmospheric O2 concentrations were much lower and aqueous Fe(II) concentrations were significantly higher. In current Fe(II)-rich environments, such as hydrothermal vents, mudflats, freshwater wetlands or the rhizosphere, rusty mat-like deposits are common. The presence of abundant biogenic microtubular or filamentous iron oxyhydroxides readily reveals the role of FeOB (iron-oxidizing bacteria) in iron mat formation. Cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques, confirm that FeOB are abundant in these mats. Despite remarkable similarities in morphological characteristics between marine and freshwater FeOB communities, the resident populations of FeOB are phylogenetically distinct, with marine populations related to the class Zetaproteobacteria, whereas freshwater populations are dominated by members of the Gallionallaceae, a family within the Betaproteobacteria. Little is known about the mechanism of how FeOB acquire electrons from Fe(II), although it is assumed that it involves electron transfer from the site of iron oxidation at the cell surface to the cytoplasmic membrane. Comparative genomics between freshwater and marine strains reveals few shared genes, except for a suite of genes that include a class of molybdopterin oxidoreductase that could be involved in iron oxidation via extracellular electron transport. Other genes are implicated as well, and the overall genomic analysis reveals a group of organisms exquisitely adapted for growth on iron. ©The Authors Journal compilation ©2012 Biochemical Society. Source

Carpenter L.J.,University of York | Archer S.D.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Beale R.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

The oceans contribute significantly to the global emissions of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases, notably those containing sulfur, nitrogen and halogens. Such gases play critical roles not only in global biogeochemical cycling but also in a wide range of atmospheric processes including marine aerosol formation and modification, tropospheric ozone formation and destruction, photooxidant cycling and stratospheric ozone loss. A number of marine emissions are greenhouse gases, others influence the Earth's radiative budget indirectly through aerosol formation and/or by modifying oxidant levels and thus changing the atmospheric lifetime of gases such as methane. In this article we review current literature concerning the physical, chemical and biological controls on the sea-air emissions of a wide range of gases including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), halocarbons, nitrogen-containing gases including ammonia (NH3), amines (including dimethylamine, DMA, and diethylamine, DEA), alkyl nitrates (RONO2) and nitrous oxide (N 2O), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) including isoprene and oxygenated (O)VOCs, methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO). Where possible we review the current global emission budgets of these gases as well as known mechanisms for their formation and loss in the surface ocean. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012. Source

Emerson D.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Primary productivity in at least a third of the sunlit open ocean is thought to be iron-limited. Primary sources of dissolved iron (dFe) to the ocean are hydrothermal venting, flux from the sediments along continental margins, and airborne dust. This article provides a general review of sources of hydrothermal and sedimentary iron to the ocean, and speculates upon the role that iron-cycling microbes play in controlling iron dynamics from these sources. Special attention is paid to iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) that live by oxidizing iron and producing biogenic iron oxides as waste products. The presence and ubiquity of FeOB both at hydrothermal systems and in sediments is only beginning to be appreciated. The biogenic oxides they produce have unique properties that could contribute significantly to the dynamics of dFe in the ocean. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the ocean due to climate change and ocean acidification will undoubtedly impact the microbial iron cycle. A better understanding of the contemporary role of microbes in the iron cycle will help in predicting how these changes could ultimately influence marine primary productivity. © 2016 Emerson. Source

Caron D.A.,University of Southern California | Countway P.D.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Jones A.C.,University of Southern California | Kim D.Y.,University of Southern California | Schnetzer A.,University of Southern California
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2012

Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions. © Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

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