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Brawley, CA, United States

Tavazza R.,ENEA | Rey N.A.,Big Heart Seed Company | Papacchioli V.,ENEA | Pagnotta M.A.,University of Tuscia
Scientia Horticulturae

A reliable and reproducible genotype-independent protocol for slow-growth storage of globe artichoke was established for the first time to meet two needs: genetic resources conservation and labour costs reduction in commercial laboratories. Growth reduction was achieved by supplementing osmotic agents to the media. Plant responses to in vitro storage, genetic stability and field performance were the parameters used to evaluate the germplasm conservation conditions. Forty-nine treatments were applied, as the result of seven genotypes with seven media. After 12 months of storage, culture survival across genotypes ranged from 65% to 85% and all the media tested supported 100% regrowth. All genotypes regained their full growth potential within two months. Genetic stability between mother plants grown in the field and in vitro conserved plantlets at 6 and 12 months of storage was assessed by molecular markers to identify the most suitable storage media.Protocol suitability was validated by a field test using an approved list of plant descriptors for globe artichoke. Morphological data highlighted that the slight genetic instability detected by molecular markers did not affect significantly plants morphology and their agronomic traits.The results indicate that the minimal growth medium of choice for globe artichoke conservation is the one where the seven genotypes displayed phenotypes similar to the control, coupled with the lowest percentage of changes (2.43%) at a molecular level. As far as we know there are no published reports on in vitro conservation protocolfor globe artichoke applied to different genotypes and validated by an appropriate field test. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bianco C.L.,University of Tuscia | Micozzi F.,University of Tuscia | Jordan J.R.,Big Heart Seed Company | Jordan A.,Big Heart Seed Company | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae

The development of F1 hybrids is an important goal for the modernization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus) cultivation. During the last thirteen years, a program of genetic improvement was carried out in order to obtain new F1 hybrids stable and with characteristics of interest for Italian market. Male sterility was used to enable the constitution of F1 hybrids, so reducing the production costs. A strategy for the development of F1 hybrids must firstly be based on the use of stable male and female parental lines. Some male sterile clones were selected and individuated as good female parents; some stable male fertile genotypes were also selected. Different cross-combinations were developed both in Italy and in USA, in order to compare the different hybrids obtained and to individuate the most homogeneous ones. A focusing point of the program consisted in finding an evaluation system capable of distinguishing which hybrids were more homogeneous than others. Some of the F1 hybrids obtained were homogeneous and will be soon ready for the commercialization. © ISHS. Source

Rey N.A.,University of Tuscia | Jordan R.,Big Heart Seed Company | Jordan A.,Big Heart Seed Company | Saccardo F.,University of Tuscia | Pagnotta M.A.,University of Tuscia
Acta Horticulturae

In the last years some advancements in Globe Artichoke breeding technologies are being reached by the development of hybrid seed derived from two parent cultivars. These F1 hybrids are usually created under controlled pollination, isolating plants either by distance or by tends. The divergence between the parental lines promotes improved growth and yield characteristics in the F1 offspring through the phenomenon of heterosis as well advantages like homogeneity, higher performances than traditional varieties, lower incidence of pathogens and insects, conversion into annual crop, etc. As part of the F1 hybrid program established between the University of Tuscia (Italy) and the Big Heart Seed Company (USA), more than 150 crosscombinations have been performed during 2010 growing season and the resulted progenies were characterized in field for agronomic traits in 2011. Ten of the best hybrids (uniform and good shape), derived from crosses between seven male sterile clones and five fertile homogeneous parents, were evaluated for agro-morphological traits (UPOV descriptors) of both parents and progenies. Selected hybrids are under evaluation to test their reproducibility and possibility of success in the global seed market before proceeding with their registration. The different market requests in terms of artichoke typologies and quality characteristics, which vary between the fresh market (green, purple, spiny, ovate, round heads) and the processing industry market characterized for green ovate typologies allow the production/registration of a wide range of hybrids covering the different market requests. Source

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