Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya

Navadwīp, India

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya

Navadwīp, India

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Pavana Kumar S.T.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Mazumdar D.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016

Time series prediction of pest and natural enemies is most important for the crop management and minimizing the pesticide use and the Artificial neural network (ANN) model is most powerful Artificial intelligence (Al) machine learning models have the capacity to generalize more with less error and it is also important to investigate the convergence of the Back propagation (BP). In the present study separate and efficient neural network model was developed for Gall Midge, Brown Plant Hopper and Damsel fly and the model performance criteria such as RMSE, RMAE, CC, MEF, AIC and BIC was calculated for each stage and compared. Performance of the network at training, validation and testing stage checked using different number of epochs with minimum learning rate (0.01). Selection of best architecture was made based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), that network with less AIC and BIC value were selected and which is free from over fitting. Therefore ANN methodology could be used to predict the incidence of pests and damsel fly (Natural enemy) for better management practice well in advance and to avoid the environmental pollution due to more use of chemical pesticides.

Patra S.K.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Deb M.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Patra A.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Clinical Epigenetics | Year: 2011

Epigenetic regulations of genes by reversible methylation of DNA (at the carbon-5 of cytosine) and numerous reversible modifications of histones play importantroles in normal physiology and development, and epigenetic deregulations are associated with developmental disorders and various disease states, including cancer. Stem cells have the capacity to self-renew indefinitely. Similar to stem cells, some malignant cells have the capacity to divide indefinitely and are referred to as cancer stem cells. In recent times, direct correlation between epigenetic modifications and reprogramming of stem cell and cancer stem cell is emerging. Major discoveries were made with investigations on reprogramming gene products, also known as master regulators of totipotency and inducer of pluoripotency, namely, OCT4, NANOG, cMYC, SOX2, Klf4, and LIN28. The challenge to induce pluripotency is the insertion of four reprogramming genes (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into the genome. There are always risks of silencing of these genes by epigenetic modifications in the host cells, particularly, when introduced through retroviral techniques. In this contribution, we will discuss some of the major discoveries on epigenetic modifications within the chromatin of various genes associated with cancer progression and cancer stem cells in comparison to normal development of stem cell. These modifications may be considered as molecular signatures for predicting disorders of development and for identifying disease states. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Mishra M.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Kumar S.T.P.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

In the present investigation, trends in population dynamics of major insect pests of soybean crop have been studied through probability model. Among the major insect pests the numbers of larvae of S. litura, Thysanoplusia orichalce, Spilosoma oblique Walker and their natural enemies namely Anisoptera, Coccmellidae and spider were observed on soybean. The occurrences of the insects were grouped in the form of frequency distribution according to the number of plants. The distribution of S. litura using Polya-Aeppli distribution was known to fit well by the method of MPZC(method of proportion of zero cell) and MLE (maximum likelihood) but the distribution of Thysanoplusia orichalce using Polya-Aeppli distribution was fitted well by all the three methods of estimation, MPZC, method of moments (MM) and MLE and these methods were not fitted well to describe the frequencies of spiders. These distributions may be used for forecasting of the losses in soybean crop due to major insect pests considered here.

Mukherjee A.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Sarkar S.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Chakraborty P.K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

During the winter season (November-March) of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 a field study was carried out at the Research Farm of the University (Latitude 22°58'N, Longitude 88°31'E and altitude 9.75mamsl), Gayeshpur, India. Aim of the study was to evaluate the sole and interactive effect of irrigation frequencies and mulches on performance and water productivity functions of tomato crop. The experiment was composed of three irrigation frequencies {rainfed (RF); CPE 50 and CPE 25 where irrigation was given at 50 and 25mm of cumulative pan evaporation (CPE)}, kept in the main plots. The subplots consisted of four mulch managements {no mulch (NM), rice straw mulch (RSM), white polyethylene mulch (WPM) and black polyethylene mulch (BPM)}. Fruit yield under CPE 25 was 39.4Mgha -1; it reduced by 7 and 30% respectively under CPE 50 and RF condition. Different mulches increased fruit yield by 23-57% over non-mulch condition. Irrespective of mulching, water use efficiency (WUE), net evapotranspiration use efficiency (WUE ET) and irrigation use efficiency (WUE I) were found to be the highest (22kgm -3, 71kgm -3 and 22kgm -3 respectively) under moderately wet (CPE 50) soil environment. Among different mulches, BPM recorded the highest WUE (25kgm -3), WUE ET (73kgm -3) and WUE I (26kgm -3) values. Critical values of seasonal evapotranspiration (SET) against maximum WUE and maximum yield were computed through marginal analysis of water productivity function. It was observed that the difference between these critical values was narrowed down under bio or polyethylene mulches compared to the bare situation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Barrow N.J.,University of Western Australia | Debnath A.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Aims: Enormous quantities of phosphate have been applied to world soils, yet we know little about effects of phosphate status on sorption properties. Methods: We measured sorption and desorption of phosphate on soils from fertilized tea plantations from northern India and compared them with unfertilized soils. We also incubated phosphate at high temperature with a previously unfertilized soil and measured the effects. Results: Sorption of phosphate was less marked on soils of high phosphate status whether derived from inherent fertility or fertilizer application. This occurred because high phosphate status made the surface charge on the reacting surfaces more negative. Phosphate status also affected desorption. The higher the phosphate status, the smaller the difference between sorption and desorption curves. This occurred because on soils of high phosphate status the pathways by which adsorbed anions diffuse were saturated and the slow reaction that follows adsorption was stopped. Conclusions: When low-phosphate soils are first fertilized, it is necessary to supply more phosphate than is removed in produce. However, after long-term phosphate fertilization, it is sufficient to only replace phosphate lost in produce. We need to find how much phosphorus it takes to reach this state and how many of the world's soils have already reached it. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Sarkar G.K.,Fertiliser Control Laboratory | Chattopadhyay A.P.,Kalyani University | Sanyal S.K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Geoderma | Year: 2013

Eight surface soil samples representing three soil orders viz., Inceptisols, Alfisols and Entisols were analyzed to characterize the non-exchangeable potassium (K) reserves. The mineralogical composition of the experimental soils varied widely. The reserves of Step-K and Constant rate K were computed by repeated extraction of soils with boiling1M HNO3. The cumulative release of non-exchangeable K by such repeated extraction followed a semi-logarithmic behavior with number of extractions, suggesting that the release of non-exchangeable K decreased with successive extractions. The threshold levels of K in soil solution below which the release of K from the initially non-exchangeable K reserves starts were also evaluated for the selected soils in terms of K activity ratio, K concentration and exchangeable K in 0.01M and 0.002M CaCl2 solution. Higher threshold value of Entisols and Inceptisols compared to Alfisols indicates less tenacity with which K is held in wedge zones of micaceous minerals. These threshold values changed considerably for all the soils as the electrolyte concentration decreased from 0.01M to 0.002M. Specifically held K, determined as exchangeable K below which the Gapon constant (KG) showed a sharp rise, varied from soil to soil in almost the same manner as noted for threshold K levels in these soils. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Siddiqui M.W.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Ayala-Zavala J.F.,Research Center en Alimentacion y Desarrollo | Dhua R.S.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Sinha B.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Bhattacharyya K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

Organic fractions from farm yard manure (FYM), vermicompost, municipal sludge, mustard cake, and surface soil of West Bengal, which was arsenic (As)-contaminated, were extracted and fractionated into fulvic and humic acid (FA and HA, respectively) fractions following standard procedures. These HA and FA samples were characterized by pH-potentiometric titrations, viscometric measurements and visible spectrophotometry. The stability constant (logK) of the complexes formed by these natural with As in aqueous phase was evaluated by the ion-exchange method. The logK values suggest that the organo-As complexes were quite stable. The release isotherm of As from the HA/FA complexes extracted from vermicompost and FYM was assayed in the presence of molybdate, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate and borate. The greatest tendency to displace As from the complexes was shown by sulfate, molybdite, and nitrate. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Mitra S.K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Mango is one of the common fruit in most continents, particularly in Asia, Central and South America and Africa. Global production of mangoes is concentrated mainly in Asia and more precisely in India which produces an average of 15 million t (MT) a year. Mangoes are now growing in more than 100 countries of which more than 65 countries produce each more than 1,000 MT a year. Total world production of mangoes is about 40 MT which played an integral part in the lives of many, not only by being a rich nutrient source but also as a source of livelihood for millions of peoples in the tropics. Mangoes were not commonly known among the consumers outside the tropics before 1960s and there was virtually no trade of fresh fruit. In recent years, mangoes have become well established as fresh fruit and processed products in the global market. World demand for mango is ascertained to be increasing particularly from temperate countries where mangoes are rapidly gaining in popularity. Leading importing country is US and in the EU it are the Netherlands, France, England, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Denmark, and Sweden. Apart from India, other major producers of mango are China, Mexico, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Nigeria, Brazil, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Malaysia and Venezuela. India's major marketing season is April to July while harvesting continued for 8-10 months a year in Brazil, Columbia, Kenya and Venezuela. The season is also quite long in Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Puerto Rico. There are many mango varieties grown in different countries; India alone have nearly 1,300 mango varieties (20 grown commercially) and Thailand have about 100 varieties. This paper discussed the present state of production of mango in the world and its future prospects.

Mukherjee A.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Kundu M.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Sarkar S.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Irrigation management strategy invites the quantification of crop response to irrigation frequencies. Conventionally, mulches increase the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to a great extent by augmenting the water status in the root zone profile. A field study was carried out during the winter season (November-March) of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 at the Central Research Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (Latitude 22°58'N, Longitude 88°31'E and altitude 9.75m amsl), Gayeshpur, India, to evaluate the effect of irrigation frequencies and mulches on evapotranspiration rate from tomato crop field as well as leaf area index (LAI), fruit yield and WUE of the crop. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design where three irrigation treatments {rainfed (RF); CPE50 and CPE25 where irrigation was given at 50 and 25mm of cumulative pan evaporation (CPE)} were kept in the main plots and the subplots contained four mulch managements {no mulch (NM), rice straw mulch (RSM), white polyethylene mulch (WPM) and black polyethylene mulch (BPM)}. Under CPE25, tomato crop recorded significantly higher leaf area index (LAI) over CPE50 and rainfed condition. LAI value under BPM was 9-30% more over other mulches. Maximum variation of LAI among different treatments was recorded at 60 days after transplanting (DAT). Fruit yield under CPE25 was 39.4Mgha-1; a reduction of 7 and 30% has been obtained under CPE50 and RF condition. The use of mulch increased 23-57% yield in comparison to NM condition. Actual evapotranspiration rate (ETR) was 1.82mm day-1 under CPE25 and declined by 15 and 31% under CPE50 and RF condition, respectively. The variation of ETR among different mulches became more prominent under maximum water stressed (RF) condition, whereas the variation was negligible under CPE25 frequency. Irrespective of mulching WUE was highest under moderately wet (CPE50) soil environment. Among different mulches, BPM was responsible for attaining the highest WUE value (25.1kgm-3), which declined by 22, 21 and 39% under WPM, RSM and NM, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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