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Mukhopadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Science | Mandal S.,Institute of Engineering and Management | Das N.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Dey S.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya | And 2 more authors.
Springer Proceedings in Physics | Year: 2015

CT scan images of human brain of a particular patient in different cross sections are taken, on which wavelet transform and multi-fractal analysis are applied. The vertical and horizontal unfolding of images are done before analyzing these images. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) through Daubechies basis are done for identifying fluctuations over polynomial trends for clear characterization of CT scan images of human brain in different cross-sections. A systematic investigation of de-noised images are carried out through wavelet normalized energy and wavelet semi-log plots, which clearly points out the mismatch between results of vertical and horizontal unfolding. The mismatch of results confirms the heterogeneity in spatial domain. Using the multi-fractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA), the mismatch between the values of Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum by vertical and horizontal unfolding confirms the same. © Springer India 2015. Source

Mazumder D.N.G.,DNGM Research Foundation | Deb D.,DNGM Research Foundation | Deb D.,University of Calcutta | Biswas A.,DNGM Research Foundation | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

Few reports are available that characterize daily arsenic exposure through water and diet among people living in groundwater-contaminated regions and correlate it with biomarkers. The present study describes the total individual arsenic exposure and arsenic level in urine and hair of such an arsenic-exposed population in West Bengal. Demographic characteristics and the total daily arsenic intake through water and diet were determined in 167 (Group-1 participants selected from arsenic endemic region) and 69 (Group-2 participants selected from arsenic non-endemic region) in West Bengal. Out of 167 Group-1 participants 78 (Group-1A) had arsenical skin lesions while 89 Group-1B) had no such lesion. Arsenic level in water samples as well as diet, urine and hair samples, collected from all the individual participants, were estimated. The mean value of estimated total arsenic content from water and diet was 349 (range: 20-1615) μg/day in 167 (Group-1) participants living in As endemic region [As in water: mean value 54 (range:BDL-326) μg/L] and 36 (range:12-120) μg/day in 69 (Group-2) participants living in As non-endemic region (As in water: below detection level (BDL), < 0.3 μg/L). Estimated mean arsenic level in urine in these two groups of participants was 116 (range: 6-526) μg/L and 17 (range: BDL-37) μg/L and in hair was 1.0 (range: 0.22-3.98) mg/Kg and 0.16 (range: 0.06-0.37) mg/Kg, respectively. Multiple regressions analysis in Group-1 participants showed that total arsenic intake was associated significantly with urinary and hair arsenic level. The estimated regression coefficient was 0.0022 (95% confidence interval, C.I: 0.0016, 0.0028; P < 0.001) and 0.0024 (95% C.I: 0.0021, 0.003; P < 0.001), respectively. In sub group analysis, higher median urinary arsenic value relative to arsenic intake through water and diet was observed in 78 Group-1A subjects with skin lesion compared to urinary arsenic value in 89 Group-1B subjects without skin lesions, though there was a marginal difference of median total arsenic intake in these two groups. This study showed that significant elevation of arsenic level in urine and hair was associated with elevated arsenic intake through water and diet in people living in arsenic endemic region (Group-1), while these values were low in people living in non-endemic region (Group-2). Those with skin lesions were found to have higher arsenic in urine and hair compared to those without skin lesion with similar arsenic intake through water and diet. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Singh S.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh H.B.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh D.K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya
Vegetos | Year: 2013

Tomato is one of the important vegetable crops with good nutritional quality and antioxidant activity. Soilborne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani that infect tomato plant reduced the uptake of mineral nutrient from the soil and ultimately reduced their quality. Trichoderam spp. is the most potent biocontrol agent of this pathogen used for the management of this pathogen. In this experiment we studied the effect of Trichoderma-plant-R. Solani interaction on mineral content, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of extract of tomato fruits. We used two Trichoderma harzianum isolates i.e. BHU51 and BHU105 and their consortium for the study. Results clearly showed that the Trichoderma treated plant fruits had greater mineral content and antioxidant activity than pathogen inoculated control. The consortium of Trichoderma treated plants fruits had the maximum mineral content and their quality, it might be due to the synergistic effect of Trichoderma isolates that reduced the incidence of R. solani in better ways than single Trichoderma isolate. Source

Biswas A.,Kalyani University | Biswas A.,DNGM Research Foundation | Basu B.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya | Bhattacharya K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya | And 2 more authors.
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2013

Arsenic (As) contaminated water and foodstuffs are of major concern. Samples of drinking-cooking water (n = 50), raw rice (n = 50), common vegetables (eight types), and common pulses (three types) were collected from households in the endemic region. The study found up to 70% As reduction by using safe water for cooking of rice and vegetables. Speciation study reflected more arsenate than arsenite and other organic arsenicals in all the types of samples. Male intake of 293 μg As through drinking water contained 38 μg arsenite and 246 μg arsenate, and female intake of 199 μg As contained 167 μg arsenate and 25 μg arsenite. In cooked rice, 108 μg As contained 69 μg arsenate and 17 μg arsenite with 9 μg dimethylarsonic acid (DMA). Total As consumption from cooked vegetables was 45 μg with 34 and 4 μg of arsenite and arsenate, respectively, and 5 μg of DMA. Data indicate that cooking with As-free water removes arsenic in already contaminated foodstuffs but without interconversion of the As species, from toxic inorganic to less toxic organic forms. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Byju G.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Nedunchezhiyan M.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | George J.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Sunitha S.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson] is an important tuber crop grown in many parts of India for its starchy corm and the average yield of this crop is far below the potential productivity of 100 tonnes/ha. One of the reasons attributed to the lower yield is the imbalanced application of essential plant nutrients. Site specific nutrient management (SSNM) is the application of plant nutrients based on the soil and crop need, yield target and developed with the aid of models such as QUEFTS. This paper gives the result of four year study conducted to calibrate and validate the QUEFTS model for elephant foot yam cultivation and the development of SSNM zonation maps and secondary and micronutrient fortified customised fertilizers for the crop in major growing environments of India. Data collected from different field experiments conducted in major elephant foot yam-production regions of India during 1968 to 2011 were used to calibrate the model. The derived parameters of minimum and maximum accumulation of N (130 and 460), P (900 and 2100) and K (100 and 170) are proposed as standard borderline values in the QUEFTS model for elephant foot yam. A linear increase in corm yield was suggested by the model with N, P and K uptakes of 3.97, 0.71, and 7.05 kg N, P and K/1 000 kg corm. The average NPK ratio in total plant dry matter was 5.56:1:9.88. Based on these results, the model was calibrated using historical data as well as by conducting field experiments. It can be observed that fertilizer best management practices by SSNM resulted in an average actual corm yield of 33.45 tonnes/ha, whereas, the model predicted a yield of 35 tonnes/ha. The results of the study showed good agreement between predicted and measured corm yields during the four years, which indicated that the calibrated model can be used to improve NPK fertilizer recommendations for elephant foot yam in India. Based on the results and using soil fertility maps and agro ecological unit maps, SSNM zonation maps and secondary and micronutrient fortified customised fertilizers were developed for major elephant foot yam growing environments of India. Source

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