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Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Estrada A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Raboy B.E.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Raboy B.E.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia IESB | Oliveira L.C.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia IESB | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

Agroecosystems cover more than one quarter of the global land area (ca. 50 million km2) as highly simplified (e.g. pasturelands) or more complex systems (e.g. polycultures and agroforestry systems) with the capacity to support higher biodiversity. Increasingly more information has been published about primates in agroecosystems but a general synthesis of the diversity of agroecosystems that primates use or which primate taxa are able to persist in these anthropogenic components of the landscapes is still lacking. Because of the continued extensive transformation of primate habitat into human-modified landscapes, it is important to explore the extent to which agroecosystems are used by primates. In this article, we reviewed published information on the use of agroecosystems by primates in habitat countries and also discuss the potential costs and benefits to human and nonhuman primates of primate use of agroecosystems. The review showed that 57 primate taxa from four regions: Mesoamerica, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa (including Madagascar), and South East Asia, used 38 types of agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Fifty-one percent of the taxa recorded in agroecosystems were classified as least concern in the IUCN Red List, but the rest were classified as endangered (20%), vulnerable (18%), near threatened (9%), or critically endangered (2%). The large proportion of threatened primates in agroecosystems suggests that agroecosystems may play an important role in landscape approaches to primate conservation. We conclude by discussing the value of agroecosystems for primate conservation at a broad scale and highlight priorities for future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Raghunathan N.,University of Liege | Francois L.,University of Liege | Huynen M.-C.,University of Liege | Oliveira L.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2015

We used three IPCC climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) in a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB), to determine the potential future distribution of 75 tree species used by two endemic primate species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). Habitat conservation is a vital part of strategies to protect endangered species, and this is a new approach to understanding how key plant species needed for survival of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas) might be affected by climate change and what changes to their distribution are likely. The model accurately predicted the current distribution of BAF vegetation types, for 66 % of the individual tree species with 70 % agreement obtained for presence. In the simulation experiments for the future, 72 out of 75 tree species maintained more than 95 % of their original distribution and all species showed a range expansion. At the biome level, we note a substantial decrease in the sub-tropical forest area. There is some fragmentation of the savannah, which is encroached mostly by tropical seasonal forest. Where the current distribution shows a large sub-tropical forest biome, it has been replaced or encroached by tropical rainforest. The results suggested that the trees may benefit from an increase in temperature, if and only if soil water availability is not altered significantly, as was the case with climate simulations that were used. However, these results must be coupled with other information to maximise usefulness to conservation since BAF is already highly fragmented and subject to high anthropic pressure. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Guy C.,University of Toronto | Cassano C.R.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Cazarre L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | de Vleeschouwer K.M.,Center for Research and Conservation | And 9 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2016

In southern Bahia, Brazil, rapid deforestation of the Atlantic Forest threatens a variety of endemic wildlife, including the Endangered golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT; Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and the Near Threatened Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmoset (Wied’s marmoset; Callithrix kuhlii). Identifying high quality areas in the landscape is critical for mounting efficient conservation programs for these primates. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets using the presence-only algorithm Maxent to (1) locate suitable areas for each species, (2) examine the overlap in these areas, and (3) determine the amount of suitable habitat in protected areas. Our models indicate that 36% (10, 659 km2) of the study area is suitable for GHLTs and 53% (15, 642 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. Suitable areas were strongly defined by presence of neighboring forest cover for both species, as well as annual temperature range for GHLTs and distance from urban areas for Wied’s marmosets. Thirty-three percent of the landscape (9,809 km2) is overlapping suitable habitat. Given that the focal species form mixed-species groups, these areas of shared suitability may be key locations for preserving this important behavioral interaction. Protected areas contained 6% (651 km2) of all suitable habitat for GHLTs and 4% (682 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. All protected areas were suitable for the focal species, excepting Serra do Conduru, which had low suitability for GHLTs. Our results highlight that suitable habitat for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets is limited and largely unprotected. Conservation action to protect additional suitable areas will be critical for their persistence. © 2016, Mongaby.com e-journal. All rights reserved. Source

Genty E.,University of Neuchatel | Casar C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais | Casar C.,Bicho do Mato Institute Pesquisa
Mammalia | Year: 2014

The likelihood of interspecific interactions between wild primates is particularly high for species with overlapping territories. The sharing of the same or similar ecological niches can result in competition for space or resources, which can lead to agonistic encounters such as predator-prey interactions. Here, we report the observation of an abduction and potential case of predation of an infant howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) by an adult male capuchin monkey (Sapajus nigritus) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Evidence of capuchin monkeys' predation of other smaller sympatric primate species has already been reported, as well as description of agonistic interactions between capuchin and howler monkeys, but none as drastic as the case described here. Although we were not able to collect evidence after the abduction, we discuss the events leading up to it and present arguments in favour of the case of interspecific predation or infanticide. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston 2014. Source

De Almeida Rocha J.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Almeida Rocha J.M.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia | De Almeida Rocha J.M.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Dos Reis P.P.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia | And 5 more authors.
Folia Primatologica | Year: 2014

During play, primates may become more vulnerable to predation. Our goal was to examine the potential role of predation risk on the play behavior of 3 groups of goldenheaded lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas , in shaded cocoa agroforest (cabruca) of Southern Bahia, Brazil. We identified the preferred (and safer) locations on vertical strata during playtime and investigated if frequency and duration of play differed according to group size. All groups preferred to play on the lower levels of vertical strata, which may be perceived as either a safer environment or as a more suitable location for play due to the vegetation structure. The smallest group played less than the others, while the largest group played more and for longer periods. Our data suggest that predation risk can influence where play takes place as well as its frequency and length. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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