Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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Guy C.,University of Toronto | Cassano C.R.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Cazarre L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | de Vleeschouwer K.M.,Center for Research and Conservation | And 9 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2016

In southern Bahia, Brazil, rapid deforestation of the Atlantic Forest threatens a variety of endemic wildlife, including the Endangered golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT; Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and the Near Threatened Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmoset (Wied’s marmoset; Callithrix kuhlii). Identifying high quality areas in the landscape is critical for mounting efficient conservation programs for these primates. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets using the presence-only algorithm Maxent to (1) locate suitable areas for each species, (2) examine the overlap in these areas, and (3) determine the amount of suitable habitat in protected areas. Our models indicate that 36% (10, 659 km2) of the study area is suitable for GHLTs and 53% (15, 642 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. Suitable areas were strongly defined by presence of neighboring forest cover for both species, as well as annual temperature range for GHLTs and distance from urban areas for Wied’s marmosets. Thirty-three percent of the landscape (9,809 km2) is overlapping suitable habitat. Given that the focal species form mixed-species groups, these areas of shared suitability may be key locations for preserving this important behavioral interaction. Protected areas contained 6% (651 km2) of all suitable habitat for GHLTs and 4% (682 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. All protected areas were suitable for the focal species, excepting Serra do Conduru, which had low suitability for GHLTs. Our results highlight that suitable habitat for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets is limited and largely unprotected. Conservation action to protect additional suitable areas will be critical for their persistence. © 2016, Mongaby.com e-journal. All rights reserved.


Oliveira L.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Oliveira L.C.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Oliveira L.C.,Bicho do Mato Institute Pesquisa | Grelle C.E.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2012

The Atlantic Forest of the state of Rio de Janeiro was the habitat of six native primate species: Callithrix aurita, Leontopithecus rosalia, Alouatta guariba clamitans, Brachyteles arachnoides, Callicebus nigrifrons and Cebus nigritus; a seventh species, Brachteles hypoxanthus, possibly occurs in the state. In the literature, the number of non-native primate species for the state was less (three) than the native species (six or seven). Our study reviews the list of primate species, both native and non-native, within the state of Rio de Janeiro and discusses the possible impacts of the introduced primates on the native fauna. Using data from the literature, personal communication with experts, data from Brazilian Federal datasets (Linha Verde and CETAS), and specimens deposited in scientific collections of museums, we recorded 17 primate species with at least one record within the state of Rio de Janeiro. At least eight taxa can be considered non-native to the state. Conservation implications for native fauna may include food resource depletion and competition, hybridization, and disease transmission. Some of these effects were already recorded on the native fauna. We believe the removal of non-native primate species from the state is necessary in order to preserve native fauna regardless of political and ethical issues.


Saraiva D.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Fournier G.F.S.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Martins T.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Leal K.P.G.,Federal University of Lavras | And 7 more authors.
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

From June 2005 to November 2010, 43 small mammals encompassing 6 species of Didelphimorphia, 8 species of Rodentia, and 1 species of Lagomorpha were found parasitized by ticks in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Nine tick species, in total 186 specimens, were identified as follows: Amblyomma cajennense (larvae and nymphs) on opossums and rodents; Amblyomma ovale (nymphs) on rodents; Amblyomma parvum (nymphs) on rodents; Amblyomma coelebs (nymphs) on opossums; Amblyomma dubitatum (nymph) on opossums; Ixodes amarali (females, nymphs, and larvae) on opossums and rodents; Ixodes loricatus (male, females, nymph) on opossums; Ixodes schulzei (female) on rodents; and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (female) on rabbits. Most of the tick-host associations found in the present study have never been recorded in the literature; those include three new host records for I. amarali, four for A. cajennense, one for A. dubitatum, two for A. ovale, and one for A. coelebs. In addition, we provide the first record of A. coelebs in the state of Minas Gerais. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


De Almeida Rocha J.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Almeida Rocha J.M.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia | De Almeida Rocha J.M.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Dos Reis P.P.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia | And 5 more authors.
Folia Primatologica | Year: 2014

During play, primates may become more vulnerable to predation. Our goal was to examine the potential role of predation risk on the play behavior of 3 groups of goldenheaded lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas , in shaded cocoa agroforest (cabruca) of Southern Bahia, Brazil. We identified the preferred (and safer) locations on vertical strata during playtime and investigated if frequency and duration of play differed according to group size. All groups preferred to play on the lower levels of vertical strata, which may be perceived as either a safer environment or as a more suitable location for play due to the vegetation structure. The smallest group played less than the others, while the largest group played more and for longer periods. Our data suggest that predation risk can influence where play takes place as well as its frequency and length. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Raghunathan N.,University of Liège | Francois L.,University of Liège | Huynen M.-C.,University of Liège | Oliveira L.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2015

We used three IPCC climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) in a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB), to determine the potential future distribution of 75 tree species used by two endemic primate species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). Habitat conservation is a vital part of strategies to protect endangered species, and this is a new approach to understanding how key plant species needed for survival of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) and golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas) might be affected by climate change and what changes to their distribution are likely. The model accurately predicted the current distribution of BAF vegetation types, for 66 % of the individual tree species with 70 % agreement obtained for presence. In the simulation experiments for the future, 72 out of 75 tree species maintained more than 95 % of their original distribution and all species showed a range expansion. At the biome level, we note a substantial decrease in the sub-tropical forest area. There is some fragmentation of the savannah, which is encroached mostly by tropical seasonal forest. Where the current distribution shows a large sub-tropical forest biome, it has been replaced or encroached by tropical rainforest. The results suggested that the trees may benefit from an increase in temperature, if and only if soil water availability is not altered significantly, as was the case with climate simulations that were used. However, these results must be coupled with other information to maximise usefulness to conservation since BAF is already highly fragmented and subject to high anthropic pressure. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Catenacci L.S.,Federal University of Piauí | Catenacci L.S.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | Catenacci L.S.,Center for Research and Conservation | Catenacci L.S.,Institute for Conservation Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2016

Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species’ conservation. During necropsies on a free-living goldenheaded lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and two Wied’s marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. © Wildlife Disease Association 2016.


Estrada A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Raboy B.E.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Raboy B.E.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia IESB | Oliveira L.C.,Institute Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia IESB | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

Agroecosystems cover more than one quarter of the global land area (ca. 50 million km2) as highly simplified (e.g. pasturelands) or more complex systems (e.g. polycultures and agroforestry systems) with the capacity to support higher biodiversity. Increasingly more information has been published about primates in agroecosystems but a general synthesis of the diversity of agroecosystems that primates use or which primate taxa are able to persist in these anthropogenic components of the landscapes is still lacking. Because of the continued extensive transformation of primate habitat into human-modified landscapes, it is important to explore the extent to which agroecosystems are used by primates. In this article, we reviewed published information on the use of agroecosystems by primates in habitat countries and also discuss the potential costs and benefits to human and nonhuman primates of primate use of agroecosystems. The review showed that 57 primate taxa from four regions: Mesoamerica, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa (including Madagascar), and South East Asia, used 38 types of agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Fifty-one percent of the taxa recorded in agroecosystems were classified as least concern in the IUCN Red List, but the rest were classified as endangered (20%), vulnerable (18%), near threatened (9%), or critically endangered (2%). The large proportion of threatened primates in agroecosystems suggests that agroecosystems may play an important role in landscape approaches to primate conservation. We conclude by discussing the value of agroecosystems for primate conservation at a broad scale and highlight priorities for future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


de Carvalho Oliveira L.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | de Carvalho Oliveira L.,State University of Santa Cruz | de Carvalho Oliveira L.,Bicho do Mato Institute Pesquisa | de Almeida Rocha J.M.,State University of Santa Cruz | And 3 more authors.
Primates | Year: 2016

The advantages of living in a group include feeding benefits and/or predation avoidance, while the disadvantages are typically related to competition. One way to avoid competition while maintaining the benefits of living in a group is to form interspecific associations with species with relatively little dietary overlap. Here we report a stable association between a male golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT), Leontopithecus chrysomelas, and a group of Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmosets (WBTMs), Callithrix kuhlii. We collected ecological and behavioral data on a duo of GHLTs from May to August 2008, totaling 62 h of observations. On 19 August 2008, the radio-collared GHLT dispersed alone and was located on 28 August in association with WBTMs. To examine possible changes in GHLT ecology and behavior, we monitored the mixed-species group between September and December 2008, totaling 122 h of observations. We found that the GHLT’s home range and daily path length decreased by about ten and three times, respectively, after joining the WBTM group, suggesting adaptations to the WBTMs’ use of space. All non-agonistic behaviors recorded in the mixed group were directed from GHLT to the WBMTs, whereas all agonistic interactions were directed from the WBMTs to the GHLT, indicating a subordinate position of GHLT in the mixed group. In golden lion tamarins, reproductive success of subordinate adult males that remain in the group is higher than that of those that disperse and “prospect” for a breeding opportunity. If dispersing individuals are unable to find a mate and defend a territory, they will likely die within a year. The dispersing GHLT in this study assumed a subordinate role in a mixed-species group outside a GHLT territory. Apparently, the benefits of waiting for a dispersing female in a relatively safe situation may exceed the costs of prospecting elsewhere or being a subordinate. © 2016 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan


Camara E.M.V.C.,Bicho do Mato Institute Pesquisa | Oliveira L.C.,Bicho do Mato Institute Pesquisa | Oliveira L.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Check List | Year: 2012

The mammals of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna Biome) are still poorly known; only a few localities have been properly surveyed and studied. Hereby, we present a survey of the mammals of Serra do Cipó National Park, a protected area of Cerrado in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. A total of 55 species from eight orders were listed, which have been captured, observed or recorded in the literature. Some mammals are endemic or listed as threatened either by IUCN's red list or by the national and regional red lists. Serra do Cipó National Park is an important site for scientific research and conservation of Minas Gerais' biodiversity, though there is little information on mammal diversity and distribution in the park. We hope our study can help us fill this gap and improve the effectiveness of this national park in protecting Cerrado mammals and other vertebrates. © 2012 Check List and Authors.


Genty E.,University of Neuchatel | Casar C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais | Casar C.,Bicho do Mato Institute Pesquisa
Mammalia | Year: 2014

The likelihood of interspecific interactions between wild primates is particularly high for species with overlapping territories. The sharing of the same or similar ecological niches can result in competition for space or resources, which can lead to agonistic encounters such as predator-prey interactions. Here, we report the observation of an abduction and potential case of predation of an infant howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) by an adult male capuchin monkey (Sapajus nigritus) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Evidence of capuchin monkeys' predation of other smaller sympatric primate species has already been reported, as well as description of agonistic interactions between capuchin and howler monkeys, but none as drastic as the case described here. Although we were not able to collect evidence after the abduction, we discuss the events leading up to it and present arguments in favour of the case of interspecific predation or infanticide. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston 2014.

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