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Zaandam, Netherlands

Kubiak-Martens L.,BIAX Consult | Brinkkemper O.,Cultural Heritage Agency | Oudemans T.F.M.,Kenaz Consult for Advice and Analysis in Biomolecular Archaeology
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

In the coastal area of the northwestern part of the Netherlands, dozens of sites dating to the Single Grave culture (or Corded Ware culture; 2850–2450 cal bc) have been located. Some of the sites have been excavated in the last decades of the 20th century. Within the framework of the Odyssey project of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the excavated materials from three sites (Keinsmerbrug, Mienakker and Zeewijk) could be fully analysed. The results of archaeobotanical research, including the combined botanical and chemical analyses of organic residues (crusts) in ceramics, as well as the study of isolated remains of processed plant food and charred remains of parenchymatous tissue are presented. It is extremely challenging to find out what kind of food people prepared in the past and to determine actual prehistoric vessel use, to understand what kind of meals people prepared in ceramic vessels, what pots they used for what kind of foods, and if they used the same types of pots for the same foods all the time. The results obtained for the three sites are compared to the existing, dichotomous model developed for habitation of the Single Grave culture in the area, with small special activity sites and large permanent settlements. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Schepers M.,Groningen Institute of Archaeology | Van Haaster H.,BIAX Consult
Environmental Archaeology | Year: 2015

This paper explores the relationship between standing vegetation and dung from hay-fed cattle and sheep. In an experimental study, hay is retrieved from a known hay field, surrounded by a semi-open landscape of hedgerows, forests and heather fields. The hay is fed to cattle and sheep, after which the dung is collected and from which the botanical remains are analysed, according to archaeobotanical standards. The results from the macro-remains are compared to vegetation relevés from the hay field. The pollen analysis is compared to both the hay field and the surrounding vegetation. Results from the plant macro remains provide an excellent representation of the vegetation in the field itself on the presence/absence level. Pollen analysis reflects the regional vegetation very well and are comparable with 'surface samples'. © Association for Environmental Archaeology 2015. Source


Kubiak-Martens L.,BIAX Consult | Brinkkemper O.,Cultural Heritage Agency | Oudemans T.F.M.,Kenaz Consult for Advice and Analysis in Biomolecular Archaeology
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2014

In the coastal area of the northwestern part of the Netherlands, dozens of sites dating to the Single Grave culture (or Corded Ware culture; 2850-2450 cal bc) have been located. Some of the sites have been excavated in the last decades of the 20th century. Within the framework of the Odyssey project of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the excavated materials from three sites (Keinsmerbrug, Mienakker and Zeewijk) could be fully analysed. The results of archaeobotanical research, including the combined botanical and chemical analyses of organic residues (crusts) in ceramics, as well as the study of isolated remains of processed plant food and charred remains of parenchymatous tissue are presented. It is extremely challenging to find out what kind of food people prepared in the past and to determine actual prehistoric vessel use, to understand what kind of meals people prepared in ceramic vessels, what pots they used for what kind of foods, and if they used the same types of pots for the same foods all the time. The results obtained for the three sites are compared to the existing, dichotomous model developed for habitation of the Single Grave culture in the area, with small special activity sites and large permanent settlements. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Our analyses of ceramics from the Neolithic sites near Swifterbant (prov. Flevoland/NL) suggest two distinctive subgroups. This study aims to determine whether these subgroups represent functional categories using botanical analysis (scanning electron microscope) and chemical residue analysis (direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry). We conclude that there are two functional groups. Group 1 pots are used to cook meals without emmer, while group 2 pots are used to cook meals including emmer. It appears that with the introduction of emmer in the cooking process, traditional meals were transferred to a new type of pottery (group 1), while the nouvelle cuisine ended up in the traditional pots (group 2). This case study is strong evidence that the introduction of emmer in the diet of the Swifterbant people was an innovation embedded in meaningful action. © 2013 Verlag des Römish-Germanischen Zentralmuseums. Source


Charman D.J.,University of Exeter | Beilman D.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Blaauw M.,Queens University of Belfast | Booth R.K.,Lehigh University | And 42 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2013

Peatlands are a major terrestrial carbon store and a persistent natural carbon sink during the Holocene, but there is considerable uncertainty over the fate of peatland carbon in a changing climate. It is generally assumed that higher temperatures will increase peat decay, causing a positive feedback to climate warming and contributing to the global positive carbon cycle feedback. Here we use a new extensive database of peat profiles across northern high latitudes to examine spatial and temporal patterns of carbon accumulation over the past millennium. Opposite to expectations, our results indicate a small negative carbon cycle feedback from past changes in the long-term accumulation rates of northern peatlands. Total carbon accumulated over the last 1000 yr is linearly related to contemporary growing season length and photosynthetically active radiation, suggesting that variability in net primary productivity is more important than decomposition in determining long-term carbon accumulation. Furthermore, northern peatland carbon sequestration rate declined over the climate transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the Little Ice Age (LIA), probably because of lower LIA temperatures combined with increased cloudiness suppressing net primary productivity. Other factors including changing moisture status, peatland distribution, fire, nitrogen deposition, permafrost thaw and methane emissions will also influence future peatland carbon cycle feedbacks, but our data suggest that the carbon sequestration rate could increase over many areas of northern peatlands in a warmer future. © 2012 Author(s). Source

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