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Kassel, Germany

Knape M.J.,University of Kassel | Ahuja L.G.,University of California at San Diego | Bertinetti D.,University of Kassel | Burghardt N.C.G.,University of Kassel | And 3 more authors.
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2015

cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is regulated primarily in response to physiological signals while nucleotides and metals may provide fine-tuning. PKA can use different metal ions for phosphoryl transfer, yet some, like Ca2+, do not support steady-state catalysis. Fluorescence Polarization (FP) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) were used to study inhibitor and substrate interactions with PKA. The data illustrate how metals can act differentially as a result of their inherent coordination properties. We found that Ca2+, in contrast to Mg2+, does not induce high-affinity binding of PKA to pseudosubstrate inhibitors. However, Ca2+ works in a single turnover mode to allow for phosphoryl-transfer. Using a novel SPR approach, we were able to directly monitor the interaction of PKA with a substrate in the presence of Mg2+ATP. This allows us to depict the entire kinase reaction including complex formation as well as release of the phosphorylated substrate. In contrast to Mg2+, Ca2+ apparently slows down the enzymatic reaction. A focus on individual reaction steps revealed that Ca2+ is not as efficient as Mg2+ in stabilizing the enzyme:substrate complex. The opposite holds true for product dissociation where Mg2+ easily releases the phospho-substrate while Ca2+ traps both reaction products at the active site. This explains the low steady-state activity in the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, Ca2+ is able to modulate kinase activity as well as inhibitor binding even in the presence of Mg2+. We therefore hypothesize that the physiological metal ions Mg2+ and Ca2+ both play a role in kinase activity and regulation. Since PKA is localized close to calcium channels and may render PKA activity susceptible to Ca2+, our data provide a possible mechanism for novel crosstalk between cAMP and calcium signaling. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Hermann J.S.,University of Kassel | Skroblin P.,Anchored Signaling | Bertinetti D.,University of Kassel | Hanold L.E.,University of Georgia | And 8 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2015

Protein kinase activity is regulated not only by direct strategies affecting activity but also by spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms. Kinase signaling pathways are coordinated by scaffolding proteins that orchestrate the assembly of multi-protein complexes. One family of such scaffolding proteins are the A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs share the commonality of binding cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In addition, they bind further signaling proteins and kinase substrates and tether such multi-protein complexes to subcellular locations. The A-kinase binding (AKB) domain of AKAPs typically contains a conserved helical motif that interacts directly with the dimerization/docking (D/D) domain of the regulatory subunits of PKA. Based on a pull-down proteomics approach, we identified neurochondrin (neurite-outgrowth promoting protein) as a previously unidentified AKAP. Here, we show that neurochondrin interacts directly with PKA through a novel mechanism that involves two distinct binding regions. In addition, we demonstrate that neurochondrin has strong isoform selectivity towards the RIIα subunit of PKA with nanomolar affinity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Duvel J.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Bertinetti D.,University of Kassel | Moller S.,University of Kassel | Schwede F.,BIOLOG Life Science Institute | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2012

In many bacteria, high levels of the ubiquitous second messenger c-di-GMP have been demonstrated to suppress motility and to promote the establishment of surface-adherent biofilm communities. While molecular mechanisms underlying the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP have been comprehensively characterized, little is known about how c-di-GMP mediates its regulatory effects. In this study, we have established a chemical proteomics approach to identify c-di-GMP interacting proteins in the opportunistic pathogen . Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A functionalized c-di-GMP analog, 2'-aminohexylcarbamoyl-c-di-GMP (2'-AHC-c-di-GMP), was chemically synthesized and following its immobilization used to perform affinity pull down experiments. Enriched proteins were subsequently identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. 2'-AHC-c-di-GMP was also employed in surface plasmon resonance studies to evaluate and quantify the interaction of c-di-GMP with its potential target molecules . in vitro. The biochemical tools presented here may serve the identification of novel classes of c-di-GMP effectors and thus contribute to a better characterization and understanding of the complex c-di-GMP signaling network. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Lorenz U.,University of Wurzburg | Lorenz B.,University of Wurzburg | Schmitter T.,University of Wurzburg | Streker K.,University of Wurzburg | And 5 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple antibiotic resistance and severe clinical outcomes provide a strong rationale for development of immunoglobulin-based strategies. Traditionally, novel immunological approaches against bacterial pathogens involve antibodies directed against cell surface-exposed virulence-associated epitopes or toxins. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody targeting the housekeeping protein IsaA, a suggested soluble lytic transglycosylase of S. aureus, and tested its therapeutic efficacy in two experimental mouse infection models. A murine anti-IsaA antibody of the IgG1 subclass (UK-66P) showed the highest binding affinity in Biacore analysis. This antibody recognized all S. aureus strains tested, including hospital-acquired and community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Therapeutic efficacy in vivo in mice was analyzed using a central venous catheter-related infection model and a sepsis survival model. In both models, anti-IsaA IgG1 conferred protection against staphylococcal infection. Ex vivo, UK-66P activates professional phagocytes and induces highly microbicidal reactive oxygen metabolites in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in bacterial killing. The study provides proof of concept that monoclonal IgG1 antibodies with high affinity to the ubiquitously expressed, single-epitope-targeting IsaA are effective in the treatment of staphylococcal infection in different mouse models. Anti-IsaA antibodies might be a useful component in an antibody-based therapeutic for prophylaxis or adjunctive treatment of human cases of S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Munari F.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Soeroes S.,Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry | Soeroes S.,Oxford Nanopore Technologies | Zenn H.M.,Biaffin GmbH and Co. KG | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Binding of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) to the histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) mark is a hallmark of establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. Although genetic and cell biological aspects have been elucidated, the molecular details of HP1 binding to H3K9me3 nucleosomes are unknown. Using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and biophysical measurements on fully defined recombinant experimental systems, we demonstrate that H3K9me3 works as an on/off switch regulating distinct binding modes of hHP1β to the nucleosome. The methyl-mark determines a highly flexible and very dynamic interaction of the chromodomain of hHP1β with the H3-tail. There are no other constraints of interaction or additional multimerization interfaces. In contrast, in the absence of methylation, the hinge region and the N-terminal tail form weak nucleosome contacts mainly with DNA. In agreement with the high flexibility within the hHP1β-H3K9me3 nucleosome complex, the chromoshadow domain does not provide a direct binding interface. Our results report the first detailed structural analysis of a dynamic protein-nucleosome complex directed by a histone modification and provide a conceptual framework for understanding similar interactions in the context of chromatin. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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