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Cranfield, United Kingdom

Baldyga J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Kubicki D.,BHR Group | Shekunov B.Y.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Smith K.B.,Glaxosmithkline
Chemical Engineering Research and Design

The process termed solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS™) is investigated. In the process particles are created in the rapid antisolvent process using a twin-fluid nozzle to co-introduce the SCF antisolvent and solution. Results of experimental and numerical studies are presented for two regions of pressure: above the mixture critical pressure where a single-phase exists for all solvent-antisolvent compositions, and below the mixture critical pressure where the two-phase region is observed. In experimental studies paracetamol (in the single-phase system) and nicotinic acid (in the two-phase system) were precipitated from ethanol solution using supercritical CO2 as an antisolvent. To interpret the phenomena affecting creation of the supersaturation and to predict suprsaturation distribution, balances of momentum (flow), species (mixing), energy (heating and cooling) and population (droplet and crystal size distributions) are applied. The Favre averaged k-e{open} model of the CFD code FLUENT is applied together with specific models for precipitation subprocesses and Peng-Robinson equation of state. This includes application of the PDF closure procedure for precipitation and the drop breakage kernel that is based on multifractal theory of turbulence for modelling drop dispersion. Thermodynamic effects of mixing and decompression are included as well. Predicted values not always agree with experimental data but anyhow simulations predict all trends observed in experiments. © 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source

Alderman N.,BHR Group
BHR Group - 19th International Conference on Hydrotransport 2014

An alternative approach based on a general expression derived for laminar non-Newtonian flow in open channels of different cross-sectional shapes using key primary variables is presented. This enabled the channel flow data, which is traditionally presented as a plot of f vs ReH on logarithmic coordinates from which C is obtained from the -1 slope for laminar flow, to be presented in the form of a plot of vs (i.e. Y vs X) on linear coordinates where the slope of 1/C will be obtained. Example comparisons of the C values obtained from the f vs ReH plots and their corresponding Y vs X plots were presented for fluids exhibiting Newtonian, power law, Bingham plastic and Herschel-Bulkley behaviour. For each of these fluids, good agreement was obtained between these two C values. Of the two plots, the Y vs X plot was found to be the better plot for detecting the change of slope between laminar and transitional flow for each channel angle. This was found to occur when ReH > 700 for the Newtonian fluid and ReH = 500 for three different non-Newtonian fluids. © BHR Group 2014 Hydrotransport 19. Source

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Smart - Proof of Market | Award Amount: 18.97K | Year: 2015

A proof of market study is to be performed to assess the market potential for an innovative water-hydraulic Directional Control Valve (wDCV) for power transmission and motion control that combines the advantages (and avoids the disadvantages) of both oil-hydraulic and pneumatic valves. The study will help understand the current challenges in markets and in particular those where the energy savings resulting from water hydraulics make a significant impact on the total cost of ownership of power transmission systems in production lines. The study aims to identify opportunities for the wDCV product/service so that a route to market can be identified to address the most immediate demands with the maximum chance of market impact and penetration. The study also expects to identify supply chain partners and early adopter end-users that can help both develop with the product development, integration and exploitation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2011

The group of SME participants in the AQUAGEN project aims to address a major market opportunity by developing a power take-off (PTO) system targeted at marine energy applications, with the potential to significantly improved reliability and efficiency of around 20%, and with less 25% of O&M costs, when compared with currently available solutions. Since it is a water-based PTO system, the risks of oil leaks in the ocean will also be fully eliminated. The system and components developed will have a broad range of applications, from wave energy, as the main application area, to water desalinization and small hydro power generation, and will therefore benefit a European value chain of SMEs specialised in engineering and green energy generation. To achieve our objectives, we need to develop new scientific knowledge in: design of innovative system components such as a variable speed generator, an adaptative blade turbine, elastomeric structures and the overall hydraulic system; protective coatings for marine environments; modeling the ageing of elastomeric structures; and wireless controlled monitoring of offshore moving equipment. Due to the technical challenges of testing the system, there was a conscious decision to hold the activities of AQUAGEN during a 39 month period. Whilst the SMEs form a supply chain for the manufacture of the ultimate PTO system we have neither the facilities nor the resources to undertake the necessary R&D. The Research for SMEs funding instrument provides the ideal solution, allowing us to outsource the R&D to four RTD Performers VP, NTNU, UM and CMG. The Foreground Intellectual Property (FIP) generated in the AQUAGEN project will be owned and exploited by the SMEs, envisaging several market segments and a geographical distribution of non-exclusive licenses for markets outside Europe. If the project meets its targets the SMEs will benefit from sales and licensing of the FIP to several millions of s.

Ozcan-Taskin N.G.,BHR Group
Chemical Engineering Research and Design

This paper reports the comparative performance of a proprietary design mixer, Ytron Y Jet, on the incorporation of clusters of nanoscale silica powder into water. Two sets of characteristic power curves were obtained for Ytron Y Jet depending on whether the valve on feed tube was open or closed. Whilst there was little difference at low speeds, as the speed was increased entrainment from the feed tube decreased Po which would be as a consequence of a decrease of the pressure difference between the two sides of the rotating blades. Drawdown time values determined for surface additions followed the same trends reported for traditional impellers. Powder incorporation became faster with increasing power input at a given concentration and for incremental additions of 1% (w:w), incorporation rate decreased steeply with increasing concentration. With the use of the feed tube, which is part of the design, particles could be introduced into the impeller region, and incorporation rate could be maintained constant over a wide concentration range. This suggests that whilst the flow field in the vicinity of the impeller is not significantly modified with changes in viscosity and rheology, away from the impeller, close to liquid surface liquid velocities die out quickly. When a highly non-Newtonian rheology (Bingham plastic) developed with further particle addition, incorporation rate decreased. Ability to feed into the impeller region is the main advantage this design offers for this application. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source

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