Cranfield, United Kingdom
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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.71M | Year: 2008

The overall project objective is the development of an innovative hydraulic actuator based on sterile water to operate sanitary valves with a primary application in the brewery, dairy, and pharmaceutical industries. The final product will have clear advantages to current pneumatic process machinery in these industries, both in terms of performance, food safety, and in particular with regard to energy savings. Technical barriers in the project are primarily linked to the use of water hydraulics to fulfill the requirements of hygienic systems as regards ease of cleaning, being crevice free, and not providing a source of biological or chemical contamination for the processed product; the assessment and development of materials and seal designs aimed at maximising hydrodynamic effects and minimising wear; and exploitation of the direct flow/time relation of hydraulics - as opposed to compressed air - for efficient control and surveillance of the actuator/valve system. Accordingly, project development activities are structured around tasks related to fluid engineering and the mechanical design of the actuator; sealing and coating; and sensoring and wireless RFID technology for the actuator control system.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2011

The group of SME participants in the AQUAGEN project aims to address a major market opportunity by developing a power take-off (PTO) system targeted at marine energy applications, with the potential to significantly improved reliability and efficiency of around 20%, and with less 25% of O&M costs, when compared with currently available solutions. Since it is a water-based PTO system, the risks of oil leaks in the ocean will also be fully eliminated. The system and components developed will have a broad range of applications, from wave energy, as the main application area, to water desalinization and small hydro power generation, and will therefore benefit a European value chain of SMEs specialised in engineering and green energy generation. To achieve our objectives, we need to develop new scientific knowledge in: design of innovative system components such as a variable speed generator, an adaptative blade turbine, elastomeric structures and the overall hydraulic system; protective coatings for marine environments; modeling the ageing of elastomeric structures; and wireless controlled monitoring of offshore moving equipment. Due to the technical challenges of testing the system, there was a conscious decision to hold the activities of AQUAGEN during a 39 month period. Whilst the SMEs form a supply chain for the manufacture of the ultimate PTO system we have neither the facilities nor the resources to undertake the necessary R&D. The Research for SMEs funding instrument provides the ideal solution, allowing us to outsource the R&D to four RTD Performers VP, NTNU, UM and CMG. The Foreground Intellectual Property (FIP) generated in the AQUAGEN project will be owned and exploited by the SMEs, envisaging several market segments and a geographical distribution of non-exclusive licenses for markets outside Europe. If the project meets its targets the SMEs will benefit from sales and licensing of the FIP to several millions of s.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.2-1 | Award Amount: 12.34M | Year: 2009

The objective of the AddNano project is to investigate the prospects for overcoming the many existing technological barriers in the supply and usage chain, towards the establishment of a large scale market introduction of a new generation of fluid lubricants incorporating nanomaterials. The AddNano consortium combines technological expertise and industrial representation from all parts of the prospective value chain to investigate the development of new nano-based lubricants. Fluid lubricants are used in almost every field of human technological activity and their purpose is multifold: they reduce frictional resistance, protect the engine against wear between contacting surfaces, remove wear debris, reduce heating and contribute to cooling, improve fuel economy, improve emissions. Advanced nanomaterials recently developed, such as inorganic fullerene-like materials (IFs) and others, have shown some initial promise for their contribution to reducing friction and enhancing protection against wear. If able to be developed into full commercial-scale production, if they can be incorporated in a stable fashion into full formulations, and if their performance benefits relative to the best of conventional technologies can be sustained under those circumstances, they offer the prospect for some performance breakthroughs not seen since the development of the now ubiquitous anti-wear additives, Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates (ZDDPs), around 70 years ago. Within engine oils and other lubricant applications, such as transmission fluids, and for greases used in rotational bearings, the potential exists for lubricants containing nanomaterials to significantly reduce friction and enhance machine durability. This can contribute to substantial energy savings, reduced equipment maintenance and longer machine lifetime.


Baldyga J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Kubicki D.,BHR Group | Shekunov B.Y.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Smith K.B.,Glaxosmithkline
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2010

The process termed solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS™) is investigated. In the process particles are created in the rapid antisolvent process using a twin-fluid nozzle to co-introduce the SCF antisolvent and solution. Results of experimental and numerical studies are presented for two regions of pressure: above the mixture critical pressure where a single-phase exists for all solvent-antisolvent compositions, and below the mixture critical pressure where the two-phase region is observed. In experimental studies paracetamol (in the single-phase system) and nicotinic acid (in the two-phase system) were precipitated from ethanol solution using supercritical CO2 as an antisolvent. To interpret the phenomena affecting creation of the supersaturation and to predict suprsaturation distribution, balances of momentum (flow), species (mixing), energy (heating and cooling) and population (droplet and crystal size distributions) are applied. The Favre averaged k-e{open} model of the CFD code FLUENT is applied together with specific models for precipitation subprocesses and Peng-Robinson equation of state. This includes application of the PDF closure procedure for precipitation and the drop breakage kernel that is based on multifractal theory of turbulence for modelling drop dispersion. Thermodynamic effects of mixing and decompression are included as well. Predicted values not always agree with experimental data but anyhow simulations predict all trends observed in experiments. © 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Burger J.,Cape Peninsula University of Technology | Haldenwang R.,Cape Peninsula University of Technology | Alderman N.,BHR Group
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2010

The effect of channel shape on the friction factor-Reynolds number relationship for laminar, open channel flow of three non-Newtonian fluids was investigated. For each channel shape, the data can be described by a general relationship, f=K/Re where f is the Fanning friction factor and Re is the appropriate Haldenwang et al. (2002) Reynolds number corresponding to the flow curve model used to describe the non-Newtonian behaviour exhibited by the test fluid. The K values were found to be 14.6 for triangular channels with a vertex angle of 90°, 16.2 for semi-circular channels, 16.4 for rectangular channels and 17.6 for trapezoidal channels with 60° sides. These K values were found to be in line with those reported by Straub et al. (1958) and Chow (1959) for open channel flow of Newtonian fluids as opposed to the assumption made by Haldenwang et al. (2002, 2004) of using a constant value of 16 based on the pipe flow paradigm for all channel shapes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Eshati S.,Cranfield University | Abu A.,Cranfield University | Laskaridis P.,Cranfield University | Khan F.,BHR Group
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

An analytical model to investigate the influence of Water-Air Ratio (WAR) on turbine blade heat transfer and cooling processes (and thus the blade creep life) of industrial gas turbines is presented. The effects of WAR are emphasised for the modelling of the gas properties and the subsequent heat transfer process. The approach considers convective/film cooling and includes the influence of a thermal barrier coating. In addition, the approach is based on the thermodynamic outputs of a gas turbine performance simulation, heat transfer model, as well as a method that accounts for the changes in the properties of moist air as a function of WAR. For a given off-design point, the variation of WAR (0.0-0.10) was investigated using the heat transfer model. Results showed that with increasing WAR the blade inlet coolant temperature reduced along the blade span. The blade metal temperature at each section was reduced as WAR increased, which in turn increased the blade creep life. The increase in WAR increased the specific heat of the coolant and increased the heat transfer capacity of the coolant air flow. The model can be implemented by using the thermodynamic cycle of the engine, without knowing the turbine cooling details in the conceptual design stage. Also, this generic method assists the end user to understand the effect of operating conditions and design parameter on the creep life of a high pressure turbine blade. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ozcan-Taskin G.,BHR Group | Kubicki D.,BHR Group | Padron G.,BHR Group
Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

In-line rotor-stators are used in a wide range of industrial applications-primarily for dispersion processes such as emulsification, deagglomeration. Three rotor-stator heads have been used to investigate their performance in breaking up of nanoparticle clusters within a large project. This article reports the findings of a part of this study aimed at investigating the flow and power characteristics in single phase to highlight the differences of three different mixer heads. Power characteristics are determined using the calorimetry allowing the characteristic power numbers for these devices to be obtained. These are also compared with CFD calculations. Flow characteristics are studied through numerical simulations. © 2011 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering.


Alderman N.,BHR Group
BHR Group - 19th International Conference on Hydrotransport 2014 | Year: 2014

An alternative approach based on a general expression derived for laminar non-Newtonian flow in open channels of different cross-sectional shapes using key primary variables is presented. This enabled the channel flow data, which is traditionally presented as a plot of f vs ReH on logarithmic coordinates from which C is obtained from the -1 slope for laminar flow, to be presented in the form of a plot of vs (i.e. Y vs X) on linear coordinates where the slope of 1/C will be obtained. Example comparisons of the C values obtained from the f vs ReH plots and their corresponding Y vs X plots were presented for fluids exhibiting Newtonian, power law, Bingham plastic and Herschel-Bulkley behaviour. For each of these fluids, good agreement was obtained between these two C values. Of the two plots, the Y vs X plot was found to be the better plot for detecting the change of slope between laminar and transitional flow for each channel angle. This was found to occur when ReH > 700 for the Newtonian fluid and ReH = 500 for three different non-Newtonian fluids. © BHR Group 2014 Hydrotransport 19.


Ozcan-Taskin N.G.,BHR Group
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2013

This paper reports the comparative performance of a proprietary design mixer, Ytron Y Jet, on the incorporation of clusters of nanoscale silica powder into water. Two sets of characteristic power curves were obtained for Ytron Y Jet depending on whether the valve on feed tube was open or closed. Whilst there was little difference at low speeds, as the speed was increased entrainment from the feed tube decreased Po which would be as a consequence of a decrease of the pressure difference between the two sides of the rotating blades. Drawdown time values determined for surface additions followed the same trends reported for traditional impellers. Powder incorporation became faster with increasing power input at a given concentration and for incremental additions of 1% (w:w), incorporation rate decreased steeply with increasing concentration. With the use of the feed tube, which is part of the design, particles could be introduced into the impeller region, and incorporation rate could be maintained constant over a wide concentration range. This suggests that whilst the flow field in the vicinity of the impeller is not significantly modified with changes in viscosity and rheology, away from the impeller, close to liquid surface liquid velocities die out quickly. When a highly non-Newtonian rheology (Bingham plastic) developed with further particle addition, incorporation rate decreased. Ability to feed into the impeller region is the main advantage this design offers for this application. © 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


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