BHP Billiton is an Anglo-Australian multinational mining, metals and petroleum company headquartered in Melbourne, Australia. It is the world's largest mining company measured by 2013 revenues.BHP Billiton was created in 2001 through the merger of the Australian Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited and the Anglo–Dutch Billiton plc. The result is a dual-listed company. The Australia-registered BHP Billiton Limited, which has equal financial share in the company, has a primary listing on the Australian Securities Exchange and is the largest company in Australia measured by market capitalisation. The UK-registered BHP Billiton Plc has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £41.5 billion as of 19 August 2014. On August 19, 2014, BHP Billiton announced the company would be split in two. A newly formed entity named South32 will house the company's non-core assets. Capitalized at $15 billion, the new entity will be listed on the Australian Securities Exchange with a secondary listing on the Johannesburg bourse and a standard listing on the London market. Wikipedia.
Nimis P.,University of Padua |
Nimis P.,CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources |
Grutter H.,BHP Billiton
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Mutual relationships among temperatures estimated with the most widely used geothermometers for garnet peridotites and pyroxenites demonstrate that the methods are not internally consistent and may diverge by over 200°C even in well-equilibrated mantle xenoliths. The Taylor (N Jb Min Abh 172:381-408, 1998) two-pyroxene (TA98) and the Nimis and Taylor (Contrib Mineral Petrol 139:541-554, 2000) single-clinopyroxene thermometers are shown to provide the most reliable estimates, as they reproduce the temperatures of experiments in a variety of simple and natural peridotitic systems. Discrepancies between these two thermometers are negligible in applications to a wide variety of natural samples (≤30°C). The Brey and Köhler (J Petrol 31:1353-1378, 1990) Ca-in-Opx thermometer shows good agreement with TA98 in the range 1,000-1,400°C and a positive bias at lower T (up to +90°C, on average, at T TA98 = 700°C). The popular Brey and Köhler (J Petrol 31:1353-1378, 1990) two-pyroxene thermometer performs well on clinopyroxene with Na contents of ~ 0.05 atoms per 6-oxygen formula, but shows a systematic positive bias with increasing Na Cpx (+150°C at Na Cpx = 0.25). Among Fe-Mg exchange thermometers, the Harley (Contrib Mineral Petrol 86:359-373, 1984) orthopyroxene-garnet and the recent Wu and Zhao (J Metamorphic Geol 25:497-505, 2007) olivine-garnet formulations show the highest precision, but systematically diverge (up to ca. 150°C, on average) from TA98 estimates at T far from 1,100°C and at T < 1,200°C, respectively; these systematic errors are also evident by comparison with experimental data for natural peridotite systems. The older O'Neill and Wood (Contrib Mineral Petrol 70:59-70, 1979) version of the olivine-garnet Fe-Mg thermometer and all popular versions of the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg thermometer show unacceptably low precision, with discrepancies exceeding 200°C when compared to TA98 results for well-equilibrated xenoliths. Empirical correction to the Brey and Köhler (J Petrol 31:1353-1378, 1990) Ca-in-Opx thermometer and recalibration of the orthopyroxene-garnet thermometer, using well-equilibrated mantle xenoliths and TA98 temperatures as calibrants, are provided in this study to ensure consistency with TA98 estimates in the range 700-1,400°C. Observed discrepancies between the new orthopyroxene-garnet thermometer and TA98 for some localities can be interpreted in the light of orthopyroxene-garnet Fe 3+ Partitioning systematics and suggest localized and lateral variations in mantle redox conditions, in broad agreement with existing oxybarometric data. Kinetic decoupling of Ca-Mg and Fe-Mg exchange equilibria caused by transient heating appears to be common, but not ubiquitous, near the base of the lithosphere. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source
Yakabindie revisited-volcanological and structural controls on the komatiite-hosted Six Mile Well and Goliath North deposits and implications for the architecture of the 2.7 Ga rift event in the Agnew-Wiluna belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia
Perring C.S.,BHP Billiton
The Yakabindie area hosts significant deposits of disseminated Fe-Ni-Cu sulfide in the Six Mile Well (∼2.0 Mt contained Ni) and Goliath North (∼0.6 Mt contained Ni) dunite lenses. These dunite lenses form part of the same komatiitic ultramafic unit that hosts the giant Mount Keith MKD5 deposit (>2.6 Mt contained Ni) to the north, but the morphology and internal stratigraphy of the host unit differs significantly. Three-dimensional modeling of the Yakabindie region reveals that each dunite lens is located at the intersection between steeply dipping NNW- and NNE-trending synvolcanic faults, which appear to have acted as conduits from which komatiitic lava vented onto the seafloor. The igneous contacts dip more shallowly to the west and describe a W-facing wedge of olivine-cumulate rock, probably less than 1 km in plunge extent and cored by adcumulate rock. The mineralization at both Six Mile Well and Goliath North consists of multiple stacked lenses of disseminated Fe-Ni-Cu sulfide associated with the olivine adcumulate core. This core is interpreted as the pathway position that focused the flow of komatiite lava away from the vent. Rather than being linked by sheeted bodies of orthocumulate rocks, as is typically the case along strike to the north, the dunite lenses at Yakabindie appear to be capped by a strike-continuous sequence of thin komatiite flow units. There is no evidence of the fractionated sequences of pyroxenite and dolerite, which occur in pathway positions within the Mount Keith ultramafic unit to the north and which reflect late-stage ponding and in situ fractionation of komatiite lava. Three sets of synvolcanic structures are recognized in the broader Agnew-Wiluna belt and a model of oblique extension at ca 2.7 Ga is proposed. A NNW-trending set of structures marks the overall rift orientation at ca 2.7 Ga but is probably inherited from an earlier ca 2.81 Ga phase of rifting. A NW-trending set is thought to represent ca 2.7 Ga transfer faults, but may also have much older roots. These structures produce marked sinistral offsets in both the greenstone stratigraphy and the gravity response and can be used to divide the Agnew-Wiluna belt into rift segments. The third set of early structures trends NNE, subparallel with the volcanic grain of the greenstones as inferred from the orientation of komatiite lava pathways. These are thought to have originated as extension-orthogonal normal faults at ca 2.7 Ga. At the regional scale there is a strong spatial association between the larger Fe-Ni-Cu sulfide deposits of the Agnew-Wiluna belt and the locus of postulated NW-trending transfer zones, whereas at the deposit scale, intersecting NW- and NNE-trending synvolcanic faults exert a control on the location and best development (in terms of thickness and/or grade) of Fe-Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in some deposits. These spatial associations have major implications for exploration targeting at both regional and deposit scale. © 2016 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Source
BHP Billiton | Date: 2013-02-13
A process for the production of a high grade nickel product including the steps of: a) providing at least one heap of a nickeliferous lateritic ore and leaching that heap with a suitable lixiviant, preferably sulfuric acid solution, to produce a nickel rich pregnant leach solution (PLS); b) subjecting the PLS to an impurity removal step to precipitate ferric iron, and preferably partially precipitate aluminium and chromium as hydroxides; and c) recovering a high grade nickel product from the PLS preferably by either nickel ion exchange, solvent extraction, electrowinning, conventional multi-stage neutralization, pyrohydrolysis or sulfidation.
BHP Billiton | Date: 2014-04-10
A hose comprising a tubular body of flexible material arranged between an inner and outer helically wound wire. The hose further comprises an elongate member having opposing longitudinal edges, the elongate member being helically wound around the tubular body such that the opposing longitudinal edges of the layer are in an adjacent or overlapping arrangement, wherein each longitudinal edge includes a formation capable of interengaging with a cooperating formation on the opposing longitudinal edge, wherein the elongate member is provided at least one reinforcing member which extends along the longitudinal axis of the elongate member.
BHP Billiton | Date: 2013-09-13
A process for extracting uranium from an acidic uranium, chloride, iron and sulphate containing solution, including the steps: a. contacting the solution with an organic phase containing a trialkylphosphine oxide to form a uranium loaded organic phase; b. scrubbing the uranium loaded organic phase to remove any impurities and form a scrubbed organic phase; c. stripping the scrubbed organic phase with an acidic sulphate solution to produce an aqueous uranium strip solution; and precipitating a uranium product from the aqueous uranium strip solution.