Bhavans College

Lal Bahadur Nagar, India

Bhavans College

Lal Bahadur Nagar, India
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Singare P.U.,Bhavans College | Dhabarde S.S.,Kv Pendharkar College
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2017

The present paper undertakes a study of the physico-chemical properties and toxic heavy metals content in the untreated and treated pharmaceutical effluents in order to evaluate the working efficiency of industrial effluent treatment plants. The treatment efficiency achieved for various parameters was conductivity (79.94%), alkalinity (93.91%), hardness (87.70%), chloride (89.24%), cyanide (79.66%), phosphate (99.19%), total dissolved solids (85.89%), total suspended solids (96.87%), salinity (52.41%), dissolved oxygen (27.32%), biochemical oxygen demand (83.39%) and chemical oxygen demand (72.21%). The removal efficiency achieved for different heavy metals was Cu2+ (79.66%), Ni2+ (69.22%), Cr6+ (80.15%), Pb2+ (72.14%), Fe3+ (92.59%) and Zn2+ (90.61%). The level of biochemical oxygen demand (64 mg L−1) in the treated effluents was above the limit of 30.0 mg L−1, chemical oxygen demand level (208 mg L−1) was close to a limit of 250 mg L−1, while average Pb2+ concentration (0.10 mg L−1) was on the borderline of maximum permissible limit of 0.10 mg L−1 set by Central Pollution Control Board for safe discharge of industrial effluent in inland surface water. The average concentration of cyanide (0.01 mg L−1) in the treated industrial effluent of our study is of great concern to the fisheries of freshwater ecosystem in which the effluents finally get discharged. Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the pollution level in the discharged pharmaceutical effluent is of the great concern requiring proper treatment and regular scientific monitoring so as to protect the environmental degradation of water resources and facilitate the propagation of the aquatic life. © 2017, Islamic Azad University (IAU).


The ion exchange resins are important material for study of various uni-univalent and unibivalent ion exchange reactions for the separation, purification and the treatment of industrial effluent's and nuclear waste. In the current investigation attempts were done to evaluate the performance and the selectivity behavior of peroxide degraded resins viz AuchliteARA-9366 towards the Br- and I- ions from the external solution. AuchliteARA-9366 resins in chloride form were subjected to Hydrogen peroxide degradation separately on the magnetic stirrer for 24h at room temperature using 20% (6 volume) and 30% (9 volume) H2O2. The ion exchange equilibrium study of the peroxide degraded AuchliteARA-9366 resin in chloride form were done separately with KBr and KI solution of concentrations range from 0.01M to 0.1M at the temperature 30.0°, 35.0°, 40.0° and 45.0°C for 3h and the equilibrium constants (K) values for Cl-/I- and Cl-/Br- ion exchange reactions were determined. It was found that during Cl-/I- ion exchange reactions, the K values of AuchliteARA-9366 resin degraded using 20% H2O2 were found to be decreases from 37.28 × 10-2 to 15.61 × 10-2 which was higher than the K values observed for the resin degraded using 30% H2O2 which decreases from 20.53 × 10-2 to 15.54 × 10-2with rise in temperature from 30.0-45.0°C. Similar results were observed during Cl-/Br- ion exchange reactions for the resins AuchliteARA-9366.The equilibrium constant (K) values were found to be decreases with rise in temperature shows that both Cl-/I- and Cl-/Br- ion exchange reactions were exothermic in nature and which was further supported by negative enthalpy (ΔH0) and entropy (ΔS0) values. The equilibrium constant (K) values of peroxide degraded resins indicates that resins effectively oxidized with increase in the concentration of H2O2 from 20% to 30% which were also seen in SEM micrographs and FTIR spectrum of the resin. The results obtained from the present study will be helpful in understanding the effects of hydrogen peroxide degradation on the performance and halide ion selectivity behavior of ion exchange resins AuchlitARA-9366. © 2017, Oriental Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


The short-lived radiotracer isotopes were applied to study the kinetics and thermodynamic feasibility of iodide as well as bromide ion adsorption reactions using industrial-grade resin materials. Free energy of activation (ΔG‡) and energy of activation (Ea) were calculated by using Arrhenius equation, enthalpy of activation (ΔH‡), and entropy of activation (ΔS‡) calculated by using the Eyring-Polanyi equation. These parameters were used to predict the thermodynamic feasibility of the two ion adsorption reactions performed by using Dowex SBR LC and Indion-810 resins. It was observed that during iodide ion adsorption reactions, the values of energy of activation (−18.79 kJ mol−1), enthalpy of activation (−21.37 kJ mol−1), free energy of activation (58.13 kJ mol−1), and entropy of activation (−0.26 kJ K−1 mol−1) calculated for Indion-810 resins were lower than the respective values of −4.28 kJ mol−1, −6.87 kJ mol−1, 64.97 kJ mol−1, and −0.23 kJ K−1 mol−1 calculated for Dowex SBR LC under similar experimental conditions. Identical trends were observed for the two resins during bromide ion adsorption reactions. The low values of different thermodynamic parameters obtained for Indion-810 resins during both the ion adsorption reactions indicate that the reactions are thermodynamically more feasible using Indion-810 resins as compared to Dowex SBR LC resins. It is expected here that the present nondestructive technique can be extended further for different ions in the solution in order to predict the thermodynamic feasibility of different ion adsorption reactions for the range of resins which are widely used for treatment of industrial waste water effluent. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Thirteen persistent organic pesticides were investigated in the sediments of Vasai Creek near Mumbai to evaluate their pollution levels and potential risks. It was observed that ΣOCPs level was in the range of 597-1538. ng/g dw, with an average value of 1115.25. ng/g dw. The level of ΣOPPs was in the range of 492-1034. ng/g dw, with an average value of 798.15. ng/g dw. The values o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio gives an indication of use of technical DDT as the prime source of DDT, while the α/γ-BHC ratio indicate that BHCs in study area might have been received from fresh lindane. The results of an ecological risk assessment showed that sediment bound organic pesticides are of more ecotoxicological concern as they might create adverse ecological risk to the marine breeding habitats. These pesticides residues may get remobilize and released to overlying waters creating adverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Singare P.U.,Bhavans College
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

The quantification studies of 17 carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Mithi River polluting the Mahim Creek near Mumbai were performed to understand their sources and probable ecological risk. The overall concentration level of ΣPAHs was 157.96 ± 18.99 μg L−1, while that of carcinogenic PAHs (ΣC-PAHs) was 81.31 ± 9.75 μg L−1, which corresponds to 51.5 % of the ΣPAHs. The source analysis of PAH pollution was made on the basis of different PAH ratios. It was observed that the probable PAH contamination was due to pyrogenic inputs arising due to the combustion of grass, wood, and coal as well as due to the combustion of diesel and gasoline. Toxicity and biological risk assessment was made using toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) for various C-PAHs. The results of our study showed that the mean BaP concentration in the Mithi River water (8.61 μg L−1) was above the European Directive 2008/105/EC Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) value of 0.05 μg L−1, while the levels of benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) + benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) (21.54 μg L−1) and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP) + indeno(1,2,3,-c,d) pyrene (InP) (18.27 μg L−1) were significantly higher than that set by the EQS (0.03 and 0.002 μg L−1, respectively), showing that the ecological integrity of the river and the adjoining creek is possibly at risk. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


This study investigated the levels, sources and potential risks of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment samples collected along the Mithi River of Mumbai. The concentration level of σPAHs found in the present study was in the range of 1206-4735 ng/g dw. The composition patterns of PAHs by ring size in sediment were surveyed which indicate the dominance of four rings followed by five and three ring PAHs. In the study it was observed that the high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) made greater contributions of 90.83% as compared to that of low molecular PAHs (LMW PAHs) contributing to 9.17% to the total PAH concentrations. Toxicity and biological risk were assessed using toxic equivalent quantity and sediment quality guideline quotient. It is feared that the pollution level of PAHs in the sediments might increase in coming times resulting in an unconspicuous risks for the environment and humans through food chains. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Radio isotopic tracer technique as one of the versatile nondestructive technique is employed to evaluate the performance of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC. The evaluation was made on the basis of ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by using 131I and 82Br radioactive tracer isotopes. It was observed that for both the resins, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) were calculated to be lower for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions of 30.0°C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log Kd were calculated as 0.377, 0.212, 0.080 and 15.5 respectively for Dowex SBR LC resin, which was higher than 0.215, 0.144, 0.031 and 14.1 respectively as that obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0°C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 84.75% to 90.20% for Dowex SBR LC resins which was higher than increases from 57.66 % to 62.38 % obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ionisotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate superior performance of Dowex SBR LC over Tulsion A23 resins under identical experimental conditions. © 2015 Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.


The present paper demonstrates nondestructive application of the 131I and 82Br radioisotopes in performance evaluation of organic base anion exchange resins Purolite NRW-4000 and Duolite A-378. The evaluation was based on kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions taking place between the external ionic solution and the resin surface. It was observed that at a constant temperature of 35.0°C when the concentration of bromide ions in solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the specific reaction rate values for bromide ion-isotopic exchange increases from 0.228 to 0.266 min-1 using Purolite NRW-4000 resins and from 0.160 to 0.185 min-1 using Duolite A-378 resins. Also it was observed that under the same experimental conditions, the percentage of bromide ions exchanged increases from 60.67% to 67.00% using Purolite NRW-4000 resin, while for Duolite A-378 resin it increases from 49.30% to 52.00%. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, as compared to Duolite A-378 resins, Purolite NRW-4000 resins shows superior performance. It is expected that the present nondestructive radiotracer technique can be extended further for characterization of series of nuclear as well as non-nuclear grade ion exchange resins. The results of such study will be immensely useful in proper selection of the ion exchange resins in various industrial applications. © Carl Hanser Verlag, München. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.


The present study deals with the investigation of existing pollution levels and potential ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in the Vasai Creek water near Mumbai. The average concentration of α- and β-endosulfan (137.75 ng·L-1) exceeds the chronic criteria level of α- and β-endosulfan (6.5 ng·L-1) set by US EPA for freshwater aquatic organisms. The concentration levels of aldrin (75.31 ng·L-1), dieldrin (71.19 ng·L-1) and endrin (76.60 ng·L-1) was found to exceed the respective criteria levels of <0.13, 65.1, and 61 ng·L-1 as set by US EPA for protection of freshwater aquatic organisms. In addition, the level of chlorpyrifos (208.77 ng·L-1) exceeds the recommended concentration value of <35 ng·L-1 set by Ministry of Environment of British Colombia. The results of our study give an indication of probable ecotoxicological risk to the marine breeding organisms of creek. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


The kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions was studied by radio analytical technique using 131I and 82Br as tracer isotopes. The parameters like specific reaction rate (min -1), amount of ions exchanged (mmol), initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) and logK d were studied to evaluate the performance of nuclear and non-nuclear grade anion exchange resins Indion-103 and Indion-870. For iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions under experimental conditions of 35.0°C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 M labeled iodide ion solution, the parameters were 0.223 min-1, 0.300 mmol, 0.067 mmol/min and 18.7, respectively, for Indion-103, and those of 0.165 min-1, 0.251 mmol, 0.041 /min and 16.2, respectively, for Indion-870. The similar tendency was observed during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. The results suggest that Indion-103 shows greater performance than Indion-870 resin under similar experimental conditions. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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