Bharathiar University is a state university in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, South India. Named after Tamil poet Subramania Bharathiar, the university was established in February 1982 under the provision of Bharathiar University Act, 1981 and was recognized by the University Grants Commission in 1985.The university is in the foothills of Marudamalai road, Coimbatore and has jurisdiction over the districts of Coimbatore, Erode and the Nilgiris. It has 104 affiliated institutions .Bharathiar University celebrated silver jubilee celebrations on 24 February 2007. The then president of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, and the then chief minister of Tamil Nadu, Karunanidhi, were chief guests. Wikipedia.
Alagesan M.,Bharathiar University |
Bhuvanesh N.S.P.,Texas A&M University |
Dharmaraj N.,Bharathiar University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013
A new set of penta-coordinated copper(ii) hydrazone complexes containing solvated methanol were synthesized by reacting the hydrazone ligands, 2-acetylpyridine benzoyl hydrazone (HL1) and 2-acetylpyridine thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazone (HL2), with [CuCl2(DMSO) 2] and characterized by different spectral methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the complexes revealed that both of them, [CuCl(L1)(MeOH)] (1) and [CuCl(L2)(MeOH)] (2), have square pyramidal geometry around the cupric ion, in which the hydrazone is coordinated through NNO atoms along with a molecule of methanol in the apical position. Interaction of the ligands HL1 and HL2 along with the corresponding copper complexes 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been estimated by absorption and emission titration methods which revealed that the compounds interacted with CT-DNA through intercalation. Binding of the compounds, i.e., free ligands and complexes (1) and (2) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein investigated using UV-visible, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic methods indicated that there occurred strong binding of copper complexes to BSA over the ligands. Further, the cytotoxicity of the compounds examined in vitro on a panel of cancerous cell lines such as a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1), an Ehrlich ascites cancer cell line (EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma ascitic cancer cells (DLA) and a normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line (NIH3) demonstrated that the complexes 1 and 2 possessed superior cytotoxicity than that of well-known commercial anticancer drug cisplatin to the tumor cells but are less toxic to the normal cell line and have emerged as potential candidates for further studies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.
Karunamoorthi K.,Jimma University |
Karunamoorthi K.,Bharathiar University
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011
Over many decades, malaria elimination has been considered to be one of the most ambitious goals of the international community. Vector control is a cornerstone in malaria control, owing to the lack of reliable vaccines, the emergence of drug resistance, and unaffordable potent antimalarials. In the recent past, a few countries have achieved malaria elimination by employing existing front-line vector control interventions and active case management. However, many challenges lie ahead on the long road to meaningful accomplishment, and the following issues must therefore be adequately addressed in malaria-prone settings in order to achieve our target of 100% worldwide malaria elimination and eventual eradication: (i) consistent administration of integrated vector management; (ii) identification of innovative user and environment-friendly alternative technologies and delivery systems; (iii) exploration and development of novel and powerful contextual community-based interventions; and (iv) improvement of the efficiency and efficacy of existing interventions and their combinations, such as vector control, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines, biological control of vectors, environmental management, and surveillance. I strongly believe that we are moving in the right direction, along with partnership-wide support, towards the enviable milestone of malaria elimination by employing vector control as a potential tool. © 2011 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Ramyaa P.,Bharathiar University |
Krishnaswamy R.,Kumaraguru College of Technology |
Padma V.V.,Bharathiar University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2014
Background Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin, causes extensive cell damage, affecting liver and kidney cells. OTA toxicity is fairly well characterized where oxidative stress is believed to play a role, however, the sequence of molecular events after OTA-exposure, have not been characterized in literature. Further, antidotes for alleviating the toxicity are sparsely reported. The aim of this study was to understand the sequence of some molecular mechanisms for OTA-induced toxicity and the cytoprotective effect of quercetin on OTA-induced toxicity. Methods Time course studies to evaluate the time of intracellular calcium release and ROS induction were carried out. The time of activation and induction of two key redox- sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB and Nrf-2 were determined by nuclear localization and expression respectively. The time of expression of inflammatory marker COX-2 was determined. Oxidative DNA damage by comet assay and micronucleus formation was studied. The ameliorative effect of quercetin on OTA-induced toxicity was also determined on all the above-mentioned parameters. Results OTA-induced calcium release, ROS generation and activated NF-κB nuclear translocation and expression. Pre-treatment with quercetin ameliorated ROS and calcium release as well as NF-κB induction and expression. Quercetin induced Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and expression. Quercetin's anti-inflammatory property was exhibited as it down regulated COX-2. Anti-genotoxic effect of quercetin was evident in prevention of DNA damage and micronucleus formation. Conclusion Quercetin modulated OTA-induced oxidative stress and redox-signaling in HepG2 cells. General significance The results of the study demonstrate for the first time that quercetin prevents OTA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Boopathi S.,Bharathiar University
Journal of molecular modeling | Year: 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs due to progressive deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the brain. Stable conformations of solvated Aβ1-42 protein were predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the OPLSAA force field. The seven residue peptide (Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-Ala-Glu) Aβ16-22 associated with AD was studied and reported in this paper. Since effective therapeutic agents have not yet been studied in detail, attention has focused on the use of natural products as effective anti-aggregation compounds, targeting the Aβ1-42 protein directly. Experimental and theoretical investigation suggests that some compounds extracted from natural products might be useful, but detailed insights into the mechanism by which they might act remains elusive. The molecules nicotine and morin are found in cigarettes and beverages. Here, we report the results of interaction studies of these compounds at each hydrophobic residue of Aβ16-22 peptide using the hybrid ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31G**:UFF) method. It was found that interaction with nicotine produced higher deformation in the Aβ16-22 peptide than interaction with morin. MD simulation studies revealed that interaction of the nicotine molecule with the β-sheet of Aβ16-22 peptide transforms the β-sheet to an α-helical structure, which helps prohibit the aggregation of Aβ-protein.
Sankar K.V.,Bharathiar University |
Selvan R.K.,Bharathiar University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014
A modest, cost effective and eco-friendly method is employed for the preparation of MnFe2O4 nanocube decorated, flexible graphene sheets, followed by polyaniline (PANI) which is wrapped by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. The formation of the hybrid composites and their individual constituents are realized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The MnFe2O4 nanocube decorated flexible graphene and PANI wrapped composite is visualised through transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images. The decorated MnFe2O4 particles have sizes in the range of 75-100 nm. The capacitive properties of the ternary composite is investigated and it has the obtained specific capacitance of 338 F g -1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 in 1 M NaCl aqueous electrolyte, which is 10 times greater than the pristine MnFe2O4 (32 F g -1). Similarly, the fabricated hybrid supercapacitor (MGPAC) provides the specific capacitance of about 51.87 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 and its energy density is 10.25 W h kg-1 at 10 mA cm-2. Thus the obtained significant properties of the ternary composite are due to the distinctive characteristics of the individual constituents which leads to enhanced electrochemical properties like reducing the internal resistance and diffusion path length via the synergistic effect. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Sankar K.V.,Bharathiar University |
Selvan R.K.,Bharathiar University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2015
The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite was successfully prepared for the negative electrode in hybrid supercapacitors. The MnFe2O4 particles are synthesized by polymer assisted solution combustion method without any high temperature calcinations. Similarly, the flexible graphene and PANI are prepared by eco-friendly hydrothermal and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The presence of possible functional groups and the existence of individual constituents in the composite were identified through Fourier transform infra-red spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectra. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image reveals that the MnFe2O4 particles are dispersed on the flexible graphene sheet and are wrapped by PANI. The ternary composite electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 241 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2, which was 7.5 times higher than MnFe2O4. The calculated b-value elucidates that the charge storage mechanism in the ternary system is based on the capacitive behavior rather than intercalation. The increase in ratio between capacitive and intercalation current with respect to scan rate corroborates that the pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism is dominant. Further, the fabricated hybrid supercapacitor provides the maximum specific capacitance and energy density of 48.5 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 and 17 Wh kg-1, respectively. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cyclic stability of up to 5000 successive cycles. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Sujitha M.V.,Bharathiar University |
Kannan S.,Bharathiar University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013
This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manimaran K.,Bharathiar University |
Balasubramaniam M.,Bharathiar University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011
All possible ternary fragmentations in fission of Cf252 are studied in collinear configuration within a spherical approximation using the recently proposed "three cluster model." The potential energy surface of collinear configuration exhibits a strong valley around Ca48 and its neighboring nuclei Ca50, Ti54, and Cr60. Such strong minima are not seen in the potential energy surface of an equatorial configuration. As a consequence of strong minima in the potential, the overall relative yield is higher for the ternary fragmentation with Ca48, Ca50, Ti54, Cr60, and Ge82 as the third fragment. The results of potential energy and relative yield calculations reveal that collinear configuration increases the probability of emission of heavy fragments like Ca48 (doubly magic nucleus) and its neighboring nuclei as the third fragment. The obtained results indicate that the collinear configuration is the preferred configuration for intermediate nuclei (Ca48, Ca50, Ti54, and Cr60) as the third fragment in particle accompanied fission while the equatorial configuration may be a preferred configuration for light nuclei (He4, Be10) as the third fragment. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Panneerselvam C.,Bharathiar University |
Murugan K.,Bharathiar University
Parasitology Research | Year: 2013
Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata, Cassia occidentalis, and Euphorbia hirta against the medically important mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata followed by C. occidentalis and E. hirta against the adults of A. stephensi with LC50 and LC 90 values of 210.30, 225.91, and 263.91 ppm and 527.31, 586.36, and 621.91 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol extract of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/cm2 were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these three plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100 % with methanol extract of A. paniculata exerted at 150 ppm and aqueous, methanol extract of C. occidentalis and E. hirta were exerted at 300 ppm. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Chitra L.,Bharathiar University |
Boopathy R.,Bharathiar University
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2013
Background and Purpose High-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) experienced under high-altitude conditions is attributed to mitochondrial redox distress. Hence, hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced alteration in expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics genes was determined in rat lung. Further, such alteration was correlated with expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (mtOXPHOS) genes. The prophylactic effect of dexamethasone (DEX) in counteracting the HH-induced mitochondrial distress was used as control to understand adaptation to high-altitude exposure. Experimental Approach Rats pretreated with DEX were exposed to normobaric normoxia (NN) or HH. HH-induced injury was assessed as an increase in lung water content, tissue damage and oxidant generation. Mitochondrial number, mtDNA content and mtOXPHOS activities were measured to determine mitochondrial function. The expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and mtOXPHOS genes was studied. Key Results HH-induced lung injury was associated with decreased mitochondrial number, mtDNA content and mtOXPHOS activities. HH exposure decreased the nuclear gene oestrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα), which interacts with PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in controlling mitochondrial metabolism. Consequently, mtOXPHOS transcripts are repressed under HH. Further, HH modulated mitochondrial dynamics by decreasing mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and augmenting fission 1 (Fis1) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) expression. Nevertheless, DEX treatment under NN (i.e. adaptation to HH) did not affect mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, but increased mtOXPHOS transcripts. Further, mtOXPHOS activities increased together with reduced oxidant generation. Also, DEX pretreatment normalized ERRα along with mitochondrial dynamics genes and increased mtOXPHOS transcripts to elicit the mitochondrial function under HH. Conclusions and Implications HH stress (HAPE)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction is due to repressed ERRα and mtOXPHOS transcripts. Thus, ERRα-mediated protection of mitochondrial bioenergetics might be the likely candidate required for lung adaptation to HH. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.