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Varadharaj V.,Vels University | Janarthanan U.D.K.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Krishnamurthy V.,Bharathi Womens College
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

Annona squamosa Linn, commonly known as Sugar apple, belonging to the family Annonaceae, is said to show varied medicinal effects, including insecticide, antiovulatory and abortifacient. The present work was intended to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Annona squamosa on den induced hepatocellular carcinoma in wistar albino rats. The study was carried out to analyze the biochemical parameters like Total Proteins, Bilirubin, Enzymatic and Non –Enzymatic enzymes, Marker enzymes and Tumor markers in serum and also the histopathological studies in liver is carried out in control and DEN induced rats. Supplementation of ELAS (Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Annona squamosa) reduces the liver weight and the tumor incidence. Chemoprevention group showed near normal values of bilirubin when compared with the control rats. Total protein was decreased in the cancer bearing group and on treatment with the extract the levels of protein were restored. Both in pre and post treatment group, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and GPx were increased but in pre treated animals it was more effective than post treated animals. The non- enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E were brought back to normal level significantly in post and pre treated animals. Activities of marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, γ GT were significantly elevated in the serum of cancer animals and the values returned to normal after treatment with the extract suggesting the hepatoprotective effect of the extract. Lipid peroxide was found to be elevated in the cancer induced group. This condition was brought back to the normal in the pre and post treated animals with ELAS. Histological examination also confirmed the anti- carcinogenic potential of ELAS, Cancer induced groups had a triple fold increase in their AFP values when compared to other groups. DEN treatment increased the level of AFP expression while ELAS partially counteracted the effect of it. So the scientific validation obtained from this study may be recommended for the hepatoprotective treatment using the leaves of Annona squamosa as effective herbal remedies. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Meenakshi S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Meenakshi S.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Murugan A.,Drambedhkar Government Arts College
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

In India, e-governance in healthcare sector has become a compulsion in recent past. At the same time, we have to keep in mind that India has certain obstacles like vast geographical area, high population, transport problems, illiteracy and lack of nutritional awareness. But all these obstacles can be made into wings, if ICT applications in the health sector are taken to higher level of implementation. In our country, certain global IT giants are trying to improve e-governance in health services from the year 2006. It is done in government and private hospitals with enthusiasm and expectation. Medical science is fast developing and data relevant to it are raining all the time. Now, there is better scope for interlinking all types of health centres throughout the country. As the need is very urgent due to the emergence of new diseases forcing a real threat, deliverance of high quality medical service has become one of the biggest expectations of the people. This paper tries to review ICT applications at the national level in our country and also in the state of Tamil nadu. In particular, the experiments carried out in Tamil nadu through the ‘Tamil nadu Health Systems Project’(TNHSP) and the expectations remaining are addressed. The most important aspect of this project is to decrease the maternity mortality in the State. The Directorate of Medical and Rural Health Services has strongly advised the use of ‘PICME’ software to monitor the pregnant women regarding their health status and delivery of the child. ‘Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy Maternity Benefit Scheme’(MRMBS) is linked with this process as an attempt to assist the poor pregnant women. The benefits of them are clearly seen all over the state. The challenges and achievements in connection with this process are also addressed in this paper. © Research India Publications.

Radha R.,Sdnb Vaishnav College | Lakshman B.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women
Proceedings - 2014 World Congress on Computing and Communication Technologies, WCCCT 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper demonstrates a method for the detection and extraction of features like optic disc and macula from the retinal images. Digital fundus images are becoming popular for the diagnosis of ophthalmic pathologies. Due to this, there is an increasing possibility of applying digital image processing techniques and methods in these images to m the make the diagnosis more easier. In this paper first bit plane separation is done to the pre-processed retinal image. To carry the vital information of the location of optic disc and macula are found by bit plane 0 and bit plane 1. The exact boundary is identified by applying mathematical morphology. The proposed algorithm is simple and has been evaluated on the images collected from a reputed eye hospital. An accuracy of 91% was obtained in extracting the optic disc and macula from the retinal image. © 2014 IEEE.

Lakshman B.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Radha R.,Sdnb Vaishnav College For Women
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

Eye malady identified with diabetes that makes swelling and strange spillage of liquids and fats into the macula, where fine centering and focal vision happen. Due to the area of eye harm, disjoin diabetic maculopathy can bring about loss of focal vision and lack of sight. Hence, it is important to diagnize diabetic maculopathy at an early stage in a more efficient and automatic method. This paper gives complete review of various techniques used for automatic detection of Diabetic Maculopathy. The objective of this study to provide a complete overview of various methods and techniques used by many researchers to automate the detection of Diabetic Maculopathy. © Research India Publications.

Usha Rani M.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Meena R.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women
Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants | Year: 2014

Antioxidant potentials of methanol extracts of cumin and fennel were determined using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition potential. Phytochemical constituents were identified, and total phenols and flavonoids were quantified to compare between the extracts. Methanol extracts from cumin revealed greater free radical scavenging activities, reducing activity and peroxidation inhibition potential compared to fennel. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also higher in cumin seeds than in fennel. Results suggested that free radical scavenging activity of cumin correlated well with polyphenolic concentration, enabling it to serve as a better natural antioxidative source. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Vanitha V.,VELS University VISTAS | Uma Devi K.J.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Vijayalakshmi K.,Bharathi Womens College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

The plant, Annona squamosa traditionally known as custard apple possesses potent bioactive principles in all its parts. The effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of Annona squamosa (EAELAS) was studied on a HepG2 cell line. The role of phytonutrients present in the active ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanolic leaf Annona squamosa in regulating the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis via modulating the expression pattern of proliferation and apoptosis regulating genes in HepG2 cell line was analyzed by studying the mRNA levels of two genes Bcl2, and P53 involved in apoptotic pathway. The EAELAS caused significant apoptotic tumor cell death with enhanced Caspase 3 activity, down regulation of antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. In this study, apoptosis was upregulated by p53 and caspase 3 expressions and simultaneously down regulating the Bcl2. Thus, the extract increased nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation and the ability of the active fraction from Annona squamosa was potent to induce apoptosis by a cascade of events suggests that it might be an ideal therapeutic for many solid tumors of the liver.

Uma Devi K.J.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Vanitha V.,Vels Institute of Science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

Aegle marmelos, is a medicinal plant from India, used for treating cancer-related symptoms in the Indian system of medicine. Its leaf, root, bark, seed and fruits are valued highly as Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, the active fraction of Aegle marmelos was found to induce apoptosis in Hep G2 cells through NFκB deactivation followed by activation of proapoptotic factor p53. To evaluate this apoptotic induction, the mRNA levels of NFκB were determined using semiquantitative RT- PCR assay. NFκB levels were significantly down-regulated in HepG2 cells following the treatment with active fraction. Similarly, incubation of HepG2 cells with active fraction resulted in increased expression of p53 mRNA levels. The activation of NFκB appears to be a very strong antiapoptotic signal which inhibits TNF a mediated apoptosis pathway. Semiquantitative RT -PCR assay in treated HepG2 cells depicted decreased levels of NFκB which reflects activation of apoptosis through TNFa mediated pathway. Increased levels of p53 mRNA reflects activation of transcription factor p53 which inturn activates Bax proteins and various other transcription factors finally leading to intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These pathways converge to a final common pathway involving the activation of caspases that cleave regulatory and structural molecules and culminate in the death of the cell. Mechanism of apoptotic induction was further evaluated through elevated levels of caspases 3 and 9 enzymes. Thusthe ability of the Aegle marmelos to induce apoptosis by a multi prolonged cascade of events suggests that it might be an ideal therapeutic for solid tumors of liver.

Lakshman B.,Bhaktavatsalam Memorial College for Women | Radha R.,Sdnb Vaishnav College For Women
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

Early diagnosis of vision abnormalities is key focus for medical experts in order to start treatment earlier, particularly for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) treatment. In this paper, we have presented a simple, novel algorithm to find the optic disc (OD) and macula in color retinal images which is a fundamental step in DR analysis. The proposed segmentation algorithm involves various image processing techniques such as bit-plane slicing, edge direction detection, HSI color space conversion and block searching using wavelet transformation matrix. © 2006-2015 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

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