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News Article | April 8, 2017
Site: www.theguardian.com

One of Bolivia’s leading social and environmental organisations has been plunged into crisis after being told it must clear out of its current premises storing millions of records and tens of thousands of books and other publications. The Centro de Documentación e Información Bolivia (CEDIB) runs one of the biggest and most important libraries in the country, but was told recently it had just two days to leave. The order came from the new rector of the state-run University Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), where CEDIB has been based since 1993. Here CEDIB’s director, Marco Gandarillas, in Cochabamba, tells the Guardian, via email, what has been going on: DH: What was your and your colleagues’ reaction to the rector saying you had two days to move out? MG: Indignation and astonishment. It’s unheard of. That a university rector - that is, the highest academic authority - wants to kick us out, when we are the best library and research centre in the university and city. DH: What were the reasons/justifications given? MG: We think the [real] reasons are political - the rector answers to the MAS [Movimiento al Socialismo, the government party/movement]. The justification given [by the rector] was that our agreement ended 10 years ago - something that is, of course, false because we continue serving the university community to this day. DH: When you say the real reasons are “political”, what do you mean by that? Can you explain more? MG: We are a human rights organisation that has been denouncing human rights violations by transnational companies - including Chinese ones. The rector has said that he needs, suddenly, our premises to install a Chinese institute. DH: I’m aware that, for example, CEDIB has denounced the operations of BGP Bolivia, ultimately a subsidiary of the giant China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), because I wrote an article about it last year. But can you give me some other examples of the kind of work that you think has led to this response? MG: Our government is encouraging massive investments by Chinese companies through loans made according to that country’s conditions. Over the last few months we have been revealing Chinese geopolitical strategy in the Bolivian Amazon, and this has had national and international repercussions. You need to understand that over the last few years we’ve been on the receiving end of public attacks, as well as a law that attempts to make dissidence with sectoral - in this case, foreign investment - and national policy illegal. We’re known for this role defending human rights and as a centre of critical research, and so the UMSS’s rector, aligned with the government, is trying to hurt us. He hasn’t given one single academic reason for trying to evict us - only that a Chinese institute must be installed here immediately. DH: Would you say that CEDIB is one of the most critical voices, in Bolivia, of government policy? MG: Effectively, we are the most influential organisation criticising extractivist policy in the country. Not only from the academic point of view, with reports and research, but also because of our work with those who are impacted, like the [indigenous] Tacana people in the Amazon, who are affected by seismic tests by a Chinese oil company [BGP Bolivia], which also puts other indigenous people, living in voluntary isolation, in danger of extinction. Together with the Tacana and CEJIS - another organisation defending indigenous peoples’ rights - we submitted a petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. This is how we have been trying to stop extractives from violating the rights of the most vulnerable. DH: What is most threatened right now? That’s to say, what are we talking about - one of the most important archives in the country? MG: What is threatened are the lives and integrity of all of us working in CEDIB and the documentary patrimony we’re responsible for. The threats have been direct - to violently clear us out. The UMSS’s rector has encouraged students aligned with him to threaten to occupy our space. DH: When you say the threats have been “direct” and the rector has encouraged the students. . . Can you give me an example? His exact words or some proof? MG: On Wednesday he said on TV that he wouldn’t be responsible if students took over CEDIB. That afternoon students connected to the rector issued a statement calling for CEDIB to be taken over, and in the evening and the following day student leaders went to the media calling for the same thing. This would be, of course, violent and illegal. It chimes with the direct threats made by Irving Avendaño, a legal advisor to the UMSS, against CEDIB personnel that he would hold us in our offices. The rector said that too. DH: What other attacks have you experienced? An attempt to close you completely? MG: In 2015 they [the vice-president] publicly attacked us, discrediting our research and claiming we were foreign agents. There was an attempt to expel us from the country. Following that, a law tried to make us and our objectives illegal, so that we would fall into line with sectoral and national policies. DH: “Foreign agents.” For whom - the US? MG: From the empire, it was said. Of course, they were never able to prove anything and the attempt to discredit our research was fruitless. Our good reputation is based on decades of an impeccable trajectory. DH: When you say “empire”, do you mean the US? DH: I see that over 200 individuals and institutions have written, in your defence, to the UMSS rector and others, among other shows of support. How would you describe the support you have received? MG: Immense and very moving. Hundreds of academics, human rights organisations, allies and friends of CEDIB have requested that we’re not forcibly evicted and a place to store our library and records can be found. This solidarity is very important. DH: Tell us a little about what you have. How many records and books? Why is it such a rich, unique collection? MG: More than 11 million physical records and three million digital of everything that has been published in Bolivia’s written press over the last 50 years. In addition, we also have a library of about 77,000 books and a collection of all the laws ever published since the country’s foundation. It’s a unique resource. DH: Who uses it? Students, researchers from other countries? MG: Researchers, students and a very large number of social organisations. Also, it’s a trove of historical evidence to which members of the general public can turn to if they need to know things involving them, particularly those concerning human rights. For example, using a CEDIB dossier, victims of the dictatorships were able to back-up their demands for reparation from the state. DH: Initially the rector gave you 48 hours, right? But then that was extended - until when? MG: Formally - that’s to say, in a letter signed by a notary - he gave us, on 21 March, 48 hours. Then, after our response, he said it should be immediately, or he would proceed to evict us with the “help of the security forces.” DH: So what is the next step for you? I understand you now want to leave the UMSS, after all that has happened. So are you asking for more time? MG: The threats are very serious. We’re going to protect personnel and the archive. We’ll leave as soon as possible. The archive is huge. We’re requesting help to cover the enormous costs and starting a campaign with volunteers to help us. We have a lot of people getting organised for this. We’re urging the university authorities to drop their hostile actions and calls to violence, and requesting that other authorities ensure that this is what happens. DH: It sounds like you think that, at any moment, you could be invaded. Is it like that? MG: Yes, the threats are direct. DH: My final question. Do you have any idea where you might move to? MG: Yes, we do.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

In a disaster, a delay can mean the difference between life and death. Emergency responders don't have time to wait in traffic -- even on the congested information superhighway. That's why researchers at Rochester Institute of Technology are developing a faster and more reliable way to send and receive large amounts of data through the internet. By a creating a new network protocol, called Multi Node Label Routing protocol, researchers are essentially developing a new high-speed lane of online traffic, specifically for emergency information. The project, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation and US Ignite, aims to improve the information flow between emergency responders at the scene of an incident and decision-makers at the office of emergency management. "Sharing data on the internet during an emergency is like trying to drive a jet down the street at rush hour," said Jennifer Schneider, the Eugene H. Fram Chair in Applied Critical Thinking at RIT and co-principal investigator on the project. "A lot of the critical information is too big and data heavy for the existing internet pipeline." Schnieder said data-dense information sharing was a major issue during recent disasters, including Hurricane Irene and Hurricane Sandy. Emergency responders were not able to quickly share critical information. That's why RIT students studying environmental health and safety -- several of whom are actual responders themselves -- worked with emergency professionals to gather data and create scenarios that support research into this real-world problem. For example, in a flood event, emergency responders may need to share LIDAR mapping images, 911 requests and deployments, cell phone location data, video chats, voice recordings and social media communications. When that information has to compete with civilians tweeting about the disaster and messaging loved ones, the network is taking on more than it can handle. "It is normal to have links and routers fail, and as the network topography changes, packets can be delayed, rerouted or lost," said Nirmala Shenoy, a professor in RIT's Information Sciences and Technologies Department and principal investigator of the project. "This unreliability and delayed information can render loss of important data in the LIDAR images and other information." To solve this problem, Shenoy, along with co-principal investigator Erik Golen, a visiting assistant professor in RIT's Information Sciences and Technologies Department, and a team of five graduate students created the Multi Node Label Routing (MNLR) protocol. It is designed with an immediate failover mechanism -- meaning that if a link or node fails, it uses an alternate path right away, as soon as the failure is detected. The new protocol runs below the existing internet protocols, allowing normal internet traffic to run without disruption. The new protocol does not depend on routes discovered by either Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). It discovers routes based on the labels assigned to the routers. The labels in turn carry the structural and relational connectivity information among routers. "The new protocol is actually of very low complexity compared to the current routing protocols, including BGP and OSPF," Shenoy said. "This is because the labels and protocols leverage the connectivity relationship that exists among routers, which are already sitting on a nice structure." In a demo this May, the team put the protocol to the test over the U.S. GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovation). The group transferred data using BGP and the new MNLR protocol. They ran the data between 27 nodes representing the network of the incident control center, the 911 call center and the office of emergency management. While BGP took about 150 seconds to recover from a link failure, MNLR recovered in less than 30 seconds. The recovery metrics showed that the new MNLR protocol transferred information faster and more reliably than existing protocols in the event of network failures and topology changes. "While BGP has a recommended default keep alive message interval of 60 seconds, MNLR is not so constrained," said Shenoy. "In fact, MNLR can detect failure with one missing keep alive message as the failure or topology change information will be flooded internet wide, which can be expected in certain cases with BGP." Shenoy said that the main issue with current protocols stems from the fact that they were invented several decades ago and not for the type of network scenarios experienced in current internet. Thus, BGP and OSPF are unreliable and that manifests when a link fails, she said. "If you receive an email five minutes late, that is still acceptable," Shenoy said. "But in an emergency situation, the implicit impact of these serious network problems truly come to light." In an emergency situation, information becomes too old after about eight minutes, adds Schneider, who leads RIT's Collaboratory for Resiliency and Recovery. "We are on the cusp of generating and collecting all this great technical information, but we need to be able to share it and create the situational awareness decision-makers need." The team is continuing to develop and enhance the MNLR protocol. In the future, the team plans to test and implement the protocol in emergency situations.


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.scientificcomputing.com

In a disaster, a delay can mean the difference between life and death. Emergency responders don't have time to wait in traffic -- even on the congested information superhighway. That's why researchers at Rochester Institute of Technology are developing a faster and more reliable way to send and receive large amounts of data through the internet. By a creating a new network protocol, called Multi Node Label Routing protocol, researchers are essentially developing a new high-speed lane of online traffic, specifically for emergency information. The project, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation and US Ignite, aims to improve the information flow between emergency responders at the scene of an incident and decision-makers at the office of emergency management. "Sharing data on the internet during an emergency is like trying to drive a jet down the street at rush hour," said Jennifer Schneider, the Eugene H. Fram Chair in Applied Critical Thinking at RIT and co-principal investigator on the project. "A lot of the critical information is too big and data heavy for the existing internet pipeline." Schnieder said data-dense information sharing was a major issue during recent disasters, including Hurricane Irene and Hurricane Sandy. Emergency responders were not able to quickly share critical information. That's why RIT students studying environmental health and safety--several of whom are actual responders themselves -- worked with emergency professionals to gather data and create scenarios that support research into this real-world problem. For example, in a flood event, emergency responders may need to share LIDAR mapping images, 911 requests and deployments, cell phone location data, video chats, voice recordings and social media communications. When that information has to compete with civilians tweeting about the disaster and messaging loved ones, the network is taking on more than it can handle. "It is normal to have links and routers fail, and as the network topography changes, packets can be delayed, rerouted or lost," said Nirmala Shenoy, a professor in RIT's Information Sciences and Technologies Department and principal investigator of the project. "This unreliability and delayed information can render loss of important data in the LIDAR images and other information." To solve this problem, Shenoy, along with co-principal investigator Erik Golen, a visiting assistant professor in RIT's Information Sciences and Technologies Department, and a team of five graduate students created the Multi Node Label Routing (MNLR) protocol. It is designed with an immediate failover mechanism -- meaning that if a link or node fails, it uses an alternate path right away, as soon as the failure is detected. The new protocol runs below the existing internet protocols, allowing normal internet traffic to run without disruption. The new protocol does not depend on routes discovered by either Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). It discovers routes based on the labels assigned to the routers. The labels in turn carry the structural and relational connectivity information among routers. "The new protocol is actually of very low complexity compared to the current routing protocols, including BGP and OSPF," Shenoy said. "This is because the labels and protocols leverage the connectivity relationship that exists among routers, which are already sitting on a nice structure." In a demo this May, the team put the protocol to the test over the U.S. GENI (Global Environment for Network Innovation). The group transferred data using BGP and the new MNLR protocol. They ran the data between 27 nodes representing the network of the incident control center, the 911 call center and the office of emergency management. While BGP took about 150 seconds to recover from a link failure, MNLR recovered in less than 30 seconds. The recovery metrics showed that the new MNLR protocol transferred information faster and more reliably than existing protocols in the event of network failures and topology changes. "While BGP has a recommended default keep alive message interval of 60 seconds, MNLR is not so constrained," said Shenoy. "In fact, MNLR can detect failure with one missing keep alive message as the failure or topology change information will be flooded internet wide, which can be expected in certain cases with BGP." Shenoy said that the main issue with current protocols stems from the fact that they were invented several decades ago and not for the type of network scenarios experienced in current internet. Thus, BGP and OSPF are unreliable and that manifests when a link fails, she said. "If you receive an email five minutes late, that is still acceptable," Shenoy said. "But in an emergency situation, the implicit impact of these serious network problems truly come to light." In an emergency situation, information becomes too old after about eight minutes, adds Schneider, who leads RIT's Collaboratory for Resiliency and Recovery. "We are on the cusp of generating and collecting all this great technical information, but we need to be able to share it and create the situational awareness decision-makers need." The team is continuing to develop and enhance the MNLR protocol. In the future, the team plans to test and implement the protocol in emergency situations.


CHICAGO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Hurricane Electric, the world’s largest IPv6-native Internet backbone, announced today that it has established a new Point of Presence (PoP) at the Netrality Data Center located at 717 South Wells Street in Chicago, IL. This is Hurricane Electric’s fourth PoP in the city and 17th overall in the Midwest. Located in the heart of Chicago’s financial district, 717 S. Wells is carrier neutral and one of the most connected buildings in the city. Additionally, the data center is a conduit to the local fiber backbone in Chicago as well as a primary access point for long-haul fiber in the region. The facility also boasts a cooling system capacity of 170 tons (N+1) backed-up by generators and is SSAE 16 SOC I certified. According to a recent report, Chicago was named the #1 emerging tech hub in the United States. The survey yielding these results was conducted by Modis, an Information Technology staffing services company. Among other findings, the survey cited the rise of Chicago’s tech incubators, robust growth of local training programs, and redevelopment of the Fulton Market into Google’s Chicago headquarters as the catalyst for the city’s newfound status. Hurricane Electric’s new PoP at 717 S. Wells will provide customers of Netrality, and others in the Greater Chicago Metro area, with access to the company’s vast global network. Hurricane Electric has over 17,000 BGP sessions with over 6,000 different networks via more than 155 major exchange points and thousands of customer and private peering ports. Additionally, companies within the 717 S. Wells facility can now utilize Hurricane Electric’s extensive IPv4 and IPv6 network through 100GE (100 Gigabit Ethernet), 10GE (10 Gigabit Ethernet) and GigE (1 Gigabit Ethernet) ports and as a result, both new and existing customers will be able to experience increased throughput, reduced latency and improved reliability. “Chicago’s technology sector continues to expand and Hurricane Electric is delighted to help satisfy the rising demand for affordable high-speed IP transit,” said Mike Leber, President of Hurricane Electric. “With the opening of our fourth Point of Presence in Chicago, Hurricane Electric is well-positioned to remain ahead of the incredible growth in IPv6 traffic both in the Midwest and United States as a whole. We plan to continue building our presence throughout the region in order to help support businesses as they increase their capacity and drive growth in the heart of the country.” About Hurricane Electric Fremont, California-based Hurricane Electric operates its own global IPv4 and IPv6 network and is considered the largest IPv6 backbone in the world as measured by number of networks connected. Within its global network, Hurricane Electric is connected to more than 155 major exchange points and exchanges traffic directly with more than 6,000 different networks. Employing a resilient fibre-optic topology, Hurricane Electric has no less than four redundant paths crossing North America, three separate paths between the U.S. and Europe, and rings in Europe and Asia. In addition to its vast global network, Hurricane Electric owns and operates two data centers in Fremont, California, including Fremont 2, its newest 208,000 square foot facility. Hurricane Electric offers IPv4 and IPv6 transit solutions over the same connection at speeds including 10 Gbps and 100 GbpsEthernet. For more information on Hurricane Electric, please visit http://he.net.


Patent
China National Petroleum Corporation and BGP Inc. | Date: 2016-09-28

An automatic inspection and monitoring method based on time domain slotting control, belonging to the technical field where the field personnel can automatically inspect and monitor a field device of a seismic apparatus in the seismic exploration production. A method of extraction and transmission of a seismic apparatus host on the information of a field device is implemented by a master control program, test information about the seismic apparatus host on the field device can be automatically extracted and classified from the seismic apparatus host, and according to a designed push protocol, a protocol encoding is conducted; a data frame block is automatically generated; and then the information is delivered via a broadcasting station; an encoding protocol of information push is designed for avoiding information loss caused by signal instability, etc. during information push. According to the protocol, the state information on the field device is encoded to generate a data frame block. There is no more need in the present invention for the operating personnel of the seismic apparatus to read and broadcast the content of the field device item by item, and it only needs to set a software operation mode, so that the automatic extraction and transmission of the state information on the field device can be extracted and transmitted.


Patent
China National Petroleum Corporation and BGP Inc. | Date: 2016-05-19

An automatic inspection and monitoring method based on time domain slotting control, belonging to the technical field where the field personnel can automatically inspect and monitor a field device of a seismic apparatus in the seismic exploration production. A method of extraction and transmission of a seismic apparatus host on the information of a field device is implemented by a master control program, test information about the seismic apparatus host on the field device can be automatically extracted and classified from the seismic apparatus host, and according to a designed push protocol, a protocol encoding is conducted; a data frame block is automatically generated; and then the information is delivered via a broadcasting station; an encoding protocol of information push is designed for avoiding information loss caused by signal instability, etc. during information push. According to the protocol, the state information on the field device is encoded to generate a data frame block. There is no more need in the present invention for the operating personnel of the seismic apparatus to read and broadcast the content of the field device item by item, and it only needs to set a software operation mode, so that the automatic extraction and transmission of the state information on the field device can be extracted and transmitted.


Patent
China National Petroleum Corporation and BGP Inc. | Date: 2015-11-19

The present invention provides a method of searching for oil-gas reservoir based on TRAP-3D software, including: establishing a three-dimensional lithology and fault data cube of an exploration working area according to three-dimensional seismic data and logging data; dividing the three-dimensional lithology and fault data cube into several depth slices of the same depth, and performing an individual sand body unit division for each depth slice; sequentially inputting the depth slices of the three-dimensional lithology and fault data cube into the TRAP-3D software for oil-gas reservoir evaluation. The present invention imporves the accuracy of three-dimensional trap evaluation, is conducive to precise searching of the oil-gas reservoir, can plot a Sweet-Spot diagram on a plane, and get exhibits oil-gas trap amounts of different depths in a longitudinal direction, and can obtain a total trap amount of the oil gas reservoir in the exploration working area.


Patent
China National Petroleum Corporation and BGP Inc. | Date: 2016-09-28

A monitoring system for use in seismic instrument arrangement in petroleum exploration, belonging to the technical field of network transmission of seismic instrument arrangement information, comprises a host server and a hand-held terminal device, wherein the host server is configured to be connected to a host machine of a seismic instrument, manipulated by an instrument operator, can extract the seismic instrument arrangement information, classify field arrangement information based on the corresponding setting and transmit the arrangement information by using a 2G/3G network; the hand-held terminal device can receive the field arrangement information transmitted by the host server, by the 2G/3G network, and alarm and remind line inspection personnel to conduct an arrangement check; after completing the inspection task, the line inspection personnel can send inquiry information via the hand-held terminal device to inquire of the instrument operator about the line inspection condition. The present invention reduces the difficulty of checking an arrangement at the time of the seismic exploration and production, shortens the required time for checking an arrangement and plays an important role in improving a production efficiency of seismic exploration.


Patent
China National Petroleum Corporation and BGP Inc. | Date: 2015-02-18

Provided is a method for performing layer Q factor inversion by using an amplitude spectrum attribute of a downlink wave of vertical seismic profile data in a geophysical exploration data processing technology. In the method, first an F-K (frequency-wave number) method is used to perform wave field separation on VSP original data, so as to obtain a downlink wave; a downlink sub-wave and a monitoring sub-wave are selected to undergone Fourier transform to obtain an amplitude spectrum, polynomial fitting is performed on the amplitude spectrum to obtain an equivalent Q, and a formula between the equivalent Q and a layer Q is used to perform inversion, so as to obtain the layer Q. The method has a strong capability of resisting random disturbance, and is capable of removing a difference of triggering sub-wave. The algorithm is simple and can greatly save workload; moreover, the layer Q value obtained through inversion has a desirable stability and high precision.


Patent
China National Petroleum Corporation and BGP Inc. | Date: 2016-05-19

A monitoring system for use in seismic instrument arrangement in petroleum exploration, belonging to the technical field of network transmission of seismic instrument arrangement information, comprises a host server and a hand-held terminal device, wherein the host server is configured to be connected to a host machine of a seismic instrument, manipulated by an instrument operator, can extract the seismic instrument arrangement information, classify field arrangement information based on the corresponding setting and transmit the arrangement information by using a 2G/3G network; the hand-held terminal device can receive the field arrangement information transmitted by the host server, by the 2G/3G network, and alarm and remind line inspection personnel to conduct an arrangement check; after completing the inspection task, the line inspection personnel can send inquiry information via the hand-held terminal device to inquire of the instrument operator about the line inspection condition. The present invention reduces the difficulty of checking an arrangement at the time of the seismic exploration and production, shortens the required time for checking an arrangement and plays an important role in improving a production efficiency of seismic exploration.

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