BGC Engineering Inc.

North Vancouver, Canada

BGC Engineering Inc.

North Vancouver, Canada
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News Article | July 7, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

Summer program to focus on progressing towards Pre-Feasibility Study and new R1515W zone KELOWNA, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwired - July 6, 2017) - FISSION URANIUM CORP. (TSX:FCU)(OTCQX:FCUUF)(FRANKFURT:2FU) ("Fission" or "the Company") is pleased to announce preparations have begun for a $6.59M summer work program at its award-winning PLS project in Canada's Athabasca Basin. The program will focus on two core goals: growing the recently-discovered, high-grade R1515W zone and accelerating progress towards pre-feasibility stage - a key milestone for eventual production at PLS. Growing New Westernmost Zone: Seven holes (2,380m) will focus on expansion of the recently discovered high-grade, shallow and land-based R1515W zone. Accelerating Progress Towards Pre-Feasibility Study: Fission is targeting the end of 2018 to complete work necessary for a Pre-Feasibility Study (PFS) on its' Triple R deposit. Working with a group of highly regarded engineering and project development consultants, such as RPA Inc. (mine planning), BGC Engineering Corp. (geotechnical and hydrogeology), Melis Engineering Ltd. (metallurgy), Can North (environmental and community relations), Clifton Associates (environmental and regulatory), a large focus of this Summer's program will concentrate on data collection and analysis of various areas required for an advanced PFS study, including metallurgical pit-wall perimeter geotechnical drilling, and hydrogeological hole monitoring. "PLS has the potential to be the first open pit uranium operation in the Athabasca Basin in decades and, with mineralization at such a shallow depth, we are able to simultaneously accelerate our progress towards PFS stage - a key step on the road to possible future production - whilst continuing to expand our known mineralization at PLS. With the decision to target the end of 2018 for a PFS study, this program will include a variety of metallurgical and geotechnical work. At the same time, we will be drilling a number of holes to grow R1515W - the new, high-grade zone that was discovered during the most recent program, as we move further west from the Triple R deposit, towards the high-grade boulder field." In order to accomplish its pre-feasibility activity, the Company will be working with its engineering and project development consultants in the following areas: Uranium mineralization at PLS occurs within the Patterson Lake Conductive Corridor and has been traced by core drilling approximately 3.17km of east-west strike length in five separated mineralized "zones". From west to east, these zones are: R1515W, R840W, R00E, R780E and R1620E. Thus far only the R00E and R780E have been included in the Triple R deposit resource estimate, where-as the R840W and R1620E zones and the recent addition of the R1515W zone, fall outside of the current resource estimate window. The discovery hole of what is now referred to as the Triple R uranium deposit was announced on November 05, 2012 with drill hole PLS12-022, from what is considered part of the R00E zone. Through successful exploration programs completed to date, it has evolved into a large, near surface, basement hosted, structurally controlled high-grade uranium deposit. The Triple R deposit consists of the R00E zone on the western side and the much larger R780E zone further on strike to the east. Within the deposit, the R00E and R780E zones have an overall combined strike length validated by a resource estimate of approximately 1.05km with the R00E measuring approximately 105m in strike length and the R780E zones measuring approximately 945m in strike length. A 225m gap separates the R00E zone to the west and the R780E zones to the east, though sporadic narrow, weakly mineralized intervals from drill holes within this gap suggest the potential for further significant mineralization in this area. The R780E zone is located beneath Patterson Lake which is approximately six metres deep in the area of the deposit. The entire Triple R deposit is covered by approximately 50m to 60m of overburden. Mineralization remains open along strike in both the western and eastern directions. Basement rocks within the mineralized trend are identified primarily as mafic volcanic rocks with varying degrees of alteration. Mineralization is both located within and associated with mafic volcanic intrusives with varying degrees of silicification, metasomatic mineral assemblages and hydrothermal graphite. The graphitic sequences are, associated with the PL-3B basement Electro-Magnetic (EM) Conductor. The R840W zone, located 495m west along strike of the Triple R deposit, now has a defined strike length of 465m and is still open. Drill results within the R840W zone have significantly upgraded the prospectivity of these areas for further growth of the PLS resource on land to the west of the Triple R deposit. The recent discovery of high-grade mineralization further to the west on line 1515W (R1515W zone), located 510m to the west along strike of the R840W zone, has significantly upgraded the prospectivity for further growth to the west along the Patterson Lake Corridor. The recently discovered high-grade mineralization in the R1620E zone, located 210m to the east along strike has significantly upgraded the prospectivity for further growth of the PLS resource to the east of the Triple R deposit. An updated map can be found on the Company's website at http://fissionuranium.com/project/pls/. The 31,039 hectare PLS project is 100% owned and operated by Fission Uranium Corp. PLS is accessible by road with primary access from all-weather Highway 955, which runs north to the former Cluff Lake mine and passes through the nearby UEX-Areva Shea Creek discoveries located 50km to the north, currently under active exploration and development. The technical information in this news release has been prepared in accordance with the Canadian regulatory requirements set out in National Instrument 43-101 and reviewed on behalf of the company by Ross McElroy, P.Geol., President and COO for Fission Uranium Corp., a qualified person. Fission Uranium Corp. is a Canadian based resource company specializing in the strategic exploration and development of the Patterson Lake South uranium property - host to the class-leading Triple R uranium deposit - and is headquartered in Kelowna, British Columbia. Fission's common shares are listed on the TSX Exchange under the symbol "FCU" and trade on the OTCQX marketplace in the U.S. under the symbol "FCUUF." ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD Certain information contained in this press release constitutes "forward-looking information", within the meaning of Canadian legislation. Generally, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "plans", "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "budget", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "intends", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", or "believes", or variations of such words and phrases or state that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will be taken", "occur", "be achieved" or "has the potential to". Forward-looking statements contained in this press release may include statements regarding the future operating or financial performance of Fission and Fission Uranium which involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties which may not prove to be accurate. Actual results and outcomes may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in these forward-looking statements. Such statements are qualified in their entirety by the inherent risks and uncertainties surrounding future expectations. Among those factors which could cause actual results to differ materially are the following: market conditions and other risk factors listed from time to time in our reports filed with Canadian securities regulators on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. The forward-looking statements included in this press release are made as of the date of this press release and the Company and Fission Uranium disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as expressly required by applicable securities legislation.


KELOWNA, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwired - Aug. 14, 2017) - FISSION URANIUM CORP. (TSX:FCU)(OTCQX:FCUUF)(FRANKFURT:2FU) ("Fission" or "the Company") is pleased to announce the completion of the summer 2017 portion of the Pre-Feasibility Study "PFS" drilling, including three large diameter holes for metallurgical sample collection and three geotechnical core holes, to generate rock quality data including strength testing, related to the proposed open pit and underground mining areas of the Triple R deposit. Of particular note is hole PLS17-MET-C (line 660E), which intersected 153.5m total composite mineralization, including 61.09m total composite >10,000 cps. In addition, work related to long-term hydrogeology analysis and detailed baseline environmental studies is on-going. Results of the Phase 2 Metallurgical Study core drilling, designed to collect representative mineralized material from 3 discrete locations within the R780E zone of the Triple R deposit (west, central and east part of the zone), were successful in all measures and, overall, the mineralization met or exceeded expectations based off the resource model with respect to width and strength of mineralization. "The results of our metallurgical drilling highlight just how robust our high-grade, near-surface Triple R deposit really is. With the completion of the drilling to collect material for the Phase 2 metallurgical study and also the geotechnical rock holes this summer, we are making excellent progress towards achieving PFS status. A PFS is an important milestone for any deposit - both de-risking the asset for investors and advancing the project towards production. Both the Fission team and our strategic partner, CGN Mining, are very pleased with the work and results of testing to date and we remain on target to have a PFS ready in 2018." Phase 1 level of metallurgical, completed for the Preliminary Economic Study "PEA", focused on Triple R's ore mineralogy and tested grindability and leachability. As recommended in the PEA report, The Phase 2 program focuses on proving the performance and efficiency of the processing steps post-leach, which involves: solid/liquid separation test work to size the CCD circuit, solvent extraction test work, impurity removal test work, yellowcake precipitation test work and effluent / tailings treatment. The metallurgical work is being conducted and supervised under the direction of Mellis Engineering Ltd., widely recognized as the premiere experts in this field. To collect the appropriate and sufficient amount of mineralized material, three HQ diameter holes totaling 811m of core drilling were completed from various strategic locations within the R780E zone of the Triple R deposit: western, central and eastern parts of the zones respectively. All three holes were designed to intersect a range of representative uranium grades and lithologies expected to be encountered in the proposed open pit and underground mine. Results of mineralized intersections are reported in Table 1. PLS17-MET-W (line 335E) - located in the western area of the R780E zone, this hole was designed to intersect and collect representative sample material from the major graphitic shear zone that hosts the bulk of the Triple R deposit. The metallurgical hole was based off drill-hole PLS13-075 and compares very well with it and nearby holes with respect to interpretation of mineralization and lithology. For comparative purposes, mineralization based on radioactivity is as follows: PLS17-MET-C (line 660E) - located in the central area of the R780E zone, this hole was designed to intersect and collect representative sample material from the major graphitic shear zone that hosts the bulk of the Triple R deposit. The metallurgical hole was based off drill-hole PLS14-187 and intersected wider and stronger mineralization. For comparative purposes, mineralization based on radioactivity is as follows: PLS17-MET-E (line 845E) - located in the eastern area of the R780E zone, this hole was designed to intersect and collect representative sample material from the quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss unit which surrounds the graphitic shear zone noted above. The metallurgical hole was based off drill-hole PLS14-259 and intersected wider and stronger mineralization. For comparative purposes, mineralization based on radioactivity is as follows: The summer 2017 Geotechnical Rock Drilling program, under the direction and supervision of BGC Engineering, targeted the onshore portion of the proposed open pit and underground mine. The program is designed to provide sufficient information for PFS level design recommendations for open pit and underground excavations proposed in the PEA study for the west end of the R780E and R00E zones. The primary objective of the summer program work is to investigate the pit wall rock wall stability by core drilling into the proposed pit wall and obtaining rock quality parameters and pertinent structures. The investigations include: A total of 3 holes in 526.6m were completed to their targeted depth, successfully penetrating the overburden - bedrock interface and various recording instruments were installed and thus allowing the detailed geotechnical study to progress. In 2016, BGC Engineering supervised the drilling and installation of seven monitoring wells at 5 locations. Five monitoring wells (three deep and two shallow) were drilled on land and two deep wells were completed within Patterson Lake. During the summer 2017 program, BGC will complete well development, conduct slug tests and sample all ground water monitoring wells. Natural gamma radiation in drill core that is reported in this news release, with the exception of historic holes PLS13-075 and PLS14-187, was measured in counts per second (cps) using a hand held RS-121 Scintillometer manufactured by Radiation Solutions, which is capable of discriminating readings to 65,535 cps. Holes PLS13-075 and PLS14-187 measured natural gamma radiation using a hand held GR-110 Scintillometer which is capable of discriminating readings to 9,999 cps. Natural gamma radiation is also collected from an in-hole survey that is measured in counts per second (cps) using a Mount Sopris 2GHF-1000 Triple Gamma probe, which allows for more accurate measurements in high grade mineralized zones. The Triple Gamma probe is preferred in zones of high grade mineralization. The reader is cautioned that scintillometer readings are not directly or uniformly related to uranium grades of the rock sample measured, and should be used only as a preliminary indication of the presence of radioactive materials. The degree of radioactivity within the mineralized intervals is highly variable and associated with visible pitchblende mineralization. All intersection measurements are down-hole. All depths reported of core interval and down-hole gamma measurements including radioactivity and mineralization intervals widths are not always representative of true thickness and true thicknesses are yet to be determined in zones outside of the Triple R deposit. Within the Triple R deposit, individual zone wireframe models constructed from assay data and used in the resource estimate indicate that both the R780E and R00E zones have a complex geometry controlled by and parallel to steeply south-dipping lithological boundaries as well as a preferential sub-horizontal orientation. Uranium mineralization at PLS occurs within the Patterson Lake Conductive Corridor and has been traced by core drilling approximately 3.18km of east-west strike length in five separated mineralized "zones". From west to east, these zones are: R1515W, R840W, R00E, R780E and R1620E. Thus far only the R00E and R780E have been included in the Triple R deposit resource estimate, where-as the R840W and R1620E zones and the recent addition of the R1515W zone, fall outside of the current resource estimate window. The discovery hole of what is now referred to as the Triple R uranium deposit was announced on November 05, 2012 with drill hole PLS12-022, from what is considered part of the R00E zone. Through successful exploration programs completed to date, it has evolved into a large, near surface, basement hosted, structurally controlled high-grade uranium deposit. The Triple R deposit consists of the R00E zone on the western side and the much larger R780E zone further on strike to the east. Within the deposit, the R00E and R780E zones have an overall combined strike length validated by a resource estimate of approximately 1.05km with the R00E measuring approximately 105m in strike length and the R780E zones measuring approximately 945m in strike length. A 225m gap separates the R00E zone to the west and the R780E zones to the east, though sporadic narrow, weakly mineralized intervals from drill holes within this gap suggest the potential for further significant mineralization in this area. The R780E zone is located beneath Patterson Lake which is approximately six metres deep in the area of the deposit. The entire Triple R deposit is covered by approximately 50m to 60m of overburden. Mineralization remains open along strike in both the western and eastern directions. Basement rocks within the mineralized trend are identified primarily as mafic volcanic rocks with varying degrees of alteration. Mineralization is both located within and associated with mafic volcanic intrusives with varying degrees of silicification, metasomatic mineral assemblages and hydrothermal graphite. The graphitic sequences are, associated with the PL-3B basement Electro-Magnetic (EM) Conductor. The R840W zone, located 495m west along strike of the Triple R deposit, now has a defined strike length of 465m and is still open. The recent discovery of the high-grade R1515W zone located a further 510m to the west of the R840W zone, now has a defined strike length of 70m and is open in multiple directions. The R840W and R1515W zones have significantly upgraded the prospectivity for further growth on land to the west of the Triple R deposit within the Patterson Lake Corridor. The recently discovered high-grade mineralization in the R1620E zone, located 210m to the east along strike similarly has significantly upgraded the prospectivity for further growth of the PLS resource to the east of the Triple R deposit. Updated maps and files can be found on the Company's website at http://fissionuranium.com/project/pls/. The 31,039 hectare PLS project is 100% owned and operated by Fission Uranium Corp. PLS is accessible by road with primary access from all-weather Highway 955, which runs north to the former Cluff Lake mine and passes through the nearby UEX-Areva Shea Creek discoveries located 50km to the north, currently under active exploration and development. The technical information in this news release has been prepared in accordance with the Canadian regulatory requirements set out in National Instrument 43-101 and reviewed on behalf of the company by Ross McElroy, P.Geol., President and COO for Fission Uranium Corp., a qualified person. Fission Uranium Corp. is a Canadian based resource company specializing in the strategic exploration and development of the Patterson Lake South uranium property - host to the class-leading Triple R uranium deposit - and is headquartered in Kelowna, British Columbia. Fission's common shares are listed on the TSX Exchange under the symbol "FCU" and trade on the OTCQX marketplace in the U.S. under the symbol "FCUUF." ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD Certain information contained in this press release constitutes "forward-looking information", within the meaning of Canadian legislation. Generally, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "plans", "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "budget", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "intends", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", or "believes", or variations of such words and phrases or state that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will be taken", "occur", "be achieved" or "has the potential to". Forward-looking statements contained in this press release may include statements regarding the future operating or financial performance of Fission and Fission Uranium which involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties which may not prove to be accurate. Actual results and outcomes may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in these forward-looking statements. Such statements are qualified in their entirety by the inherent risks and uncertainties surrounding future expectations. Among those factors which could cause actual results to differ materially are the following: market conditions and other risk factors listed from time to time in our reports filed with Canadian securities regulators on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. The forward-looking statements included in this press release are made as of the date of this press release and the Company and Fission Uranium disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as expressly required by applicable securities legislation.


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

Integra Gold Corp. (TSX VENTURE: ICG) ( : ICGQF) ("Integra" or the "Company") and Goldcorp Inc. (TSX: G) ( : GG) ("Goldcorp") are pleased to announce the five finalists and 11 semi-finalists for #DisruptMining. Selecting the five finalists and 11 semi-finalists was a difficult task for the selection committee, a testament to the number of revolutionary ideas and technologies put forth in the 153 submissions received. The sold-out live finale will take place on Sunday, March 5, 2017 at the Carlu in Toronto during the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) convention. The five finalists pitching their disruptive technology "shark-tank" style to the panel of judges are: "Congratulations to Integra Gold, Goldcorp and the five finalists of this innovation challenge. This industry-driven effort to crowdsource ideas and support bold new approaches for stronger environmental performance and enhanced productivity will help ensure Canada's minerals industry remains a source of jobs and opportunities for generations," stated the Honourable Jim Carr, Canada's Minister of Natural Resources. Deciding the fate of the five finalists will be David Harquail, CEO, Franco-Nevada Corporation; Robert Herjavec, CEO, Herjavec Group and judge on ABC Television Network's Shark Tank; Rob McEwen, Chairman & CEO, McEwen Mining; Todd White, COO, Goldcorp Inc. and Bernadette Wightman, President, Cisco Canada. Each finalist will have five minutes to pitch and defend their idea to the panel and demonstrate how their idea or technology has the potential to #DisruptMining. Judges will have two minutes to respond and ask questions. Goldcorp, represented by judge Todd White, has committed $1,000,000 for a proof of concept at one of its mines or investment in the winning technologies. The remaining four judges will represent $100,000 each. Following each presentation, any judge will have the ability to send a disruptor to the deal room to negotiate an investment. In addition to the five finalists, 11 semi-finalists have been chosen for the #DisruptMining daytime expo. The expo will take place on March 5, 2017 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. EST at the Carlu in Toronto. To register for the #DisruptMining daytime expo, click here: https://www.eventbrite.ca/e/disruptmining-day-expo-tickets-31528270907 The 11 semi-finalists being showcased at the daytime expo are: Acoustic Zoom Inc. BGC Engineering Inc. Dundee Sustainable Technologies GeoLEARN GroundTruth Exploration Inc. Heads Up Display Inc. Objectivity.ca Minrail Inc. New Mining Solutions Scanimetrics Inc. YieldPoint Inc. Integra Gold and Goldcorp would like to thank the generous sponsors of #DisruptMining: Title sponsor Raymond James and event sponsors Macquarie and BMO. #DisruptMining is a marquee event during the annual Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada ("PDAC") conference that will showcase disruptive and exponential technologies with the potential to revolutionize the future of mining, from exploration and discovery to production and automation to financing, marketing and sustainability. Net proceeds from sponsorships and ticket sales at the #DisruptMining finale event will be donated to charities as well as used to create scholarships designed to spur innovation in mining. About Integra Gold Corp. www.integragold.com Integra Gold is a junior gold exploration company advancing projects in Val-d'Or, Québec, one of the top mining jurisdictions in the world. The Company's primary focus is its high-grade Lamaque project. About Goldcorp Inc. www.goldcorp.com Goldcorp is a senior gold producer focused on responsible mining practices with safe, low-cost production from a high-quality portfolio of mines ON BEHALF OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Stephen de Jong CEO & President Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this news release. Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements: Certain disclosures in this release constitute forward-looking statements. In making the forward-looking statements in this release, the Company has applied certain factors and assumptions that are based on the Company's current beliefs as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to the Company, including that the Company is able to obtain any government or other regulatory approvals required to complete the private placement and Company's planned exploration activities, that the Company is able to complete the private placement, that the Company is able to procure personnel, equipment and supplies required for its exploration activities in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis and that actual results of exploration activities are consistent with management's expectations. Although the Company considers these assumptions to be reasonable based on information currently available to it, they may prove to be incorrect, and the forward-looking statements in this release are subject to numerous risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause future results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. Such risk factors include, among others, that the private placement will not be completed, that actual results of the Company's exploration activities will be different than those expected by management and that the Company will be unable to obtain or will experience delays in obtaining any required government approvals or be unable to procure required equipment and supplies in sufficient quantities and on a timely basis. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The Company does not intend, and expressly disclaims any intention or obligation to, update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.


VANCOUVER and SEATTLE, Feb. 21, 2017 /PRNewswire/ - BGC Engineering Inc. and LOOOK, Inc., have partnered to transform communication in the mining and geoengineering sectors using Microsoft's HoloLens technology. The two firms have developed a proof of concept application that turns...


Dowling C.A.,BGC Engineering Inc. | Santi P.M.,Colorado School of Mines
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

Debris flows cause significant damage and fatalities throughout the world. This study addresses the overall impacts of debris flows on a global scale from 1950 to 2011. Two hundred and thirteen events with 77,779 fatalities have been recorded from academic publications, newspapers, and personal correspondence. Spatial, temporal, and physical characteristics have been documented and evaluated. In addition, multiple socioeconomic indicators have been reviewed and statistically analyzed to evaluate whether vulnerable populations are disproportionately affected by debris flows. This research provides evidence that higher levels of fatalities tend to occur in developing countries, characterized by significant poverty, more corrupt governments, and weaker healthcare systems. The median number of fatalities per recorded deadly debris flow in developing countries is 23, while in advanced countries, this value is only 6 fatalities per flow. The analysis also indicates that the most common trigger for fatal events is extreme precipitation, particularly in the form of large seasonal storms such as cyclones and monsoon storms. Rainfall caused or triggered 143 of the 213 fatal debris flows within the database. However, it is the more uncommon and catastrophic triggers, such as earthquakes and landslide dam bursts, that tend to create debris flows with the highest number of fatalities. These events have a median fatality count >500, while rainfall-induced debris flows have a median fatality rate of only 9 per event. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Quinn P.E.,BGC Engineering Inc.
International Journal of Image and Data Fusion | Year: 2014

This article describes the development of an improved and expanded landslide susceptibility model for eastern Ontario and southern Quebec, where the clay plains of the former Champlain Sea are affected by large landslides in sensitive clay. The work uses the weights of evidence method and considers 12 different geospatial themes, of which seven are included in the final model: soil type, overburden thickness, flow accumulation, elevation, stream sinuosity, local relief, and slope angle. The article describes some practical considerations in the current modelling work, with emphasis on a number of key aspects, including identification of target hazard types, selection of analytical and predictive study areas, selection of geospatial thematic data for analysis, image processing and analysis of both discrete- and continuous-valued raster data, and combination of thematic weights for development of a meaningful susceptibility model. The new model has significantly better predictive power than the older model and covers the entire area. It does not fully address earthquake-related landslide hazards and would benefit from expansion of the digital landslide inventory. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Jakob M.,BGC Engineering Inc. | Friele P.,Cordilleran Geoscience
Geomorphology | Year: 2010

Natural hazard and risk assessments are predicated on a detailed understanding of the relationship between frequency and magnitude of the hazardous process under investigation. When information is sought from the deep past (i.e., several thousand years), continuous event records do not exist and the researcher has to rely on proxy data to develop the frequency-magnitude (F-M) model. Such work is often prohibitively expensive and few well-researched examples for mass movement are available worldwide. The Cheekye fan is a desirable location for land development and has a depth and breadth of previous research unprecedented on any debris-flow fan in Canada. We pursued two principal strains of research to formulate a reliable F-M relationship. The first focuses on stratigraphic analyses combined with radiometric dating and dendrochronology to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of Holocene debris-flow activity. The second approach examines hydrological limitations of rock avalanche evolution into debris flows through either entrainment of saturated sediments or by failure of a landslide-generated dam and upstream impoundment. We thus hypothesize that debris flows from Cheekye River can be separated into two quasi-homogenous populations: those that are typically triggered by relatively small debris avalanches, slumps, or rock falls or simply by progressive bulking of in-stream erodible sediments; and those that are thought to result from transformation of rock avalanches. Our work suggests that debris flows exceeding some 3 million m3 in volume are unlikely to reach the Cheekye fan as a result of limited water available to fully fluidize a rock avalanche. This analysis has also demonstrated that in order to arrive at reasonable estimates for the frequency and magnitude of debris flows on a complex alluvial fan significant multidisciplinary efforts are required. Without the significant precursor investigations and the additional efforts of this study, life and property may be jeopardized or the design of debris-flow mitigation may be subject to considerable and unquantifiable error. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jakob M.,BGC Engineering Inc. | Owen T.,BGC Engineering Inc. | Simpson T.,BGC Engineering Inc.
Landslides | Year: 2012

Engineered (structural) debris-flow mitigation for all creeks with elements at risk and subject to debris flows is often outside of the financial capability of the regulating government, and heavy task-specific taxation may be politically undesirable. Structural debris-flow mitigation may only be achieved over long (decadal scale) time periods. Where immediate structural mitigation is cost-prohibitive, an interim solution can be identified to manage residual risk. This can be achieved by implementing a debris-flow warning system that enables residents to reduce their personal risk for loss of life through timely evacuation. This paper describes Canada's first real-time debris-flow warning system which has been operated for 2 years for the District of North Vancouver. The system was developed based on discriminant function analyses of 20 hydrometric input variables consisting of antecedent rainfall and storm rainfall intensities for a total of 63 storms. Of these 27 resulted in shallow landslides and subsequent debris flows, while 36 storms were sampled that did not reportedly result in debris flows. The discriminant function analysis identified as the three most significant variables: the 4-week antecedent rainfall, the 2-day antecedent rainfall, and the 48-h rainfall intensity during the landslide-triggering storm. Discriminant functions were developed and tested for robustness against a nearby rain gauge dataset. The resulting classification functions provide a measure for the likelihood of debris-flow initiation. Several system complexities were added to render the classification functions into a usable and defensible warning system. This involved the addition of various functionality criteria such as not skipping warning levels, providing sufficient warning time before debris flows would occur, and hourly adjustment of actual rainfall vs. predicted rainfall since predicted rainfall is not error-free. After numerous iterations that involved warning threshold and cancelation refinements and further model calibrations, an optimal solution was found that best matches the actual debris-flow data record. Back-calculation of the model's 21-year record confirmed that 76% of all debris flows would have occurred during warning or severe warning levels. Adding the past 2 years of system operation, this percentage increases marginally to 77%. With respect to the District of North Vancouver boundaries, all debris flows occur during Warning and Severe Warnings emphasizing the validity of the system to the area for which it was intended. To operate the system, real-time rainfall data are obtained from a rain gauge in the District of North Vancouver. Antecedent rainfall is automatically calculated as a sliding time window for the 4-week and 2-day periods every hour. The predicted 48-h storm rainfall data are provided by the Geophysical Disaster Computational Fluid Dynamics Centre at the Earth and Ocean Science Department at the University of British Columbia and is updated every hour as rainfall is recorded during a given storm. The warning system differentiates five different stages: no watch, watch level 1 (the warning level is unlikely to be reached), watch level 2 (the warning level is likely to be reached), warning, and severe warning. The debris-flow warning system has operated from October 1, 2009 to April 30, 2010 and October 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011. Fortunately, we were able to evaluate model performance because the exact times of debris flows during November 2009 and January 2010 were recorded. In both cases, the debris flows did not only occur during the warning level but coincided with peaks in the warning graphs. Furthermore, four debris flows occurred during a warning period in November 2009 in the Metro Vancouver watershed though their exact time of day is unknown. The warning level was reached 13 times, and in four of these cases, debris flows were recorded in the study area. One debris flow was recorded during watch II level. There was no severe warning during the 2 years of operation. The current warning level during the wet season (October to April) is accessible via District of North Vancouver's homepage (www.dnv.org) and by automated telephone message during the rainy season. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Quinn P.E.,BGC Engineering Inc.
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2013

This paper describes geostatistical analyses completed at a discontinuous permafrost site in central Yukon to develop a predictive model for the presence of late-season frozen ground in support of planning and design for potential site development. The most important factors in the bivariate statistical model were soil type, as determined through terrain analysis, and slope aspect, as inferred from available topographic data. The other three factors included in the final model were profile curvature, slope angle, and ground elevation, each interpreted from available topographic data. The resulting model subdivides the site into three broad classes of frozen ground likelihood: low, where frozen ground can be expected to be encountered in late summer at 15% of observation locations; medium, where 50% of the ground is expected to remain frozen; and high, where 85% of the ground is expected to remain frozen. New test pit and borehole data from the summer of 2012 were used to verify model performance. The inferred correlations between frozen ground and soil type, aspect, curvature, slope, and elevation obtained in this case study may provide useful information relative to expected permafrost occurrence at sites in central Yukon with similar geology and physiography.


Quinn P.,BGC Engineering Inc.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2013

This paper examines the use of road network data as a proxy for interpreting population density, which is of use in regional-scale qualitative risk assessment for natural hazards. Comparison of available road network and population data at various scales in Ontario and Quebec yields a best-fit relationship of DP = 28 DR 2. Analysis of available high-resolution topographic data for the Caribbean island nation of Saint Lucia suggests similar power law trends, with expected population density in Saint Lucia roughly half that of Canada for the same road density. Together, these findings suggest that DP ~ 10-30 DR 2 may represent a useful range broadly applicable for a wide variety of geographic, climactic and socioeconomic settings. The Canadian relationship has been used to generate a population density model for the lowlands of eastern Ontario and southern Quebec, and this model has been compared with the spatial distribution of seismic hazard to develop a qualitative seismic risk map. The seismic risk map, presented primarily for illustrative purposes, shows elevated seismic risk in urban centers in the study area, and along a predominantly rural area east of Quebec City on both shores of the Saint Lawrence River. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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