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Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of working length determination methods, electronic apex locator and digital radiography, on postoperative pain. Methods Two hundred twenty patients with asymptomatic single-rooted vital teeth were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to the method used for working length determination, the radiographic group and the electronic apex locator group. After working length determination, chemomechanical preparation was performed in a crown-down technique with ProTaper instruments. A master cone radiograph was taken. Canals were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer by using a lateral compaction technique. Postoperative pain was assessed after 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours by using a 4-point pain intensity scale. In addition, patients were asked to record the number of days necessary to achieve complete pain resolution. Results Postoperative pain during the 4-hour to 48-hour interval studied was not significantly different (P >.05) between groups. The mean times for pain dissipation in the radiographic and electronic apex locator groups were 3.37 ± 2.79 and 3.88 ± 3.34 days, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P >.05). Conclusions There is no difference in postoperative pain between working length measurement methods by using an electronic apex locator or digital radiography. The reduced exposure to radiation by using apex locator may be a factor that influences a dentist's decision to choose the electronic apex locator over radiography. © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Source

Esrefoglu M.,Bezmialem Foundation University
Hepatitis Monthly

Context: Oxidative damage due to oxidative stress is the failure of the cell's defense against the deleterious effects of harmful agents by means of its numerous autoprotective mechanisms. Oxidative stress is a key impairment induced by various conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia-reperfusion, hepatitis, pancreatitis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence Acquisition: Oxidative stress is a common pathogenetic mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage in cases of inflammatory liver disorders, including acute and chronic hepatitis. Antioxidant administration is a good therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatitis. Results: Our comprehensive review of the literature revealed that contradictory results have been obtained with many antioxidants and antioxidant agents. Conclusion: Since clinical studies to date have generally involved testing of the effects of antioxidant mixtures containing more than 2 antioxidants and also have been limited because of toxic effects of high doses of some antioxidants, antioxidant therapy for acute and chronic hepatitis needs further study. © 2012 Kowsar Corp. All rights reserved. Source

Although the liver has a high regenerative capacity, as a result of massive hepatocyte death, liver failure occurs. In addition to liver failure, for acute, chronic and hereditary diseases of the liver, cell transplantation therapies can stimulate regeneration or at least ensure sufficient function until liver transplantation can be performed. The lack of donor organs and the risks of rejection have prompted extensive experimental and clinical research in the field of cellular transplantation. Transplantation of cell lineages involved in liver regeneration, including mature hepatocytes, fetal hepatocytes, fetal liver progenitor cells, fetal stem cells, hepatic progenitor cells, hepatic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood stem cells, have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of liver failure. In this article, the results of experimental and clinical cell transplantation trials for liver failure are reviewed, with an emphasis on regeneration. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved. Source

Esrefoglu M.,Bezmialem Foundation University
World Journal of Gastroenterology

Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Antioxidants, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, should improve oxidative-stress-induced organ damage and therefore accelerate the rate of recovery. In recent years, substantial amounts of data about the efficiency of antioxidants against oxidative damage have been obtained from experiments with rodents. Some of these antioxidants have been found beneficial in the treatment of AP in humans; however, at present there is insufficient clinical data to support the benefits of antioxidants, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, in the management of AP in humans. Conflicting results obtained from experimental animals and humans may represent distinct pathophysiological mechanisms mediating tissue injury in different species. Further detailed studies should be done to clarify the exact mechanisms of tissue injury in human AP. Herein I tried to review the existing experimental and clinical studies on AP in order to determine the efficiency of antioxidants. The use of antioxidant enriched nutrition is a potential direction of clinical research in AP given the lack of clues about the efficiency and safety of antioxidant usage in patients with AP. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved. Source

Isik A.T.,Bezmialem Foundation University
American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias

Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are widely used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their cholinergic side effects on the cardiovascular system are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the side effects caused by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine on cardiac rhythm and postural blood pressure changes in elderly patients with AD. Of 204 consecutive elderly patients who were newly diagnosed with AD, 162 were enrolled and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessments. The electrocardiographs (ECGs) and blood pressures were recorded at the baseline and 4 weeks after the dose of 10 mg/d of donepezil, 10 cm(2)/d of rivastigmine, and 24 mg/d of galantamine. There were no changes relative to the baseline in any of the ECG parameters or arterial blood pressure with any of the administered ChEIs. It was demonstrated that none of the 3 ChEIs were associated with increased negative chronotropic, arrhythmogenic, and hypotensive effects for the elderly patients with AD. Source

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