Bezmialem Foundation University
Menderes, Turkey
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Gunes-Bayir A.,Bezmialem Foundation University
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2017

Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality because of cancer. Medicinal plants containing polyphenolic compounds have gained importance in anticancer treatment. In this context, carvacrol is a main component of many plants in the family Lamiaceae that are frequently used in folk medicine and a good candidate to investigate for GC treatment. The present study aimed to explore the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating effects of carvacrol on gastric adenocarcinoma in vitro. For these purposes, human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells were used and analyzed after 24 h of exposure to carvacrol with different concentrations. The cytotoxicity, ROS generation, glutathione (GSH) level, and genotoxicity were investigated by the ATP cell viability assay, 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate assay, GSH/GSSG-Glo assay, and comet assay, respectively. Apoptosis induction was detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and western blotting at below the half-maximal growth inhibitory concentration value. Carvacrol showed cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic, ROS generating, and GSH-reducing effects on AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was a close negative relationship between cell viability and ROS level. Carvacrol inhibited the proliferation of AGS cells, suggesting that it could be a novel and strong anticancer agent against the human gastric adenocarcinoma. These results support the interest of natural diet components in the development of therapeutic products for diseases. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Esrefoglu M.,Bezmialem Foundation University
Hepatitis Monthly | Year: 2012

Context: Oxidative damage due to oxidative stress is the failure of the cell's defense against the deleterious effects of harmful agents by means of its numerous autoprotective mechanisms. Oxidative stress is a key impairment induced by various conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia-reperfusion, hepatitis, pancreatitis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence Acquisition: Oxidative stress is a common pathogenetic mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage in cases of inflammatory liver disorders, including acute and chronic hepatitis. Antioxidant administration is a good therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatitis. Results: Our comprehensive review of the literature revealed that contradictory results have been obtained with many antioxidants and antioxidant agents. Conclusion: Since clinical studies to date have generally involved testing of the effects of antioxidant mixtures containing more than 2 antioxidants and also have been limited because of toxic effects of high doses of some antioxidants, antioxidant therapy for acute and chronic hepatitis needs further study. © 2012 Kowsar Corp. All rights reserved.

Esrefoglu M.,Bezmialem Foundation University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Antioxidants, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, should improve oxidative-stress-induced organ damage and therefore accelerate the rate of recovery. In recent years, substantial amounts of data about the efficiency of antioxidants against oxidative damage have been obtained from experiments with rodents. Some of these antioxidants have been found beneficial in the treatment of AP in humans; however, at present there is insufficient clinical data to support the benefits of antioxidants, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, in the management of AP in humans. Conflicting results obtained from experimental animals and humans may represent distinct pathophysiological mechanisms mediating tissue injury in different species. Further detailed studies should be done to clarify the exact mechanisms of tissue injury in human AP. Herein I tried to review the existing experimental and clinical studies on AP in order to determine the efficiency of antioxidants. The use of antioxidant enriched nutrition is a potential direction of clinical research in AP given the lack of clues about the efficiency and safety of antioxidant usage in patients with AP. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Esrefoglu M.,Bezmialem Foundation University
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Although the liver has a high regenerative capacity, as a result of massive hepatocyte death, liver failure occurs. In addition to liver failure, for acute, chronic and hereditary diseases of the liver, cell transplantation therapies can stimulate regeneration or at least ensure sufficient function until liver transplantation can be performed. The lack of donor organs and the risks of rejection have prompted extensive experimental and clinical research in the field of cellular transplantation. Transplantation of cell lineages involved in liver regeneration, including mature hepatocytes, fetal hepatocytes, fetal liver progenitor cells, fetal stem cells, hepatic progenitor cells, hepatic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood stem cells, have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of liver failure. In this article, the results of experimental and clinical cell transplantation trials for liver failure are reviewed, with an emphasis on regeneration. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Isik A.T.,Bezmialem Foundation University
American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias | Year: 2012

Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are widely used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their cholinergic side effects on the cardiovascular system are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the side effects caused by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine on cardiac rhythm and postural blood pressure changes in elderly patients with AD. Of 204 consecutive elderly patients who were newly diagnosed with AD, 162 were enrolled and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessments. The electrocardiographs (ECGs) and blood pressures were recorded at the baseline and 4 weeks after the dose of 10 mg/d of donepezil, 10 cm(2)/d of rivastigmine, and 24 mg/d of galantamine. There were no changes relative to the baseline in any of the ECG parameters or arterial blood pressure with any of the administered ChEIs. It was demonstrated that none of the 3 ChEIs were associated with increased negative chronotropic, arrhythmogenic, and hypotensive effects for the elderly patients with AD.

Izmirli M.,Bezmialem Foundation University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

5,10-Methlenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the most important enzymes for folate metabolism. This enzyme is mapped on chromosome 1, which is located at the end of the short arm (1p36.3). The C677T and A1298C are MTHFR polymorphisms that decrease in vitro MTHFR enzyme activity. Folate metabolism plays a key role in cell metabolism. These reactions are associated with purine-pyrimidine synthesis: DNA, RNA, and protein methylation. Polymorphism is also a factor in biodiversity, and be affected by ethnic heritage and geographic locale. In the case of unknown outcomes, not only should all geographical regions be investigated to ascertain biodiversity, but all populations as well to fully understand the variations in the effect. PUBMED was searched from January 2006 to December 2011 to develop an investigatory pursuit strategy. MTHFR, cancer, C677T, A1298C, and polymorphisms were key words used to focus the search. The literature review included all published relevant cancer types and MTHFR polymorphisms for that 5years period. All selected polymorphisms data for cancer types was listed in tables for easy access and retrieval. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kazancioglu R.,Bezmialem Foundation University
Kidney International Supplements | Year: 2013

Chronic kidney disease has become a serious public health issue. There are currently over 1.4 million patients receiving renal replacement therapy worldwide. One way to reduce the economic burden of chronic kidney disease would be early intervention. In order to achieve this, we should be able to identify individuals with increased risk of renal disease. An individual's genetic and phenotypic make-up puts him/her at risk for kidney disease. Factors such as race, gender, age, and family history are highly important. For instance, being of African-American decent, older age, low birth weight and family history of kidney disease are considered to be strong risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Moreover, smoking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus can also lead to kidney disease. An uncontrolled diabetic and/or hypertensive patient can easily and quickly progress to an end-stage kidney disease patient. Exposure to heavy metals, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and the use of analgesic medications also constitute risks. Experiencing acute kidney injury, a history of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hepatitis C virus, HIV infection, and malignancy are further risk factors. Determination of serum creatinine levels and urinalysis in patients with chronic kidney disease risk will usually be sufficient for initial screening. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.

Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of working length determination methods, electronic apex locator and digital radiography, on postoperative pain. Methods Two hundred twenty patients with asymptomatic single-rooted vital teeth were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to the method used for working length determination, the radiographic group and the electronic apex locator group. After working length determination, chemomechanical preparation was performed in a crown-down technique with ProTaper instruments. A master cone radiograph was taken. Canals were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer by using a lateral compaction technique. Postoperative pain was assessed after 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours by using a 4-point pain intensity scale. In addition, patients were asked to record the number of days necessary to achieve complete pain resolution. Results Postoperative pain during the 4-hour to 48-hour interval studied was not significantly different (P >.05) between groups. The mean times for pain dissipation in the radiographic and electronic apex locator groups were 3.37 ± 2.79 and 3.88 ± 3.34 days, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P >.05). Conclusions There is no difference in postoperative pain between working length measurement methods by using an electronic apex locator or digital radiography. The reduced exposure to radiation by using apex locator may be a factor that influences a dentist's decision to choose the electronic apex locator over radiography. © 2014 American Association of Endodontists.

Karatoprak C.,Bezmialem Foundation University
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences | Year: 2013

For Ramadan fasting, observing Muslims do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan, Islam's holy month of the year according to the lunar calendar. In 2011, fasting patients with diabetes fasted for an average of 16.5 hours per day, having 2 meals between sunset and sunrise for a month. We aimed to evaluate the impact of extended fasting on glucose regulation and observe possible complications of extended fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We conducted a randomized, retrospective, observational study. Patients who presented at the Diabetes Clinic during the 15 days before and after Ramadan in August 2011 Istanbul, whose hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, weight and height value examinations and follow-up were completed were included in the study. Seventy-six diabetes patients who fasted during Ramadan (fasting group) and 71 patients with diabetes who did not fast (non-fasting group) were included in the study. These two groups with similar demographic characteristics were compared before and after Ramadan. HbA1c, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, body mass index, weight and adverse events were evaluated. No statistically significant difference was observed among the fasting and the non-fasting groups. There was no difference between the pre and post-Ramadan values of the fasting group. We could not find any negative effects of extended fasting on glucose regulation of patients with diabetes who are using certain medications. No serious adverse event was observed. We failed to demonstrate benefits of increasing the number of meals in patients with diabetes.

Ceylan B.,Bezmialem Foundation University
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences | Year: 2013

Sustained suppression of serum HBV DNA levels with nucleos(t)ide analogues is the most important success obtained in the treatment of chronic HBV infection today. Tenofovir and entecavir provide more robust viral suppression. The aim of this study is to compare tenofovir and entecavir in terms of viral kinetics, side effects and virological response in patients with chronic HBV infection. Patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with tenofovir or entecavir were included in this retrospective study. Using survey analysis, we evaluated independent variables reflecting virological response to treatment and determined whether use of tenofovir or entecavir was one of them. We compared the decline in serum HBV DNA levels at the 3rd, 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th months of treatment between two groups. We also compared entecavir and tenofovir in terms of side effect rates. 117 patients [average age: 44 (20-73), 65 males (55.6%), 30 HBeAg positive (25.6%)] were enrolled in the study. Sixty-six patients (56.4%) used tenofovir and 51 (43.6%) patients used entecavir. Virological response was better in patients using tenofovir (Odd's ratio of 1.796 and p = 0.014) and having high fibrosis score (Odd's ratio of 0.182 and p = 0.018). Entecavir was more effective in reducing serum HBV DNA levels at the 3rd month of treatment (serum HBV DNA decline of 4.45 and 3.96 log10 units for entecavir and tenofovir respectively, p = 0.031), but decline rates were similar at other months. There was no difference between patient groups in terms of side effects and discontinuation of treatment due to side effects. Patients with chronic HBV infection using tenofovir have better virological response than those using entecavir.

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