Better Border Biosecurity

New Zealand

Better Border Biosecurity

New Zealand
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Smith G.R.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Smith G.R.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | Fletcher J.D.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Marroni V.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | And 6 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

Data from 190 plant pathogen eradication programs in the Global Eradication and Response Database (GERDA) were reviewed to identify characteristics that contributed to successful programs in 45 countries between 1912 and 2013. The most successful treatment (94%) was tissue culture, often in combination with thermotherapy to eradicate viral or bacterial pathogens from plants held in in germplasm collections. Whilst 6% of these programs had no reported outcome, there were no recorded failures of this strategy. Host removal and/or destruction was successful in 55% of the programs and was used against all the pathogen groups. The analysis was limited by the high percentage of unknown outcome results across the pathogen groups. A quarter (49 of 190) of the records contained no indication of the eradication treatment: in 43% of these cases an unknown treatment resulted in successful eradication. There were no obvious correlations between the characteristics of a pathogen (viral/viroid, bacterial/phytoplasma, fungal/oomycete or nematode) and the outcome of the eradication program. For many species there is only one record, or the taxa records were dominated by a few genera that do not represent the biological diversity of the pathogen group. No economic or other analysis was possible due to the large number of unknown result/ongoing programs and the lack of common data. Despite these limitations, GERDA is an important record of the outcomes of worldwide plant pathogen eradication programs since the second decade of the twentieth century. However, care should be exercised when extrapolating from these records to formulating responses to new taxa as pathogens emerge and/or adapt to new plant hosts as the biology of plant pathogens is extremely variable and this diversity is not represented by the records in the database. © 2017, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Kriticos D.J.,GPO Box 1700 | Kean J.M.,Agresearch Ltd. | Phillips C.B.,Agresearch Ltd. | Senay S.D.,Better Border Biosecurity | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2017

The brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys is a highly polyphagous invasive insect, which has more than 300 reported hosts, including important horticultural crops. It has spread to every Northern Hemisphere continent, most recently to Europe. Whilst there have been no reports of incursions into Southern Hemisphere countries, there have been many interceptions associated with trade and postal goods. We modelled the potential distribution of H. halys using CLIMEX, a process-oriented bioclimatic niche model. The model was validated with independent widespread distribution data in the USA, and more limited data from Europe. The model agreed with all credible distribution data. The few exceptions in the distribution dataset appeared to be transient observations of hitchhikers, or were found at the edge of the range, in regions with topographic relief that was not captured in the climatic datasets used to fit and project the model. There appears to be potential for further spread in North America, particularly in central and southern states of the USA. In Europe, there is substantial potential for further spread, though under historical climate the UK, Ireland, Scandinavia and the Baltic states of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia appear not to be at risk of establishment of H. halys. In the Southern Hemisphere, regions with moist tropical, sub-tropical, Mediterranean and warm-temperate climates appear to be at substantial risk on each continent. The threats are greatest in prime horticultural production areas. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia

Stringer L.D.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Stringer L.D.,University of Auckland | Kean J.M.,Better Border Biosecurity | Kean J.M.,Agresearch Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Population Ecology | Year: 2017

Several tephritid fruit flies have explosive population growth and a wide host range, resulting in some of the largest impacts on horticultural crops, reducing marketable produce, and limiting market access. For these pests, early detection and eradication are routinely implemented in vulnerable areas. However, social and consumer concerns can limit the types of population management tools available for fruit fly incursion responses. Deterministic population models were used to compare eradication tools used at typical densities alone and in combination against the Queensland fruit fly (‘Qfly’), Bactrocera tryoni. The models suggested that tools that prevent egg laying are likely to be most effective at reducing populations. Tools that induced mortality once Qfly was sexually mature only slowed population growth, as successful mating still occurred. Release of sterile Qfly when using the sterile insect technique (SIT) interferes with the successful mating of wild flies, and of the tools investigated here, SIT caused the greatest reduction in the population at the prescribed release rate. Used in tandem with SIT, protein baits slightly improved the rate of population reduction, but the male annihilation technique (MAT) almost nullified control by SIT due to the mortality induced on sterile flies. The model suggested that the most rapid decrease in population size would be achieved by SIT plus protein baits. However, the model predicted both the SIT and protein baits when used alone would result in population reduction. The MAT can be used prior to SIT release to increase overflooding ratios. © 2017 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan KK

Avila G.A.,University of Auckland | Withers T.M.,Better Border Biosecurity | Withers T.M.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Holwell G.I.,University of Auckland
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2016

There is a growing body of evidence that many hymenopteran parasitoids make use of olfaction as the primary mechanism to detect and locate hosts. In this study, a series of bioassays was conducted to investigate the orientation behaviour of the gum leaf skeletonizer larval parasitoid Cotesia urabae Austin & Allen (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in both Y-tube and four-arm olfactometers. In a Y-tube olfactometer, male C. urabae were attracted only to virgin conspecific females. Host-plant leaves, damaged leaves, host larvae, and host larvae feeding on leaves were highly attractive to female C. urabae, whereas host frass and conspecific males were not. The multiple-comparison bioassay conducted in a four-arm olfactometer clearly indicates that C. urabae females were significantly more attracted to the host Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) larvae feeding on Eucalyptus fastigata H Deane & Maiden (Myrtaceae) leaves than to any other of the odour sources tested. The results of this study show that C. urabae individuals responded to chemical cues specific to the host plant and target host insect, and support hypotheses that unreliable cues are not utilized for host location by specific natural enemies. © 2016 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Avila G.A.,University of Auckland | Withers T.M.,Better Border Biosecurity | Withers T.M.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Holwell G.I.,University of Auckland
BioControl | Year: 2016

The larval parasitoid Cotesia urabae Austin and Allen (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is known to be attracted to odours of its target host Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae), host plant (Eucalyptus species), and target plant-host complex. Cotesia urabae females were tested in both a Y-tube and four-arm olfactometer to further investigate these attractions as well as their attraction to three non-target Lepidoptera (two in the family Erebidae and one in the family Geometridae), and their corresponding host plants and plant-host complexes. In a Y-tube olfactometer, wasps were attracted to the odours of the non-target Erebidae larvae when tested on their own and when feeding on their host plants, but not to their non-target host plants alone, suggesting some rare circumstances in the field these non-targets could be attacked by C. urabae. The multiple-comparison bioassay conducted in a four-arm olfactometer indicates that target plant-host complex odours invariably produced the strongest attraction compared with any other of the non-target plant-host complex odours tested. Cotesia urabae females that were given prior exposure and the opportunity to oviposit within either non-target species were not subsequently more attracted to the Erebidae odours, suggesting that associative learning is unlikely to increase non-target attack. Such olfactometer assays could be a very useful addition to the host specificity testing methods able to be conducted within quarantine facilities, prior to the release of candidate biological control agents. We urge other biocontrol scientists to undertake similar assays to assist with non-target risk assessments. © 2016 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC)

Avila G.A.,University of Auckland | Withers T.M.,Better Border Biosecurity | Withers T.M.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Holwell G.I.,University of Auckland
Austral Entomology | Year: 2015

Retrospective host specificity testing of the recently introduced biological control agent Cotesia urabaeAustin & Allen, 1989 against Uraba lugensWalker, 1863 was conducted to assess the potential risk posed to the endemic nolid moth Celama parvitisHowes, 1917. The effect that different periods of host deprivation and prior host exposure ('experience') had on the parasitoid's readiness to attack a non-target species was examined in a sequence of consecutive no-choice tests. Even though C.urabae was observed to oviposit on C.parvitis in 91% of the no-choice tests, no parasitoids emerged from the 52% of larvae that survived to complete larval development. Host larvae that died during the laboratory rearing were dissected revealing that 63% contained a parasitoid larva, none of which had developed beyond the second instar within the larvae of C.parvitis. These results show a high level of developmental failure of C.urabae within C.parvitis, confirming that it is not a suitable physiological host. Therefore, potential negative impacts of C.urabae on C.parvitis in the wild are likely to be negligible. Significant differences were found in the attack times between parasitoids with different levels of host deprivation, with younger parasitoids taking longer to initiate attack behaviour. Also, it was observed that the lag until first attack decreased significantly after previous experience with the same host in a succession of no-choice tests. These results suggest that host deprivation and experience may play an important role in increasing the responsiveness to non-target species by C.urabae. © 2015 Australian Entomological Society.

PubMed | University of Auckland, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research and Better Border Biosecurity
Type: | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2016

Cotesia urabae is a solitary larval endoparasitoid that was introduced into New Zealand in 2011 as a classical biological control agent against Uraba lugens. A detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology is required to optimize mass rearing efficiency. In this study, the courtship and mating behaviour of C. urabae is described and investigated from a series of experiments, conducted to understand the factors that influence male mating success. Cotesia urabae males exhibited a high attraction to virgin females but not mated females, whereas females showed no attraction to either virgin or mated males. Male mating success was highest in the presence of a male competitor. Also, the time to mate was shorter and copulation duration was longer when a male competitor was present. Larger male C. urabae had greater mating success than smaller males when paired together with a single female. This knowledge can now be utilized to improve mass rearing methods of C. urabae for the future.

PubMed | International Atomic Energy Agency, Better Border Biosecurity, The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd and Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome.The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique.Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success.

Barratt B.I.P.,Agresearch Ltd. | Todd J.H.,Better Border Biosecurity | Todd J.H.,Plant and Food Research | Malone L.A.,Plant and Food Research
Biological Control | Year: 2016

Regulators often require risk assessment to ascertain biosafety of biocontrol agents before approval for release. Selecting the most informative non-target species for host range testing can be challenging. Here we compare traditional test list selection with a more objective method that selects species from a dataset of invertebrates from the receiving environment. A model, PRONTI (priority ranking of non-target invertebrates) ranks species using five criteria: hazard, exposure, potential ecological impacts from exposure, anthropocentric value and testability. For a case study, we used the braconid parasitoid Microctonus aethiopoides Loan released in New Zealand in 1982 for biocontrol of the pest weevil Sitona discoideus Gyllenhal. We compared species prioritised by PRONTI as worthy of testing with those selected prior to release. Several species which have been attacked in the field by M. aethiopoides since its release ranked highly suggesting that if PRONTI had been available pre-release, better predictions of non-target attack might have been made. The investment in time needed to adopt PRONTI needs to be balanced against its objectivity when comparing it with current conventional methods. © 2015.

Goldson S.L.,Better Border Biosecurity
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2011

The term 'biosecurity', in New Zealand, broadly refers to the need to prevent the establishment and/or the impact of unwanted organisms in all ecosystems. The New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) has operational and policy responsibility for biosecurity across all of the major sectors of the economy and environment. Science is recognised as essential to advancing New Zealand's biosecurity capability beyond that which can be gained via organisational revision and optimisation. A multi-organisational research group known as 'Better Border Biosecurity' was established in 2005 specifically to provide the necessary strategic research to underpin MAF's and other 'end-users' operational and policy requirements. However, this can only work if there is a strong partnership between the contributing parties. Biosecurity in New Zealand is not without its issues. There is a varyingly asserted expectation that there should be readily available biosecurity measures that, while having no effect on trade, will work flawlessly. An unfortunate corollary of this is that the system may be thought of as having 'failed' when incursions occur or they cannot be effectively eradicated. Further, there remains an abiding issue for all in biosecurity around how to measure success in terms of incursions averted. Also, there is now community resistance to some measures taken to eradicate incursions, particularly after two (successful) aerial spraying programmes in Auckland against lymantriid moths. Care is needed to define what biosecurity covers in an international sense and New Zealand's legislative framework for biosecurity bears ongoing scrutiny if clarity of operational responsibility between MAF and the New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Authority is to continue to progress. © 2011 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL).

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