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Cosman F.,Helen Hayes Hospital | Cosman F.,Columbia University | Lane N.E.,University of California at Davis | Bolognese M.A.,Bethesda Health Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: Treatment of osteoporosis with an anabolic agent, teriparatide [human PTH 1-34 (TPTD)], is effective in reducing incident fractures, but patient resistance to daily sc injections has limited its use. A novel transdermal patch, providing a rapid, pulse delivery of TPTD, may provide a desirable alternative. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel transdermal TPTD patch compared to placebo patch and sc TPTD 20-μg injection in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Design: Our study consisted of 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, positive control, multidose daily administration. Patients: We enrolled 165 postmenopausal women (mean age, 64 yr) with osteoporosis. Interventions:ATPTD patch with a 20-, 30-, or 40-μg dose or a placebo patch was self-administered daily for 30-min wear time, or 20 μg of TPTD was injected daily. Outcomes: The primary efficacy measure was mean percentage change in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline at 6 months. Results: TPTD delivered by transdermal patch significantly increased lumbar spineBMDvs. placebo patch in a dose-dependent manner at 6 months (P < 0.001). TPTD 40-μg patch increased total hip BMD compared to both placebo patch and TPTD injection (P < 0.05). Bone turnover markers (procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) increased from baseline in a dose-dependent manner in all treatment groups and were all significantly different from placebo patch (P < 0.001). All treatments were well tolerated, and no prolonged hypercalcemia was observed. Conclusion: Transdermal patch delivery of TPTD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis for 6 months is safe and effective in increasing lumbar spine and total hip BMD. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

Blom D.J.,University of Cape Town | Hala T.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | Bolognese M.,Bethesda Health Research Center | Lillestol M.J.,Lillestol Research | And 12 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Evolocumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in phase 2 studies. We conducted a phase 3 trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 52 weeks of treatment with evolocumab. METHODS: We stratified patients with hyperlipidemia according to the risk categories outlined by the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. On the basis of this classification, patients were started on background lipid-lowering therapy with diet alone or diet plus atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg daily, atorvastatin at a dose of 80 mg daily, or atorvastatin at a dose of 80 mg daily plus ezetimibe at a dose of 10 mg daily, for a run-in period of 4 to 12 weeks. Patients with an LDL cholesterol level of 75 mg per deciliter (1.9 mmol per liter) or higher were then randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either evolocumab (420 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks. The primary end point was the percent change from baseline in LDL cholesterol, as measured by means of ultracentrifugation, at week 52. RESULTS: Among the 901 patients included in the primary analysis, the overall least-squares mean (±SE) reduction in LDL cholesterol from baseline in the evolocumab group, taking into account the change in the placebo group, was 57.0±2.1% (P<0.001). The mean reduction was 55.7±4.2% among patients who underwent background therapy with diet alone, 61.6±2.6% among those who received 10 mg of atorvastatin, 56.8±5.3% among those who received 80 mg of atorvastatin, and 48.5±5.2% among those who received a combination of 80 mg of atorvastatin and 10 mg of ezetimibe (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Evolocumab treatment also significantly reduced levels of apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza, and back pain. CONCLUSIONS: At 52 weeks, evolocumab added to diet alone, to low-dose atorvastatin, or to high-dose atorvastatin with or without ezetimibe significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with a range of cardiovascular risks. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Koren M.J.,Jacksonville University | Giugliano R.P.,Harvard University | Raal F.J.,University of Witwatersrand | Sullivan D.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND-: Evolocumab (AMG 145), a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in phase 2 studies of 12 weeks' duration. The longer-term efficacy and safety of PCSK9 inhibition remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS-: Of 1359 randomized and dosed patients in the 4 evolocumab phase 2 parent studies, 1104 (81%) elected to enroll into the Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER) study. Regardless of their treatment assignment in the parent study, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either open-label subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg every 4 weeks with standard of care (SOC) (evolocumab+SOC, n=736) or SOC alone (n=368). Ninety-two percent of patients in the evolocumab+SOC group and 89% of patients in the SOC group completed 52 weeks of follow-up. Patients who first received evolocumab in OSLER experienced a mean 52.3% [SE, 1.8%] reduction in LDL-C at week 52 (P<0.0001). Patients who received 1 of 6 dosing regimens of evolocumab in the parent studies and received evolocumab+SOC in OSLER had persistent LDL-C reductions (mean reduction, 50.4% [SE, 0.8%] at the end of the parent study versus 52.1% [SE, 1.0%] at 52 weeks; P=0.31). In patients who discontinued evolocumab on entry into OSLER, LDL-C levels returned to near baseline levels. Adverse events and serious adverse events occurred in 81.4% and 7.1% of the evolocumab+SOC group patients and 73.1% and 6.3% of the SOC group patients, respectively. CONCLUSION-: Evolocumab dosed every 4 weeks demonstrated continued efficacy and encouraging safety and tolerability over 1 year of treatment in the largest and longest evaluation of a PCSK9 inhibitor in hypercholesterolemic patients to date. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION-: URL: Unique identifier: NCT01439880. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

Brown J.P.,Laval University | Reid I.R.,University of Auckland | Wagman R.B.,Amgen Inc. | Kendler D.,University of British Columbia | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Denosumab reduced bone resorption, increased bone mineral density (BMD), and decreased new vertebral, hip, and nonvertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in the FREEDOM trial. Consistent with its mechanism of action, transiliac crest bone biopsies from subjects treated with denosumab for 1 to 3 years demonstrated reduced bone turnover that was reversible upon treatment cessation. Long-term denosumab treatment for up to 6 years in the FREEDOM extension provides sustained bone turnover reduction and continued low fracture incidence. Here, we evaluate 5 years of denosumab treatment on bone remodeling at the tissue level. Transiliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from 41 subjects (13 cross-over and 28 long-term from the FREEDOM placebo and denosumab groups, respectively) at year 2 of the FREEDOM extension, representing up to 5 years of denosumab treatment. Demographics for this subset were comparable to the overall extension cohort. The mean (SD) duration from the last denosumab dose to the first dose of tetracycline was 5.7 (0.5) months. Qualitative bone histology assessed in all biopsy samples was unremarkable, showing normally mineralized lamellar bone. Structural indices, including trabecular bone volume, number, and surface, were similar between cross-over and long-term groups. Bone resorption was decreased as reflected by eroded surface in cross-over and long-term subjects. A total of 11 of 13 (85%) cross-over subjects and 20 of 28 (71%) long-term subjects had specimens with double or single tetracycline label in trabecular and/or cortical compartments; specimens from 5 cross-over subjects and 10 long-term subjects were evaluable for dynamic trabecular bone parameters. Dynamic remodeling indices were low for both groups and consistent with reduced bone turnover with denosumab. In conclusion, denosumab treatment through 5 years resulted in normal bone quality with reduced bone turnover. These observations are consistent with its mechanism of action and associated with continued BMD increases and low fracture incidence. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Koren M.J.,Jacksonville University | Lundqvist P.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | Bolognese M.,Bethesda Health Research Center | Neutel J.M.,Orange County Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objectives The aim of this study was to compare biweekly and monthly evolocumab with placebo and oral ezetimibe in patients with hypercholesterolemia in a phase III trial. Background Evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced LDL-C in phase II trials. Methods Patients 18 to 80 years of age with fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 100 and <190 mg/dl and Framingham risk scores 10% were randomized (1:1:1:1:2:2) to oral placebo and subcutaneous (SC) placebo biweekly; oral placebo and SC placebo monthly; ezetimibe and SC placebo biweekly; ezetimibe and SC placebo monthly; oral placebo and evolocumab 140 mg biweekly; or oral placebo and evolocumab 420 mg monthly. Results A total of 614 patients were randomized and administered doses. Evolocumab treatment reduced LDL-C from baseline, on average, by 55% to 57% more than placebo and 38% to 40% more than ezetimibe (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Evolocumab treatment also favorably altered other lipoprotein levels. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), muscle-related AEs, and laboratory abnormalities were comparable across treatment groups. Conclusions In the largest monotherapy trial using a PCSK9 inhibitor to date, evolocumab yielded significant LDL-C reductions compared with placebo or ezetimibe and was well tolerated in patients with hypercholesterolemia. (Monoclonal Antibody Against PCSK9 to Reduce Elevated LDL-C in Subjects Currently Not Receiving Drug Therapy for Easing Lipid Levels-2 [MENDEL-2]; NCT01763827). © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Published by Elsevier Inc.

McClung M.R.,Oregon Osteoporosis Center | Lewiecki E.M.,New Mexico Clinical Research and Osteoporosis Center | Geller M.L.,Amgen Inc. | Bolognese M.A.,Bethesda Health Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

In a phase 2 study, continued denosumab treatment for up to 8 years was associated with continued gains in bone mineral density and persistent reductions in bone turnover markers. Denosumab treatment was well tolerated throughout the 8-year study. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to present the effects of 8 years of continued denosumab treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) from a phase 2 study. Methods: In the 4-year parent study, postmenopausal women with low BMD were randomized to receive placebo, alendronate, or denosumab. After 2 years, subjects were reallocated to continue, discontinue, or discontinue and reinitiate denosumab; discontinue alendronate; or maintain placebo for two more years. The parent study was then extended for 4 years where all subjects received denosumab. Results: Of the 262 subjects who completed the parent study, 200 enrolled in the extension, and of these, 138 completed the extension. For the subjects who received 8 years of continued denosumab treatment, BMD at the lumbar spine (N = 88) and total hip (N = 87) increased by 16.5 and 6.8 %, respectively, compared with their parent study baseline, and by 5.7 and 1.8 %, respectively, compared with their extension study baseline. For the 12 subjects in the original placebo group, 4 years of denosumab resulted in BMD gains comparable with those observed during the 4 years of denosumab in the parent study. Reductions in BTM were sustained over the course of continued denosumab treatment. Reductions also were observed when the placebo group transitioned to denosumab. Adverse event profile was consistent with previous reports and an aging cohort. Conclusion: Continued denosumab treatment for 8 years was associated with progressive gains in BMD, persistent reductions in BTM, and was well tolerated. © 2012 The Author(s).

Miller P.D.,Colorado Center for Bone Research | Wagman R.B.,Amgen Inc. | Wagman R.B.,Stanford University | Peacock M.,Indiana University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Context: This is a study extension to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Objective: Our objective was to describe changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers as well as safety with 6 yr of denosumab treatment. Design: We conducted an ongoing 4-yr, open-label, single-arm, extension study of a dose-ranging phase 2 trial. This paper reports a 2-yr interim analysis representing up to 6 yr of continuous denosumab treatment. Setting: This multicenter study was conducted at 23 U.S. centers. Patients: Of the 262 subjects who completed the parent study, 200 enrolled in the study extension and 178 (89%) completed the first 2 yr. Intervention: All subjects received denosumab 60 mg sc every 6 months. Main Outcome Measures:WeevaluatedBMDat the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and one third radius; biochemical markers of bone turnover; and safety, reported as adverse events. Results: Over a period of 6 yr, continuous treatment with denosumab resulted in progressive gains in BMD in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Reduction in bone resorption was sustained over the course of continuous treatment. Independent of past treatment and discontinuation period, subjects demonstrated responsiveness to denosumab therapy as measured by BMD and bone turnover markers. The safety profile of denosumab did not change over time. Conclusions: In this study, denosumab was well tolerated and effective through 6 yr of continuous treatment in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.

Bone H.G.,Michigan Bone and Mineral Clinic | Bolognese M.A.,Bethesda Health Research Center | Yuen C.K.,University of Manitoba | Kendler D.L.,Clinical Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Context: Denosumab treatment for 24 months increased bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced bone turnover markers (BTM) in postmenopausal women. Objective: The aim was to determine the effects of prior denosumab or placebo injections on BMD, BTM, and safety over 24 months after treatment discontinuation. Design: We conducted an off-treatment extension of a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel- group study. Participants: A total of 256 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 59 yr and a mean lumbar spine T-score of ≤1.61 at randomization participated in the study. Interventions: Participants received placebo or 60 mg denosumab every 6 months for 24 months, followed by 24 months off treatment. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the percentage changes in BMD and BTM, and evaluated safety. Results: Of the 256 participants enrolled in the posttreatment phase, 87% completed the study. During 24 months of denosumab treatment, BMD increased (lumbar spine, 6.4%; total hip, 3.6%; 1/3 radius, 1.4%), and BTM decreased (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, 63%; and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen, 47%),comparedwith placebo. After discontinuation, BMD declined, but the previously treated denosumab group maintained higher BMD than the previously treated placebo group at these sites (P= 0.05). Final BMD at month 48 strongly correlated with month 0 BMD. After denosumab discontinuation, BTM increased above baseline within 3 months (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen) or 6 months (N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen) and returned to baseline by month 48. Adverse event rates during the off-treatment phase were similar between groups. Conclusions: In postmenopausalwomenwith lowBMD,the effects of 60mgdenosumabtreatment for 24 months on BMD and BTM are reversible upon discontinuation, reflecting its biological mechanism of action. Residual BMD measurements remained above those of the group previously treated with placebo. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.

McClung M.R.,Oregon Osteoporosis Center | Grauer A.,Amgen Inc. | Boonen S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Bolognese M.A.,Bethesda Health Research Center | And 11 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived inhibitor of osteoblast activity. The monoclonal antibody romosozumab binds to sclerostin and increases bone formation. METHODS: In a phase 2, multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup, eight-group study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of romosozumab over a 12-month period in 419 postmenopausal women, 55 to 85 years of age, who had low bone mineral density (a T score of -2.0 or less at the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck and -3.5 or more at each of the three sites). Participants were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous romosozumab monthly (at a dose of 70 mg, 140 mg, or 210 mg) or every 3 months (140 mg or 210 mg), subcutaneous placebo, or an open-label active comparator - oral alendronate (70 mg weekly) or subcutaneous teriparatide (20 ìg daily). The primary end point was the percentage change from baseline in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine at 12 months. Secondary end points included percentage changes in bone mineral density at other sites and in markers of bone turnover. RESULTS: All dose levels of romosozumab were associated with significant increases in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, including an increase of 11.3% with the 210-mg monthly dose, as compared with a decrease of 0.1% with placebo and increases of 4.1% with alendronate and 7.1% with teriparatide. Romosozumab was also associated with large increases in bone mineral density at the total hip and femoral neck, as well as transitory increases in bone-formation markers and sustained decreases in a bone-resorption marker. Except for mild, generally nonrecurring injection-site reactions with romosozumab, adverse events were similar among groups. CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, romosozumab was associated with increased bone mineral density and bone formation and with decreased bone resorption. © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. We assessed the eff ects of AMG 145, a human monoclonal antibody against PCSK9, in patients with hypercholesterolaemia in the absence of concurrent lipid-lowering treatment. Methods In a phase 2 trial done at 52 centres in Europe, the USA, Canada, and Australia, patients (aged 18-75 years) with serum LDL-C concentrations of 2·6 mmol/L or greater but less than 4·9 mmol/L were randomly assigned equally through an interactive voice response system to subcutaneous injections of AMG 145 70 mg, 105 mg, or 140 mg, or placebo every 2 weeks; subcutaneous AMG 145 280 mg, 350 mg, or 420 mg or placebo every 4 weeks; or oral ezetimibe 10 mg/day. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in LDL-C concentration at week 12. Analysis was by modifi ed intention to treat. Study personnel and patients were masked to treatment assignment of AMG 145 or placebo. Ezetimibe assignment was open label. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, number NCT01375777. Findings 406 patients were assigned to AMG 145 70 mg (n=45), 105 mg (n=46), or 140 mg (n=45) every 2 weeks; AMG 145 280 mg (n=45), 350 mg (n=45), or 420 mg (n=45) every 4 weeks; placebo every 2 weeks (n=45) or every 4 weeks (n=45); or ezetimibe (n=45). AMG 145 signifi cantly reduced LDL-C concentrations in all dose groups (mean baseline LDL-C concentration 3·7 mmol/L [SD 0·6]; changes from baseline with every 2 weeks AMG 145 70 mg -41·0% [95% CI -46·2 to -35·8]; 105 mg -43·9% [-49·0 to -38·7]; 140 mg -50·9% [-56·2 to -45·7]; every 4 weeks AMG 145 280 mg -39·0% [-44·1 to -34·0]; 350 mg -43·2% [-48·3 to -38·1]; 420 mg -48·0% [-53·1 to -42·9]; placebo every 2 weeks -3·7% [-9·0 to 1·6]; placebo every 4 weeks 4·5% [-0·7 to 9·8]; and ezetimibe -14·7% [-18·6 to -10·8]; p<0·0001 for all doses vs placebo or ezetimibe). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 136 (50%) of 271 patients in the AMG 145 groups, 41 (46%) of 90 patients in the placebo groups, and 26 (58%) of 45 patients in the ezetimibe group; no deaths or serious treatment-related adverse events were reported. Interpretation The results of our study support the further assessment of AMG 145 in long-term studies with larger and more diverse populations including patients with documented statin intolerance.

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