Weaver K.J.,Bethel College at North Newton |
May C.J.,Bethel College at North Newton
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA). These four drugs have a total of two different mechanisms of action, and, as expected, resistance has been observed. This problem calls for new drugs with different mechanisms of action. Although there is precedence for the use of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), a free-living nematode, as a model for drug screening and anthelmintic testing, their usefulness for such anthelmintic study is not clear as past research has shown that C. elegans did not show a strong response to albendazole, the MDA drug of choice, in comparison with various STHs under similar treatment. To further examine if C. elegans has the potential to be a good model organism for anthelmintic drug study, we employed a health rating scale in order to tease out potential effects of albendazole, and other anthelmintics, that may have been missed using a binary, dead/alive scale. Using the health-rating scale we found that although the worms may have not been dying, they were sick, showing dose responses to anthelmintic drugs, including albendazole, reinforcing C. elegans as a useful model for anthelmintic study. © 2017 Weaver et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Reilly Ayala H.B.,Bethel College at North Newton |
Reilly Ayala H.B.,University of Notre Dame |
Wacker M.A.,University of Notre Dame |
Siwo G.,University of Notre Dame |
Ferdig M.T.,University of Notre Dame
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010
Background: Elevated parasite biomass in the human red blood cells can lead to increased malaria morbidity. The genes and mechanisms regulating growth and development of Plasmodium falciparum through its erythrocytic cycle are not well understood. We previously showed that strains HB3 and Dd2 diverge in their proliferation rates, and here use quantitative trait loci mapping in 34 progeny from a cross between these parent clones along with integrative bioinformatics to identify genetic loci and candidate genes that control divergences in cell cycle duration.Results: Genetic mapping of cell cycle duration revealed a four-locus genetic model, including a major genetic effect on chromosome 12, which accounts for 75% of the inherited phenotype variation. These QTL span 165 genes, the majority of which have no predicted function based on homology. We present a method to systematically prioritize candidate genes using the extensive sequence and transcriptional information available for the parent lines. Putative functions were assigned to the prioritized genes based on protein interaction networks and expression eQTL from our earlier study. DNA metabolism or antigenic variation functional categories were enriched among our prioritized candidate genes. Genes were then analyzed to determine if they interact with cyclins or other proteins known to be involved in the regulation of cell cycle.Conclusions: We show that the divergent proliferation rate between a drug resistant and drug sensitive parent clone is under genetic regulation and is segregating as a complex trait in 34 progeny. We map a major locus along with additional secondary effects, and use the wealth of genome data to identify key candidate genes. Of particular interest are a nucleosome assembly protein (PFL0185c), a Zinc finger transcription factor (PFL0465c) both on chromosome 12 and a ribosomal protein L7Ae-related on chromosome 4 (PFD0960c). © 2010 Reilly Ayala et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Drury K.L.S.,Bethel College at North Newton |
Lodge D.M.,University of Notre Dame
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology | Year: 2012
Perturbations are relatively large shocks to state variables that can drive transitions between stable states, while drift in parameter values gradually alters equilibrium magnitudes. This latter effect can lead to equilibrium bifurcation, the generation, or annihilation of equilibria. Equilibrium annihilations reduce the number of equilibria and so are associated with catastrophic population collapse. We study the combination of perturbations and parameter drift, using a two-species intraguild predation (IGP) model. For example, we use bifurcation analysis to understand how parameter drift affects equilibrium number, showing that both competition and predation rates in this model are bifurcating parameters. We then introduce a stochastic process to model the effects of population perturbations. We demonstrate how to evaluate the joint effects of perturbations and drift using the common currency of mean first passage time to transitions between stable states. Our methods and results are quite general, and for example, can relate to issues in both pest control and sustainable harvest. Our results show that parameter drift (1) does not importantly change the expected time to reach target points within a basin of attraction, but (2) can dramatically change the expected time to shift between basins of attraction, through its effects on equilibrium resilience. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Garces L.J.,University of Connecticut |
Hincapie B.,University of Connecticut |
Zerger R.,Bethel College at North Newton |
Suib S.L.,University of Connecticut
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015
In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction of unsupported CoO, and Co3O4 under different conditions of time and temperature, and the effect of lanthanum, ruthenium, or zinc doping of γ-alumina on the reduction of supported cobalt oxide. The reduction of unsupported cobalt oxide (Co3O4) produced CoO, then hexagonal close-packed Co (Co(hcp)) and at temperatures above 400 °C, only face-centered cubic Co (Co(fcc)) was obtained. However, it was possible to obtain a mixture of Co(hcp) and Co(fcc) at 450 °C only when the reduction was performed stepwise. Metallic Co(fcc) was obtained after reduction at 350 °C of supported Co3O4 on doped alumina; however, the reduction of unsupported CoO under the same conditions produced Co(hcp). Doping alumina with ruthenium oxide favors the reduction of Co3O4 to CoO and then to metallic Co(fcc). The crystal size apparently affects the phase of metallic cobalt obtained. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
PubMed | University of Alabama at Birmingham and Bethel College at North Newton
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) | Year: 2016
Philosophers down the ages have discussed gossip and rumour. Aristotle ( Ross 1995 ), Kierkegaard ( 1846 ) and Heidegger ( 1962 ) all felt that such talk was characterised primarily by its trivialising nature and its tendency to cheapen individuals, including the source of the rumour and the individual spreading it.
Piper J.K.,Bethel College at North Newton
Ecological Restoration | Year: 2014
Experimental plots were established in 2007 to examine relationships between seeding mixture treatments and establishment of tallgrass prairie plantings. Native grass and wildflower seed mixtures, representing four functional groups (C4 grasses, C3 grasses, nitrogen-fixing species, and late-flowering composites), were sown at five levels of richness-4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 species-in 900-m2 plots. Annually, I measured total cover, species richness, and evenness for target and non-target species. Plots seeded with 16 and 20 species achieved 100% target cover by the second year; plots seeded with 12 species had 100% target cover by the fourth year. Plots seeded with 8 or more species had less non-target cover than 4-species plots by the second year, a pattern that persisted. Target species richness of plots increased directly with treatment seeding richness, except there was no difference between the 16- and 20-species treatments in four of the years. Non-target species richness varied among treatments in five of seven years, with non-target richness highest in 4- and 8-species treatments. There were few treatment effects on target evenness; non-target evenness differed among years. The years 2011 through 2013 were drought years. There was no evidence that non-target cover or richness increased in any treatments during the drought, however, target cover was lower in the 12- and 16-species treatments in drought years relative to pre-drought (2010). The results, that establishment of prairie-like communities can be hastened by sowing more species at the outset, can inform grassland restorations in which diversity and persistence are key goals. ©2014 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
Davis J.M.,Baylor University |
Gravagne I.A.,Baylor University |
Marks II R.J.,Baylor University |
Ramos A.A.,Bethel College at North Newton
Proceedings of the Annual Southeastern Symposium on System Theory | Year: 2010
We revisit the canonical continuous-time and discrete-time matrix algebraic and matrix differential equations that play a central role in Lyapunov-based stability arguments. The goal is to generalize and extend these types of equations and subsequent analysis to dynamical systems on domains other than ℝ or ℤ, called "time scales", e.g. nonuniform discrete domains or domains consisting of a mixture of discrete and continuous components. In particular, we compare and contrast a generalization of the algebraic Lyapunov equation and the dynamic Lyapunov equation in this time scales setting. © IEEE 2010.
Engbers J.,Marquette University |
Hammett A.,Bethel College at North Newton
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014
The lattice of monotone triangles (Mn, ≤) ordered by entry-wise comparisons is studied. Let τmin denote the unique minimal element in this lattice, and τmax the unique maximum. The number of r-tuples of monotone triangles (τ1,..., τr) with minimal infimum τmin (maximal supremum τmax, resp.) is shown to asymptotically approach r|Mn|r-1 as n→∞. Thus, with high probability this event implies that one of theτi is τmin (τmax, resp.). Higher-order error terms are also discussed.
Abraham S.,Bethel College at North Newton
Health Care Manager | Year: 2016
Patient falls in the hospital psychiatric inpatient units are more frequent than in the medical-surgical units. The purpose of this study was to explore psychiatric unit directors' perceptions of the factors that contribute to patient falls in the State of Michigan. A quantitative online questionnaire was sent to the directors of psychiatric units in Michigan. Two research questions (RQs) guided the study: (a) What are psychiatric unit directors' perceptions of the possible intrinsic factors that contribute to patient falls in the psychiatric inpatient units, and (b) what are psychiatric unit directors' perceptions of the possible extrinsic factors that contribute to patient falls in the psychiatric inpatient units? In comparing the results, 6 of the 7 factors with the highest mean levels of agreement were intrinsic factors. In the current study, patient gait (mean, 4.65) ranked first, history of falls (mean, 4.52) second, and multiple medications (mean, 4.50) third as fall-risk factors. The need for the involvement of the team members (mean, 4.55) in preventing falls was the most highly rated factor among the extrinsic factors. Educating unit team members in assisting with fall prevention is a critical consideration for leaders. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 5.10K | Year: 2013
NSF undergraduate education programs, particularly TUES (Trnasforming Undergraduate Education in STEM), provide support for curricular innovations, basic education research, and also support applications in STEM education pedagogy, faculty development, and improvement of education assessment methods, yet few proposals for these funds are submitted in psychology. The present proposal is designed to address this problem through a workshop about NSF education programs and a showcase of projects in psychology supported by TUES. This project is centered on an invited session at the 25th annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science (APS) in Washington, DC (May 23-25). APS is the foremost disciplinary association for psychological science. This session will showcase projects that have been supported by the TUES program and function as a workshop that identifies EHR funding opportunities of possible interest to participants.