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Lindsborg, KS, United States

Yoo J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg | Simonit S.,Arizona State University | Connors J.P.,Arizona State University | Kinzig A.P.,Arizona State University | Perrings C.,Arizona State University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2014

One of the most important services provided by forests is the control of erosion. We investigated the value of forest cover in protecting water quality in five urban lakes around Prescott, AZ. We first estimated the role of forest cover in regulating sediment loadings into each lake via a sediment delivery model. We then used 8301 single-family residential property transactions that occurred between 2002 and 2005 in Prescott, AZ, to estimate a hedonic price function. This yielded an estimate of the marginal willingness-to-pay (MWTP) for avoiding 1. t of sediment per lake-acre, from which we were able to infer the marginal willingness to pay for the erosion control services associated with a 10% change in current canopy cover. We found that the marginal value of the erosion control services of forest cover varies widely across the watersheds depending on the accessibility of affected lakes, the current level of canopy cover, and the number and value of affected residential properties among other factors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Holaskova I.,West Virginia University | Franko J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg | Goodman R.L.,West Virginia University | Arnold A.P.,University of California at Los Angeles | Schafer R.,West Virginia University
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2015

Problem: The chemical propanil enhances antibody responses to a heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP) vaccine. The enhanced response is dependent on gonads in females, but independent of gonads in males. The sex differences in the immune response may be due to sexual differentiation of the immune system or sex chromosome complement. Method of study: To test the hypothesis that the immune system is sexually differentiated, newborn C57BL/6 pups were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) or placebo. The role of sex chromosome complement was investigated using the 4-core genotypes (FCG) model of XXF and XYF gonadal females (ovaries), and XXM and XYM gonadal males (testes). For some experiments, mice were gonadectomized or sham gonadectomized. All mice were vaccinated with HKSP, treated with propanil, and the antibody response determined at day seven. Results: Neonatal TP did not alter the response to HKSP. In FCG mice, propanil significantly enhanced the immune response in XXF females and XXM males, but not in XYF females or XYM males. Conclusion: The immune system of females was not masculinized by neonatal TP treatment. Sex chromosome complement significantly contributes to the sexually dimorphic immune response after propanil exposure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Dumancas G.G.,Oklahoma State University | Kimani M.,Oklahoma State University | Purdie N.,Oklahoma State University | Reilly L.,Bethany College at Lindsborg
Journal of Biotech Research | Year: 2010

We have previously exploited various chemometric algorithms for the direct determination of cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) molar concentrations in synthetic mixtures and human serum. The simple colorimetric assay used is rapid, rugged, inexpensive, and specific to the -CH=CH-CH2- group that accomplishes, in a single assay the simultaneous quantitation of cholesterol, ω-3 (methyl esters of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids), and ω-6 (methyl esters of linoleic, conjugated linoleic (CLA), and arachidonic fatty acids). Previously, ridge regression (RR), P-matrix regression (PM), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares (PLS2) successfully out-performed the K-matrix regression (KM) approach when applied to the study of prepared mixtures (synthetic sera) in chloroform solutions. In this paper, partial least squares in the form of PLS1 is investigated and applied to quantify molar concentrations of cholesterol and PUFAs in actual human serum samples. Results show that PLS1 yielded lesser root mean square errors of prediction in the calibration model, and molar concentrations comparing quite equally well with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedures.

Vongsutilers V.,West Virginia University | Phillips D.J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg | Train B.C.,West Virginia University | McKelvey G.R.,West Virginia University | And 4 more authors.
Biophysical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The B form of DNA exists in equilibrium with the Z form and is mainly affected by sequence, electrostatic interactions, and steric effects. C8-purine substitution shifts the equilibrium toward the Z form though how this interaction overcomes the unfavorable electrostatic interactions and decrease in stacking in the Z form has not been determined. Here, a series of C8-arylguanine derivatives, bearing a para-substituent were prepared and the B/Z equilibrium determined. B/Z ratios were measured by CD and conformational effects of the aryl substitution determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The para-substituent was found to have a significant effect on the B/Z DNA equilibrium caused by altering base-pair stacking of the B form and modifying the hydration/ion shell of the B form. A unique melting temperature versus salt concentration was observed and provides evidence relevant to the mechanism of B/Z conformational interconversion. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bevilacqua V.L.H.,U.S. Army | Michael Nilles J.,SAIC | Michael Nilles J.,EXCET INC. | Rice J.S.,U.S. Army | And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Biotoxin activity assays typically involve multistep sample preparation, multicomponent reactions, multistep analysis, or a combination thereof. We report a single-step, realtime ricin activity assay that requires little or no sample preparation and employs direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. The release of adenine from the inhomogeneous substrate herring sperm DNA by ricin was determined to be 53 ± 2 pmol adenine per picomole of ricin per hour. This procedure can be readily adapted to any enzyme for which a reactant or product of low molecular weight (up to ~600) can be identified. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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