Dumancas G.G.,Oklahoma State University |
Muriuki M.,Oklahoma State University |
Purdie N.,Oklahoma State University |
Reilly L.,Bethany College at Lindsborg
Journal of Biotech Research | Year: 2010
Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be detected by chromatographic methods, a low cost method to quantify PUFAs in serum samples with little to no separation or sample preparation would enable PUFAs to be monitored and detected during routine clinical serum analysis. The goal of this research project was to develop a simple, direct alternative method for the determination of the PUFAs in addition to cholesterol in human serum. The simple colorimetric assay used is rapid, rugged, inexpensive, and specific to the -C=CH-CH 2- group that accomplishes, in a single assay the simultaneous quantitation of cholesterol, ω-3 (methyl esters of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA)) fatty acids, and ω-6 (methyl esters of linoleic, conjugated linoleic (CLA), and arachidonic) fatty acids. Several chemometric models consisting of K-matrix using ordinary least squares (OLS) and non-negative least squares regression (NNLS), ridge regression K-matrix (RR), P-matrix regression (PM), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares (PLS) were introduced and applied for the direct determination of lipids in synthetic human serum models. The principal outcome was that the RR, PM, PCR, and PLS algorithms successfully out-performed the K-matrix regression approach when applied to the study of prepared mixtures (synthetic sera) in chloroform solutions. In the case of assays for intact human serum specimens, the same PLS model yielded results for ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These data compared very well for the same samples when measured using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) gold standard method. Similar results were also derived from the between-methods ω-6/ ω-3 ratios. This study has also demonstrated how chemometric algorithms might provide alternatives to separations methods for the direct determination of lipids in human serum and its synthetic models. The obvious profits from this accomplishment are the reductions in time and costs.
Holaskova I.,West Virginia University |
Franko J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg |
Goodman R.L.,West Virginia University |
Arnold A.P.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Schafer R.,West Virginia University
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2015
Problem: The chemical propanil enhances antibody responses to a heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP) vaccine. The enhanced response is dependent on gonads in females, but independent of gonads in males. The sex differences in the immune response may be due to sexual differentiation of the immune system or sex chromosome complement. Method of study: To test the hypothesis that the immune system is sexually differentiated, newborn C57BL/6 pups were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) or placebo. The role of sex chromosome complement was investigated using the 4-core genotypes (FCG) model of XXF and XYF gonadal females (ovaries), and XXM and XYM gonadal males (testes). For some experiments, mice were gonadectomized or sham gonadectomized. All mice were vaccinated with HKSP, treated with propanil, and the antibody response determined at day seven. Results: Neonatal TP did not alter the response to HKSP. In FCG mice, propanil significantly enhanced the immune response in XXF females and XXM males, but not in XYF females or XYM males. Conclusion: The immune system of females was not masculinized by neonatal TP treatment. Sex chromosome complement significantly contributes to the sexually dimorphic immune response after propanil exposure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
PubMed | University of California at Los Angeles, Bethany College at Lindsborg and West Virginia University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989) | Year: 2015
The chemical propanil enhances antibody responses to a heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP) vaccine. The enhanced response is dependent on gonads in females, but independent of gonads in males. The sex differences in the immune response may be due to sexual differentiation of the immune system or sex chromosome complement.To test the hypothesis that the immune system is sexually differentiated, newborn C57BL/6 pups were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) or placebo. The role of sex chromosome complement was investigated using the 4-core genotypes (FCG) model of XXF and XYF gonadal females (ovaries), and XXM and XYM gonadal males (testes). For some experiments, mice were gonadectomized or sham gonadectomized. All mice were vaccinated with HKSP, treated with propanil, and the antibody response determined at day seven.Neonatal TP did not alter the response to HKSP. In FCG mice, propanil significantly enhanced the immune response in XXF females and XXM males, but not in XYF females or XYM males.The immune system of females was not masculinized by neonatal TP treatment. Sex chromosome complement significantly contributes to the sexually dimorphic immune response after propanil exposure.
Bevilacqua V.L.H.,U.S. Army |
Michael Nilles J.,SAIC |
Michael Nilles J.,Excet Inc. |
Rice J.S.,U.S. Army |
And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010
Biotoxin activity assays typically involve multistep sample preparation, multicomponent reactions, multistep analysis, or a combination thereof. We report a single-step, realtime ricin activity assay that requires little or no sample preparation and employs direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. The release of adenine from the inhomogeneous substrate herring sperm DNA by ricin was determined to be 53 ± 2 pmol adenine per picomole of ricin per hour. This procedure can be readily adapted to any enzyme for which a reactant or product of low molecular weight (up to ~600) can be identified. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Petrovski D.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Novikov E.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Burns J.T.,Bethany College at Lindsborg |
Moshkin M.P.,RAS Institute of Cytology and Genetics
Chronobiology International | Year: 2010
Subterranean common mole voles, Ellobius talpinus, were implanted with long-term recording electronic thermometers to obtain hourly body temperature (Tb) data during either the wintertime or summertime. The two individuals tested during the summertime had significant circadian and ultradian rhythms in their Tb. Four of the five mole voles tested during the wintertime lacked rhythmicity in their Tb. The fifth individual lacked circadian rhythms but had ultradian rhythms in its Tb. A loss of circadian rhythms in Tb during deep torpor or hibernation has been reported for a few species of mammals. Inasmuch as the mole voles' wintertime Tb remained at euthermic levels, our results show that a loss of circadian body temperature rhythms in mole voles does not require the low Tb of deep torpor or hibernation. A tentative conclusion, based on these few animals, is that in common mole voles the Tb rhythms may disappear during the wintertime even though their Tb remains high. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.
Yoo J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg |
Ready R.C.,Pennsylvania State University
Energy Economics | Year: 2014
This study explores heterogeneity in individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a public good using several different variants of the multinomial logit (MNL) model for stated choice data. These include a simple MNL model with interaction terms between respondent characteristics and attribute levels, a latent class model, a random parameter (mixed) logit model, and a hybrid random parameter-latent class model. The public good valued was an increase in renewable electricity generation. The models consistently show that preferences over renewable technologies are heterogeneous among respondents, but that the degree of heterogeneity differs for different renewable technologies. Specifically, preferences over solar power appear to be more heterogeneous across respondents than preferences for other renewable technologies. Comparing across models, the random parameter logit model and the hybrid random parameter-latent class model fit the choice data best and did the best job capturing preference heterogeneity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Vongsutilers V.,West Virginia University |
Phillips D.J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg |
Train B.C.,West Virginia University |
McKelvey G.R.,West Virginia University |
And 4 more authors.
Biophysical Chemistry | Year: 2011
The B form of DNA exists in equilibrium with the Z form and is mainly affected by sequence, electrostatic interactions, and steric effects. C8-purine substitution shifts the equilibrium toward the Z form though how this interaction overcomes the unfavorable electrostatic interactions and decrease in stacking in the Z form has not been determined. Here, a series of C8-arylguanine derivatives, bearing a para-substituent were prepared and the B/Z equilibrium determined. B/Z ratios were measured by CD and conformational effects of the aryl substitution determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The para-substituent was found to have a significant effect on the B/Z DNA equilibrium caused by altering base-pair stacking of the B form and modifying the hydration/ion shell of the B form. A unique melting temperature versus salt concentration was observed and provides evidence relevant to the mechanism of B/Z conformational interconversion. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klasner S.A.,Kansas State University |
Price A.K.,Kansas State University |
Hoeman K.W.,Halliburton Co. |
Wilson R.S.,Kansas State University |
And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010
We report the use of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated from a novel polymer blend for the monitoring of urinary ketones, glucose, and salivary nitrite. Paper-based devices were fabricated via photolithography in less than 3 min and were immediately ready for use for these diagnostically relevant assays. Patterned channels on filter paper as small as 90 μm wide with barriers as narrow as 250 μm could be reliably patterned to permit and block fluid wicking, respectively. Colorimetric assays for ketones and nitrite were adapted from the dipstick format to this paper microfluidic chip for the quantification of acetoacetate in artificial urine, as well as nitrite in artificial saliva. Glucose assays were based on those previously demonstrated (Martinez et al., Angew Chem Int Ed 8:1318-1320, 1; Martinez et al., Anal Chem 10:3699-3707, 2; Martinez et al., Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 50:19606-19611, 3; Lu et al., Electrophoresis 9:1497-1500, 4; Abe et al., Anal Chem 18:6928-6934, 5). Reagents were spotted on the detection pad of the paper device and allowed to dry prior to spotting of samples. The ketone test was a two-step reaction requiring a derivitization step between the sample spotting pad and the detection pad, thus for the first time, confirming the ability of these paper devices to perform online multi-step chemical reactions. Following the spotting of the reagents and sample solution onto the paper device and subsequent drying, color images of the paper chips were recorded using a flatbed scanner, and images were converted to CMYK format in Adobe Photoshop CS4 where the intensity of the color change was quantified using the same software. The limit of detection (LOD) for acetoacetate in artificial urine was 0.5 mM, while the LOD for salivary nitrite was 5 μM, placing both of these analytes within the clinically relevant range for these assays. Calibration curves for urinary ketone (5 to 16 mM) and salivary nitrite (5 to 2,000 μM) were generated. The time of device fabrication to the time of test results was about 25 min. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Yoo J.,Bethany College at Lindsborg |
Simonit S.,Arizona State University |
Connors J.P.,Arizona State University |
Kinzig A.P.,Arizona State University |
Perrings C.,Arizona State University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2014
One of the most important services provided by forests is the control of erosion. We investigated the value of forest cover in protecting water quality in five urban lakes around Prescott, AZ. We first estimated the role of forest cover in regulating sediment loadings into each lake via a sediment delivery model. We then used 8301 single-family residential property transactions that occurred between 2002 and 2005 in Prescott, AZ, to estimate a hedonic price function. This yielded an estimate of the marginal willingness-to-pay (MWTP) for avoiding 1. t of sediment per lake-acre, from which we were able to infer the marginal willingness to pay for the erosion control services associated with a 10% change in current canopy cover. We found that the marginal value of the erosion control services of forest cover varies widely across the watersheds depending on the accessibility of affected lakes, the current level of canopy cover, and the number and value of affected residential properties among other factors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Vankov A.A.,Bethany College at Lindsborg
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010
Observation of neutron gravitational quantum states En=mgzn in the peV energy range (z1 is about 10μm in the vertical direction) in the experiment conducted at Laue-Langevin Institute, Grenoble, with ultracold neutrons was recently reported in a series of publications. The purpose of the present work is to analyze the experiment. The experimental apparatus is designed to measure a transmission function T(za), namely, a horizontal flux of relatively fast neutrons (kkz in wavelength terms) passing through a slit of variable height za of upper absorbing wall. The quantum states in question are defined by the so-called Airy functions, which are solutions to the stationary 1D equation for a neutron "bouncing" above the perfect mirror in a linear potential field. The Airy functions describe the quantum bouncer (QB), the concept of which is subject to theoretical study of toy 1D models of gravitationally bound particles in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (QM). This is essentially different from the 3D nonstationary QM object, "the running QB," investigated in the experiment. The authors assume that there is a connection between T(za) and the probability density distribution P(z,za) for QB states. They devised the "phenomenological model," in which the quantum pattern should be visible in the transmission curve. We argue, however, that the measured curve T(za) is not sensitive to QB states. Instead, it is sensitive to dynamics of neutron horizontal transport inside the absorbing slit for neutrons of energy values about 105 times greater than eigenvalues En. The latter are related to the neutron transverse mode kz and cannot be termed "energies of neutron gravitational quantum states." We conclude that the experiment setup and real conditions are not adequate to the claimed objective, and the methodology of measured data treatment is flawed. The authors' claim that "neutron gravitational quantum states are observed" is neither theoretically nor experimentally substantiated. Final, statistically significant results of the experiment are consistent with our physical reasoning that the experiment is not sensitive to "neutron gravitational quantum states" (in terms of Airy mode) and does not prove even their existence in rigorous quantum-mechanical terms. © 2010 The American Physical Society.