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Okuda M.,York College | Olfson M.,York College | Wang S.,York College | Rubio J.M.,The Zucker Hillside Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2015

This study presents data on the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and rates of psychiatric disorders, and other correlates. Data were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States, 18 years and older, residing in households and group quarters. The sample comprised adults who reported being in a relationship within the past 12 months (N = 25,631). Of these, 1,677 individuals reported perpetrating IPV (4.2% in men, 7.0% in women). Compared to non-IPV perpetrators, IPV perpetrators had greater odds of having any psychiatric disorder, 42.0% and 67.7%, respectively, OR = 2.89, 95% CI [2.51, 3.32]. After adjusting for the effects of nuisance variables, being younger, having an alcohol use disorder, a personality disorder, low levels of social support, and low income were associated with perpetration. Across a wide range of factors, IPV victimization itself had the strongest association with perpetration, AOR = 66.12, 95% CI [55.01, 79.48]. Mental health assessments of IPV perpetrators might offer an opportunity to identify and treat psychiatric disorders and improve the clinical course of conditions that can be affected by ongoing acts of violence. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Source

Hatzakis A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Sypsa V.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Paraskevis D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Nikolopoulos G.,Hellenic Center for Diseases Prevention and Control | And 12 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2015

Aims: To (i) describe an intervention implemented in response to the HIV-1 outbreak among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Greece (ARISTOTLE programme), (ii) assess its success in identifying and testing this population and (iii) describe socio-demographic characteristics, risk behaviours and access to treatment/prevention, estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors, as assessed at the first participation of PWIDs. Design: A 'seek, test, treat, retain' intervention employing five rounds of respondent-driven sampling. Setting: Athens, Greece (2012-13). Participants: A total of 3320 individuals who had injected drugs in the past 12 months. Intervention: ARISTOTLE is an intervention that involves reaching out to high-risk, hard-to-reach PWIDs ('seek'), engaging them in HIV testing and providing information and materials to prevent HIV ('test') and initiating and maintaining anti-retroviral and opioid substitution treatment for those testing positive ('treat' and 'retain'). Measurements: Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and personal interviews were conducted. Findings: ARISTOTLE recruited 3320 PWIDs during the course of 13.5 months. More than half (54%) participated in multiple rounds, resulting in 7113 visits. HIV prevalence was 15.1%. At their first contact with the programme, 12.5% were on opioid substitution treatment programmes and the median number of free syringes they had received in the preceding month was 0. In the multivariable analysis, apart from injection-related variables, homelessness was a risk factor for HIV infection in male PWIDs [odds ratio (OR)yes versus no=1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.41, 2.52] while, in female PWIDS, the number of sexual partners (OR for >5 versus one partner in the past year=4.12, 95% CI=1.93, 8.77) and history of imprisonment (OR yes versus no=2.76, 95% CI=1.43, 5.31) were associated with HIV. Conclusions: In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated rapid identification of a hidden population experiencing an outbreak and provided HIV testing, counselling and linkage to care. According to ARISTOTLE data, the 2011 HIV outbreak in Athens resulted in 15% HIV infection among PWID. Risk factors for HIV among PWID included homelessness in men and history of imprisonment and number of sexual partners in women. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

Chughtai M.,Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics | Mont M.A.,Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics | Cherian C.,Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics | Elmallah R.D.K.,Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Knee Surgery | Year: 2016

Introduction Certain patients continue to suffer from knee stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) despite undergoing conventional therapies. Astym therapy to these patients may offer an effective, safe, nonoperative treatment. This study evaluates the effects of Astym therapy upon (1) range of motion and (2) subjective functional improvements in post-TKA patients who suffered from stiffness recalcitrant to other nonoperative interventions. Methods Twenty-three post-TKA patients (29 knees) who had recalcitrant knee stiffness were included in this study. Pre- and post-Astym improvements in range of motion and Knee Society scores were compared. We analyzed knees based on the presence of flexion deficit or contracture. Further stratification was made into knees that received Astym therapy before and after a 3-month period of standard rehabilitation. Differences in range of motion from pre- to post-Astym were evaluated by measuring (1) degree of flexion deficit or contracture and (2) total arc of passive motion. Improvements in subjective functional status were determined by evaluating Knee Society scores pre- and post-Astym therapy. A two-tailed Student t-test was used to compare weighted mean differences from pre- to post-Astym for the above parameters. Results The mean flexion deficit improved significantly (p < 0.001) in all patients after Astym therapy. The mean flexion contracture improved significantly in (p = 0.001) in 91% of patients after Astym therapy. Knees with flexion deficits or contractures both improved in total arc of motion when compared with pretherapy. Overall, patients who underwent treatment with Astym therapy reported significant mean improvements in both Knee Society objective (80 vs. 57 points; p < 0.0001) and functional scores (80 vs. 54 points; p = 0.0003) when compared with their pretherapy objective and functional scores. No harms were reported. Conclusion Astym therapy is a novel, nonoperative treatment that may be an effective treatment option for post-TKA patients suffering from persistent knee stiffness. Further studies are needed to validate this intervention as a part of cost-effective, standard treatment after TKA. © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Vega Y.H.,Kings College London | Smith A.,Kings College London | Cockerill H.,Kings College London | Tang S.,Kings College London | And 18 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2015

Objective: The high prevalence and impact of neurodevelopmental comorbidities in childhood epilepsy are now well known, as are the increased risks and familial aggregation of reading disability (RD) and speech sound disorder (SSD) in rolandic epilepsy (RE). The risk factors for RD in the general population include male sex, SSD, and ADHD, but it is not known if these are the same in RE or whether there is a contributory role of seizure and treatment-related variables. Methods: An observational study of 108 probands with RE (age range: 3.6-22. years) and their 159 siblings (age range: 1-29. years; 83 with EEG data) were singly ascertained in the US or UK through a proband affected by RE. We used a nested case-control design, multiple logistic regression, and generalized estimating equations to test the hypothesis of an association between RD and seizure variables or antiepileptic drug treatment in RE; we also assessed an association between EEG focal sharp waves and RD in siblings. Results: Reading disability was reported in 42% of probands and 22% of siblings. Among probands, RD was strongly associated with a history of SSD (OR: 9.64, 95% CI: 2.45-37.21), ADHD symptoms (OR: 10.31, 95% CI: 2.15-49.44), and male sex (OR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.11-11.75) but not with seizure or treatment variables. Among siblings, RD was independently associated only with SSD (OR: 4.30, 95% CI: 1.42-13.0) and not with the presence of interictal EEG focal sharp waves. Significance: The principal risk factors for RD in RE are SSD, ADHD, and male sex, the same risk factors as for RD without epilepsy. Seizure or treatment variables do not appear to be important risk factors for RD in probands with RE, and there was no evidence to support interictal EEG focal sharp waves as a risk factor for RD in siblings. Future studies should focus on the precise neuropsychological characterization of RD in families with RE and on the effectiveness of standard oral-language and reading interventions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Goschin S.,Beth Israel Medical Center | Briggs J.,Beth Israel Medical Center | Blanco-Lutzen S.,Beth Israel Medical Center | Cohen L.J.,Beth Israel Medical Center | Galynker I.,Beth Israel Medical Center
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Objective: Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. Method: The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Results. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and!or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Conclusion: Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders may be effective in reducing suicidal risk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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