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Teitel M.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Garcia-Teruel M.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Alon H.,Besor Experimental Station | Gantz S.,Shaham | And 6 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The use of screenhouses in protected cultivation is nowadays a common practice in many countries. When fine mesh screens are used in the screenhouse construction, the resistance of the screens to airflow is high and ventilation rate is strongly reduced in comparison to the open field. Thus, growers tend to move to higher screenhouses since they assume that in such structures accumulation of warm and humid air near the plants is diminished. The goal of this research was to investigate, in insect-proof screenhouses, the effect of screenhouse height on air temperature. Experiments were conducted in two flat top screenhouses each of an area of 745 m2; one with a roof height of 4 m (LSH) and the other with a roof height of 6 m (HSH) with 16 m of separation between them. The houses were covered with a '50-mesh' screen which is commonly used with tomato cultivation in Israel. The daily courses of air temperature were very similar in the two houses. The average air temperature in the HSH was nearly at all times higher than in the LSH. The largest differences in temperature between the houses, of about 1°C, were observed during day; slightly lower differences were observed during night. The most significant difference between the two houses was related to the vertical gradients of temperature. The results show that the microclimate in the vertical direction appears to be more homogenous in the HSH than in the LSH.

Meiri A.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | Naftaliev B.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | Shmuel D.,Besor Experimental Station | Yechezkel H.,Besor Experimental Station | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

Drip lines were located at distances ranging from 0 to 60cm from one or both sides of a row of pepper plantlets, and we monitored the effects on their shoot development during 76 days from transplanting to full-size first fruits, on the final root system, and on the areal water and salt distributions in the upper 15-cm soil layer. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with a sandy soil, and excess fresh water (1.9Ld-1 per plant) was applied via short daily irrigations. In addition, the effects of watering distance and symmetry on the potential water uptake rate were analyzed with a coupled-source-sink steady flow and uptake model. Initial faster shoot growth with the one-side system and short distances progressively changed to faster growth with the two-side system and longer watering distances, with the optimum at 30-40cm. These temporal changes are attributed to temporal changes in the root uptake of irrigation water: small plants with small root systems benefit from the larger water supply to a smaller soil volume provided by the one-side system, whereas larger plants with greater water needs could extract more irrigation water when they developed larger, split root systems in the two-side irrigation. Balanced root systems and maximal shoot growth can be obtained by starting the irrigation with a line on each side, near the plants, and moving the lines after a short time. © 2011.

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