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Weiss T.,Ruhr University Bochum | Pesch B.,Ruhr University Bochum | Lotz A.,Ruhr University Bochum | Gutwinski E.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

The objective of this analysis was to investigate levels and determinants of exposure to airborne and urinary chromium (Cr, CrU) and nickel (Ni, NiU) among 241 welders. Respirable and inhalable welding fume was collected during a shift, and the metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In post-shift urine, CrU and NiU were measured by means of graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry, with resulting concentrations varying across a wide range. Due to a large fraction below the limits of quantitation we applied multiple imputations to the log-transformed exposure variables for the analysis of the data. Respirable Cr and Ni were about half of the concentrations of inhalable Cr and Ni, respectively. CrU and NiU were determined with medians of 1.2μg/L (interquartile range <1.00; 3.61) and 2.9μg/L (interquartile range <1.50; 5.97). Furthermore, Cr and Ni correlated in respirable welding fume (r=0.79, 95% CI 0.74-0.85) and urine (r=0.55, 95% CI 0.44-0.65). Regression models identified exposure-modulating variables in form of multiplicative factors and revealed slightly better model fits for Cr (R2 respirable Cr 48%, CrU 55%) than for Ni (R2 respirable Ni 42%, NiU 38%). The air concentrations were mainly predicted by the metal content in electrodes or base material in addition to the welding technique. Respirable Cr and Ni were good predictors for CrU and NiU, respectively. Exposure was higher when welding was performed in confined spaces or with inefficient ventilation, and lower in urine when respirators were used. In conclusion, statistical modelling allowed the evaluation of determinants of internal and external exposure to Cr and Ni in welders. Welding parameters were stronger predictors than workplace conditions. Airborne exposure was lowest inside respirators with supply of purified air. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Mewes D.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Mewes O.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Herbst P.,Berufsgenossenschaft Holz und Metall
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2011

Guards on machine tools are meant to protect persons from injuries caused by parts ejected with high kinetic energy from the machine's working zone. With respect to stationary grinding machines, Standard No. EN 13218:2002, therefore, specifies minimum wall thicknesses for guards. These values are mainly based on estimations and experience instead of systematic experimental investigations. This paper shows to what extent simple impact tests with standardizable projectiles can be used as basis for the evaluation of the impact resistance of guards, provided that not only the kinetic energy of the projectiles used but also, among others, their geometry corresponds to the abrasive product fragments to be expected.


Nies E.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz | Forchert M.,Berufsgenossenschaft Holz und Metall | Palfner S.,Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung DGUV | Bochmann F.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz | And 7 more authors.
Arbeitsmedizin Sozialmedizin Umweltmedizin | Year: 2016

The German Committee on Hazardous Substances (AGS) has developed a risk-related control scheme for carcinogens with no known toxicological effect threshold that is based on the derivation of what are known as "exposure-risk relationships" (ERR). These are used as instruments of prevention to minimise health risks and thus to prevent the development of occupational diseases. It is not possible to transfer an ERR directly into the procedure for the recognition of occupational diseases. However, information supplied by the ERR justification documents can - after a critical review - be used for individual carcinogens to estimate a guidance value or to assess causality in individual cases. This requires epidemiological data of the highest possible quality and an ERR justification paper based on the current and accepted state of science.


Skudlik C.,University of Osnabrück | Romer W.,Berufsgenossenschaft Holz und Metall | Brandenburg S.,Berufsgenossenschaft fur Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege | John S.M.,University of Osnabrück
Dermatologie in Beruf und Umwelt | Year: 2012

According to German law, severe Hymenoptera-sting allergy, acquired at the workplace, may be covered for by the statutory accident insurance under certain conditions. Depending on the circumstances of the condition it can legally either be regarded as an occupational accident or as an occupational disease. If the accident insurance is the responsible social insurance body, which will particularly be the case if e.g. beekeepers, farmers, forest workers, bakery vendors suffer from severe Hymenoptera-sting allergy, the immediate treatment as well as the long-term treatment (e.g. specific immunotherapy) and - if applicable - compensation has to be provided according to the German law (Sozialgesetzbuch VII (State Insurance Code 7), Berufskrankheitenverordnung (Decree on Occupational Diseases)) by the statutory accident insurance. © 2012 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl Feistle.


Background: The benchmark paper of 25 February 2008 and the guideline of 13 September 2010 provide the principles for rehabilitation management (RM) under the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) in the DGUV's version of 17 July 2014. Objective: A precise diagnosis and the accident insurer's knowledge of contextual factors influencing the healing process require the timely introduction of RM. Rehabilitation management presents the accident insurer with new challenges. Methods: A rethink by the official authorities regarding customer-oriented service providers is required, which is linked to new demands being made on staff. In addition to the necessary legal knowledge, social competence, communication skills, and medical knowledge are now required. The increased costs incurred by the personal contact required can only be offset by an efficient adminstrative structure and effective data handling. Results: The results of pretesting of the customer survey planned for 2015 show the participants' high level of satisfaction with RM and the rehabilitation managers. Our own analyses of the Wood and Metal Trade Association, in addition to the results of the DGUV's bench mark project “Efficiency of Case Management,” show that the RM “pays off.” With expenditure on outpatient and inpatient treatment, which in real terms decreased slightly, periods of sick leave were shortened, invalidity benefit savings were made, and the number of new pensions was reduced. Conclusion: The requirements of the DGUV's new treatment permit better collaboration between doctors and rehabilitation managers of the accident insurers. Case selection fo RM should be investigated. The principles of RM should be transferred to the processing of cases of work-related illness. Important results on the improvement of RM are expected from the customer survey starting in 2015. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Lichtenstein N.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Bernards M.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Quellmalz K.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Dettbarn G.,Biochemisches Institute For Umweltcarcinogene | And 3 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2013

Lubricating oils and greases tend to age, particularly at elevated temperatures and in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. Antioxidants are therefore added to them. Among other substances, N-phenyl1-naphthylamine and N-phenyl-2-napthylamlne used to be employed for this purpose, as is documented by various formulations used in former East Germany. Due to the production process, N-phenyl-2-naph-thylamine was contaminated with 2-naphthylamine on the scale of 1,000 mg/kg (1960) to 3 mg/kg (from 1980). Since 2-naphthylamine is a human carcinogen and lubricating greases were and still are widespread in craft firms and industry, an occupational cause is often suspected In cases of cancer of the bladder. So far, no information on 2-naphthylamine in lubricating greases has been available from manufacturers or in the literature. Employees of the measuring service of the social accident insurance institution for the wood- and metalworking industries and other social accident Insurance institutions have therefore collected samples of older lubricating greases on visits to companies, which have been analysed for their content of N-phenyl-2-naph-thylamine and 2-naphthylamine in a study programme carried out by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA).


Diepgen T.L.,Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg | Brandenburg S.,Berufsgenossenschaft fur Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege | Aberer W.,Medical University of Graz | Bauer A.,Universitatsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus | And 8 more authors.
JDDG - Journal of the German Society of Dermatology | Year: 2014

In Germany over 2.5 million employees have an increased risk of skin cancer due to their occupational exposure to natural UV-irradiation. The medical consultation board "Occupational diseases" of the Ministry of Labor and Social affairs has investigated the association between occupational UV-irradiation and skin cancer risk and recommends to add the following new occupational disease into the appendix1 of the German ordinance on occupational diseases: "Squamous cell carcinoma and multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV-irradiation". In this article we report in the view of the German Society of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology (ABD) and the German Statutory accident insurance (DGUV), whose criteria have to be fulfilled for the notification and recognition of an occupational skin cancer due to natural UV-irradiation. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Breuer D.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen | Ngazi R.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen | Van Gelder R.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen | Gabriel S.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen | And 9 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2015

Workplaces are still encountered at which a potential risk of benzene exposure exists, particularly in areas associated with the supply of petrol and other spark-ignition engine fuels to the population. A newly developed sensitive measurement method was used to measure the observance of the acceptable and tolerable concentrations of benzene during the filling of tanker vehicles, in the indoor and outdoor areas of filling stations, during maintenance work on motor vehicles, and in landscaping work involving petrol-engined equipment. The current acceptable concentration of 0.2 mg/cu m was observed at filling stations. The current acceptable concentration was also observed in the landscaping sector.


Koppisch D.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Gabriel S.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Hahn J.-U.,Institute For Arbeitsschutz Der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung Ifa | Bagschik U.,Berufsgenossenschaft Holz und Metall | And 2 more authors.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2013

Zinc and zinc compounds are used as materials in an abundance of work processes. In Production and processing, workers are exposed to zinc in fumes and dusts. To protect employees, the first limit values were set in the 1960s. In 2009, the Senate Commission for the Inspection of Health Hazards of chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission) of the German Research Society (DFG) reassessed zinc and its inorganic compunds and published two MAK (maximum workplace concentration) values. The MAK value of 2 mg/m3 refers to zinc in the inhalable fraction, and the MAK value of 0.1 mg/m3 to zinc in the respirarble fraction. This publication presents the current situation concerning exposure to zinc in the respirable fraction in the mertal industry and comprises a description of the work areas, activites and process stops in which zinc exposed value of 0.1 mg/m3 evidently cannot be complied with in all sectors of industry and work areas. These include nonferrous metal foundries, hot-dip galvanizing plants and welding workplaces.

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