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Stephenson D.,Critical Path Institute | Perry D.,Alliance for Aging Research | Bens C.,Alliance for Aging Research | Bain L.J.,40 Savits Drive | And 10 more authors.
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2014

It is acknowledged that progress in combined therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will require an unprecedented level of collaboration. At a meeting co-hosted by the Accelerate Cure/Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease Coalition and the Critical Path Institute, investigators from industry, academia and regulatory agencies agreed on the need for combinatorial approaches to treating AD. The need for advancing multiple targets includes recognition for novel adaptive trial designs that incorporate existing and new biomarkers to evaluate drug effects independently and in combination. A combination trial now being planned may test drugs targeting different pathogenic pathways or multiple targets along a common pathway. Collaborations and consortia-based strategies are pivotal for success and a regulatory framework is recommended for success. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Broglio K.R.,Berry Consultants LLC | Sandalic L.,Seattle Genetics | Albertson T.,Seattle Genetics | Berry S.M.,Berry Consultants LLC
Contemporary Clinical Trials | Year: 2015

We present a Phase I dose escalation trial design based on a modified continual reassessment method that allows for sharing of information between populations. We describe our approach in the context of a trial for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is currently being conducted. The ALL trial enrolls both adult and pediatric patient populations. Dose escalation and the determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) are performed separately for each population, but to increase efficiency, information about the dose-toxicity curve is shared. Dose escalation rules allow pediatric patients to skip dose levels provided safety has been shown in adults and the dose level is estimated to be safe for pediatric patients. Trial objectives are to efficiently determine the MTD for each population and to minimize the number of pediatric patients required for dose escalation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Stynes G.,Glaxosmithkline | Svedsater H.,Glaxosmithkline | Wex J.,Glaxosmithkline | Lettis S.,Glaxosmithkline | And 4 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2015

Background: Fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 mcg is a once-daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting beta2 agonist (LABA) treatment approved in the United States, Canada and Europe for the long-term maintenance therapy of COPD. We report data from mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) of once-daily FF/VI against established twice-daily ICS/LABA combination therapies on clinical efficacy outcomes.Methods: Data from 33 parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ICS/LABAs, of ≥8 weeks' duration in patients ≥12 years of age with COPD, identified by systematic review, were analysed using covariate-adjusted Bayesian hierarchical models for three efficacy outcomes. Lung function, assessed by change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), was the outcome of primary interest (n = 28 studies). Secondary objectives were assessment of annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations (n = 15) and patient-reported health status, measured by change from baseline in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) Total score (n = 20). Overall, 25 different treatments were included in the MTC; we report findings, including probabilities of non-inferiority, for comparisons of once-daily FF/VI 100/25 mcg with twice-daily fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) 500/50 mcg and budesonide (BUD)/formoterol (FORM) 400/12 mcg.Results: For FEV1, FF/VI 100/25 mcg demonstrated >99% probability of non-inferiority to FP/SAL 500/50 mcg and BUD/FORM 400/12 mcg using a 50 mL margin. For annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations, FF/VI 100/25 mcg demonstrated 73% and 77% probability of non-inferiority to FP/SAL 500/50 mcg and BUD/FORM 400/12 mcg, respectively, using a 10% rate ratio margin. For SGRQ Total score, the corresponding probabilities of non-inferiority were 99% and 98%, respectively, on a 2-unit margin. Significant covariate effects were identified: increased age was associated with deterioration in FEV1 and reduced exacerbation frequency; shorter study duration was associated with reduced exacerbation frequency.Conclusions: FF/VI 100/25 mcg was comparable with corresponding doses of FP/SAL and BUD/FORM on lung function and health status outcomes. Non-inferiority on moderate/severe exacerbation rate was not demonstrated to the same degree of confidence, though observed rates were similar. Model limitations include a weak treatment network for the exacerbation analysis and variability across the included studies. Our data support previous RCT findings suggesting that the efficacy of FF/VI 100/25 mcg on lung function and health status in COPD is comparable with twice-daily ICS/LABAs. © 2015 Stynes et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Broglio K.R.,Berry Consultants LLC | Stivers D.N.,Alere Inc | Berry D.A.,Berry Consultants LLC | Berry D.A.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
Trials | Year: 2014

Background: Announcements of interim analyses of a clinical trial convey information about the results beyond the trial's Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The amount of information conveyed may be minimal, but the fact that none of the trial's stopping boundaries has been crossed implies that the experimental therapy is neither extremely effective nor hopeless. Predicting success of the ongoing trial is of interest to the trial's sponsor, the medical community, pharmaceutical companies, and investors. We determine the probability of trial success by quantifying only the publicly available information from interim analyses of an ongoing trial. We illustrate our method in the context of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel (NSABP) trial, C-08.Methods: We simulated trials based on the specifics of the NSABP C-08 protocol that were publicly available. We quantified the uncertainty around the treatment effect using prior weights for the various possibilities in light of other colon cancer studies and other studies of the investigational agent, bevacizumab. We considered alternative prior distributions.Results: Subsequent to the trial's third interim analysis, our predictive probabilities were: that the trial would eventually be successful, 48.0%; would stop for futility, 7.4%; and would continue to completion without statistical significance, 44.5%. The actual trial continued to completion without statistical significance.Conclusions: Announcements of interim analyses provide information outside the DSMB's sphere of confidentiality. This information is potentially helpful to clinical trial prognosticators. 'Information leakage' from standard interim analyses such as in NSABP C-08 is conventionally viewed as acceptable even though it may be quite revealing. Whether leakage from more aggressive types of adaptations is acceptable should be assessed at the design stage. © 2014 Broglio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lenz R.A.,Abbvie Inc. | Pritchett Y.L.,Abbvie Inc. | Berry S.M.,Berry Consultants LLC | Llano D.A.,Abbvie Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders | Year: 2015

ABT-089, an α 4 β 2 neuronal nicotinic receptor partial agonist, was evaluated for efficacy and safety in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients receiving stable doses of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This phase 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept, and dose-finding study adaptively randomized patients to receive ABT-089 (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, or 35 mg once daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, cognition subscale (ADAS-Cog) total score. A Bayesian response-adaptive randomization algorithm dynamically assigned allocation probabilities based on interim ADAS-Cog total scores. A normal dynamic linear model for dose-response relationships and a longitudinal model for predicting final ADAS-cog score were employed in the algorithm. Stopping criteria for futility or success were defined. The futility stopping criterion was met, terminating the study with 337 patients randomized. No dose-response relationship was observed and no dose demonstrated statistically significant improvement over placebo on ADAS-Cog or any secondary endpoint. ABT-089 was well tolerated at all dose levels. When administered as adjunctive therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, ABT-089 was not efficacious in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. The adaptive study design enabled the examination of a broad dose range, enabled rapid determination of futility, and reduced patient exposure to nonefficacious doses of the investigational compound. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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