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Freyer F.,Bernstein Focus State Dependencies of Learning and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience | Freyer F.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Roberts J.A.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Ritter P.,Bernstein Focus State Dependencies of Learning and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology

Multistability and scale-invariant fluctuations occur in a wide variety of biological organisms from bacteria to humans as well as financial, chemical and complex physical systems. Multistability refers to noise driven switches between multiple weakly stable states. Scale-invariant fluctuations arise when there is an approximately constant ratio between the mean and standard deviation of a system's fluctuations. Both are an important property of human perception, movement, decision making and computation and they occur together in the human alpha rhythm, imparting it with complex dynamical behavior. Here, we elucidate their fundamental dynamical mechanisms in a canonical model of nonlinear bifurcations under stochastic fluctuations. We find that the co-occurrence of multistability and scale-invariant fluctuations mandates two important dynamical properties: Multistability arises in the presence of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, which generates co-existing attractors, whilst the introduction of multiplicative (state-dependent) noise ensures that as the system jumps between these attractors, fluctuations remain in constant proportion to their mean and their temporal statistics become long-tailed. The simple algebraic construction of this model affords a systematic analysis of the contribution of stochastic and nonlinear processes to cortical rhythms, complementing a recently proposed biophysical model. Similar dynamics also occur in a kinetic model of gene regulation, suggesting universality across a broad class of biological phenomena. © 2012 Freyer et al. Source

Matzke H.,Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences | Matzke H.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Matzke H.,Bernstein Focus State Dependencies of Learning and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience | Schirner M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 20 more authors.
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics

The Virtual Brain (TVB; thevirtualbrain.org) is a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulation based on individual anatomical connectivity data. The framework addresses clinical and neuroscientific questions by simulating multi-scale neural dynamics that range from local population activity to large-scale brain function and related macroscopic signals like electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. TVB is equipped with a graphical and a command-line interface to create models that capture the characteristic biological variability to predict the brain activity of individual subjects. To enable researchers from various backgrounds a quick start into TVB and brain network modeling in general, we developed an educational module: TVB-EduPack. EduPack offers two educational functionalities that seamlessly integrate into TVB’s graphical user interface (GUI): (i) interactive tutorials introduce GUI elements, guide through the basic mechanics of software usage and develop complex use-case scenarios; animations, videos and textual descriptions transport essential principles of computational neuroscience and brain modeling; (ii) an automatic script generator records model parameters and produces input files for TVB’s Python programming interface; thereby, simulation configurations can be exported as scripts that allow flexible customization of the modeling process and self-defined batch- and post-processing applications while benefitting from the full power of the Python language and its toolboxes. This article covers the implementation of TVB-EduPack and its integration into TVB architecture. Like TVB, EduPack is an open source community project that lives from the participation and contribution of its users. TVB-EduPack can be obtained as part of TVB from thevirtualbrain.org. © 2015 Matzke, Schirner, Vollbrecht, Rothmeier, Llarena, Rojas, Triebkorn, Domide, Mersmann, Solodkin, Jirsa, McIntosh and Ritter. Source

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