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Michailov M.L.,National Sports Academy | Morrison A.,Bern Medical | Ketenliev M.M.,Directorate of Control and Management of Sports Preparation | Pentcheva B.P.,Directorate of Control and Management of Sports Preparation
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2015

Traditional treadmill or bicycle ergometry neglects the upper-body musculature that predominantly limits or terminates rock-climbing performance (ie, the inability to continually pull up one's body mass or "hang on"). Purpose: To develop an incremental maximal upper-body ergometer test (UBT) to evaluate climbers' aerobic fitness and sport-specific work capacity and to compare these results with a traditional treadmill protocol. Methods: Eleven elite sport climbers (best redpoint grade Fr.8b) performed a UBT on a vertically mounted rowing ergometer and, on a separate occasion, performed a maximal incremental treadmill test (TMT). Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured continuously. Lactate (La) samples were collected. Results: Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and heart rate in UBT and TMT were 34.1 ± 4.1 vs 58.3 ± 2.6 mL · min-1 · kg-1 and 185 ± 8 vs 197 ± 8 beats/min, respectively, and both variables were of significantly lower magnitude during UBT (P < .001). End-of-test La levels for UBT (11.9 ± 1.7 mmol/L) and TMT (12.3 ± 2.5 mmol/L) were similar (P = .554). Treadmill VO2peak was not correlated with either upper-body (UB) VO2peak (P = .854) or redpoint and on-sight climbing grade ability (P > .05). UB VO2peak and peak power output per kg body mass were both strongly correlated (P < .05) with climbing grade ability. The highest correlation coefficient was calculated between current on-sight grade and UB VO2peak (r = .85, P = .001). Conclusion: UBT aerobic- and work-capacity results were strongly correlated to climbing-performance variables and reflected sport-specific fatigue, and TMT results were not. UBT is preferred to TMT to test and monitor dedicated and elite rock climbers' training status. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Muller M.,University of Zurich | Vetter S.,University of Zurich | Buchli-Kammermann J.,University of Basel | Stieglitz R.-D.,University of Basel | And 2 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010

Background: Early detection of psychosis is an important issue in current research. Early intervention helps to improve the outcome of the disorder. Therefore, a comprehensive examination in large populations, necessary as it might be, is economically almost not feasible. A screening via self-report is more practicable as it helps focus on individuals with high symptom loads. Aim: To examine aspects of validity of the Self-screen-Prodrome (SPro) as a new screening tool for prodromal states of psychosis in a military sample. Method: 938 Swiss conscripts were assessed with the SPro, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia-Inventory (ESI) and the Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Conscripts with potential psychosis-like pathology (T-transformed Severity Index of the SCL-90-R-subscales Psychoticism [PSYC] and Paranoid Ideation [PARA]≥63) were compared with those not meeting the criteria of this condition (non-cases). Results: Both groups (cases and non-cases) showed significant differences in their mean scores on SPro and ESI, although only the SPro had satisfactory effect sizes. In hierarchic logistic regression models the SPro turned out to be highly predictive for caseness while ESI-scales were not significant. A cut-off score of ≥ 2 on the SPro subscale for psychotic risk (SPro-Psy-Risk) was found to identify caseness best with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 61%. Conclusion: The SPro has proven to be a valid and very economic screening tool for general and prodromal pathology in large populations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Guttormsen S.,Bern Medical
Swiss medical weekly | Year: 2013

A new Swiss federal licencing examination for human medicine (FLE) was developed and released in 2011. This paper describes the process from concept design to the first results obtained on implementation of the new examination. The development process was based on the Federal Act on University Medical Professions and involved all national stakeholders in this venture. During this process questions relating to the assessment aims, the assessment formats, the assessment dimensions, the examination content and necessary trade-offs were clarified. The aims were to create a feasible, fair, valid and psychometrically sound examination in accordance with international standards, thereby indicating the expected knowledge and skills level at the end of undergraduate medical education. Finally, a centrally managed and locally administered examination comprising a written multiple-choice element and a practical " clinical skills" test in the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) format was developed. The first two administrations of the new FLE show that the examination concept could be implemented as intended. The anticipated psychometric indices were achieved and the results support the validity of the examination. Possible changes to the format or content in the future are discussed.

Claus C.,University of Bern | Riether C.,University of Bern | Schurch C.,University of Bern | Matter M.S.,University of Bern | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Signaling of the TNF receptor superfamily member CD27 activates costimulatory pathways to elicit T- and B-cell responses. CD27 signaling is regulated by the expression of its ligand CD70 on subsets of dendritic cells and lymphocytes. Here, we analyzed the role of the CD27-CD70 interaction in the immunologic control of solid tumors in Cd27-deficient mice. In tumor-bearing wild-type mice, the CD27-CD70 interaction increased the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced tumor-specific T-cell responses, increased angiogenesis, and promoted tumor growth. CD27 signaling reduced apoptosis of Tregs in vivo and induced CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to produce interleukin-2, a key survival factor for Tregs. Consequently, the frequency of Tregs and growth of solid tumors were reduced in Cd27-deficient mice or in wild-type mice treated with monoclonal antibody to block CD27 signaling. Our findings, therefore, provide a novel mechanism by which the adaptive immune system enhances tumor growth and may offer an attractive strategy to treat solid tumors. ©2012 AACR.

Bonadonna P.,Allergy Unit | Zanotti R.,Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata of Verona | Muller U.,Bern Medical
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Purpose of Review: To analyse the association of systemic allergic hymenoptera sting reactions with mastocytosis and elevated baseline serum tryptase and to discuss diagnosis and treatment in patients with both diseases. Recent findings: In recent large studies on patients with mastocytosis a much higher incidence of severe anaphylaxis following hymenoptera stings than in the normal population was documented. In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy, elevated baseline tryptase is strongly associated with severe anaphylaxis. Fatal sting reactions were reported in patients with mastocytosis, notably after stopping venom immunotherapy. During venom immunotherapy most patients with mastocytosis are protected from further sting reactions. Based on these observations immunotherapy for life is recommended for patients with mastocytosis and venom allergy. The incidence of allergic side-effects is increased in patients with mastocytosis and elevated baseline tryptase, especially in those allergic to Vespula venom. Premedication with antihistamines, or omalizumab in cases with recurrent severe side-effects, can be helpful. Summary: In all patients with anaphylaxis following hymenoptera stings, baseline serum tryptase should be determined. A value above 11.4 μg/l is often due to mastocytosis and indicates a high risk of very severe anaphylaxis following re-stings. Venom immunotherapy is safe and effective in this situation. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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