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Berlin, Germany

Schimmelpfennig S.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Kirillin G.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Engelhardt C.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Nutzmann G.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Dunnbier U.,Berlin Water Company
Water Research

Lake Tegel (Berlin, Germany) is controlled by two main inflows: inflow #1 (River Havel) is heavily phosphorus-laden, whereas inflow #2 is an artificial confluence that includes discharge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant distinguished by high levels of phosphorus and pharmaceuticals. To reduce the phosphorus load on the lake, a phosphorus elimination plant (PEP) is situated at inflow #2. Moreover, the two inflows are short-circuited by a pipeline that transfers part of the inflow #1 water to the PEP and finally releases it into inflow #2. The pipeline and the PEP have contributed to a continuous reduction in the total phosphorus concentration of Lake Tegel in the past 25 years. We investigate the question of whether the existing lake pipeline can also be used to reduce the amount of pharmaceuticals in Lake Tegel originating from inflow #2 by dilution with water from River Havel, by diverting part of inflow #2 around the lake, or by a combination of both strategies. The circulation pattern of Lake Tegel is complicated by complex bathymetry and numerous islands and is therefore highly sensitive to winds. We tested seven different management scenarios by hydrodynamic modeling for a period of 16 years with the two-dimensional version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). None of the scenarios provided a strategy optimal for both pharmaceuticals and phosphorus. Nonetheless, compound regimes, such as alternating the pipe flow direction or adding another pipeline, allowed the most abundant pharmaceutical (carbamazepine) to be reduced while maintaining the current phosphorus level. This study demonstrates the ability of immediate lake regulation measures to maintain water quality. In the case of Lake Tegel, the pipeline can be fully effective with regard to pharmaceuticals only in combination with additional efforts such as advanced pharmaceutical treatment of wastewater and/or phosphorus reduction in the River Havel catchment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wiese B.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Massmann G.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Massmann G.,Free University of Berlin | Jekel M.,TU Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Water Research

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provides efficient removal for many organic compounds and sum parameters. However, observed in situ removal efficiencies tend to scatter and cannot be predicted easily. In this paper, a method is introduced which allows to identify and eliminate biased samples and to quantify simultaneously the impact of (i) redox conditions (ii) kinetics (iii) residual threshold values below which no removal occurs and (iv) field site specifics. It enables to rule out spurious correlations between these factors and therefore improves the predictive power. The method is applied to an extensive database from three MAR field sites which was compiled in the NASRI project (2002-2005, Berlin, Germany). Removal characteristics for 38 organic parameters are obtained, of which 9 are analysed independently in 2 different laboratories. Out of these parameters, mainly pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) but also sum parameters and industrial chemicals, four compounds are shown to be readily removable whereas six are persistent. All partly removable compounds show a redox dependency and most of them reveal either kinetic dependencies or residual threshold values, which are determined. Differing removal efficiencies at different field sites can usually be explained by characteristics (i) to (iii). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hass U.,Free University of Berlin | Hass U.,Berlin Water Company | Dunnbier U.,Berlin Water Company | Massmann G.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Pekdeger A.,Free University of Berlin
Analytical Methods

An analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six psychoactive compounds (meprobamate, primidone, phenobarbital, pyrithyldione, diazepam, and oxazepam) and a metabolite of primidone (phenylethylmalonamide) in environmental water samples. The method involves pre-concentration and clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), using electrospray ionization (ESI) in both positive and negative modes. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.02 and 0.03 g L -1 in groundwater and between 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 in wastewater. With a few exceptions, relative recoveries of the analytes exceeded 80%. The described method was used to analyze the selected psychoactive drugs in groundwater that had been affected by sewage irrigation for several decades ago and treated and untreated wastewater from Berlin (Germany). Highest values were found in groundwater with concentrations reaching up to 1.35 g L-1 in the case of phenobarbital. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Schimmelpfennig S.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Schimmelpfennig S.,Berlin Water Company | Kirillin G.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Engelhardt C.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences

Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment have become important because of the risk of harmful effects to ecosystem and drinking water abstraction. This is also the case in shallow dimictic Lake Tegel, located in the city area of Berlin, Germany. Here, drinking water is produced via bank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge, and concurrently, a substantial anthropogenic load takes place by micro-pollutants from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The measured mean daily loads of 260 g d−1 carbamazepine, 180 g d−1 diclofenac and 60 g d−1 sulfamethoxazole results in the highest so far reported concentrations from natural waters, which are used as a drinking water resource. In the present study the spatial horizontal and vertical distribution and elimination of these three pharmaceuticals are quantified with the help of high-resolution sampling in Lake Tegel and its entire major in- and outflows. Monthly mass balances are modelled and substance-specific zero-order elimination rates are derived. Diclofenac showed the strongest elimination and revealed a significant seasonality with 50 % elimination in winter, and 95 % in summer. Elimination of carbamazepine was about 40 %; sulfamethoxazole did not degrade at determinable rates. Based on a basic plug-flow approach, a pseudo first-order elimination rate for diclofenac in summer (0.058 d−1, half-life 12 days) was calculated from horizontal concentration gradient. Apart from presenting the current state of pharmaceuticals pollution in Lake Tegel, results demonstrate the importance of lake-specific mechanisms, such as inflow–outflow balances and seasonal density stratification for the transport of micro-pollutants. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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