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Hu N.,University of Western Australia | Glauert R.A.,University of Western Australia | Li J.,University of Western Australia | Li J.,Berlin Social Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Objective: The risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm peaks in the first 7 days after a deliberate self-harm episode. However, thus far no studies have examined the risk factors for repeating deliberate self-harm during this short-term period. We aimed to investigate the effects of socio-demographic factors, self-harm method and mental health factors in adolescents (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old). Methods: We used data linkage of population-wide administrative records from hospital inpatients and emergency departments to identify all the deliberate self-harm-related episodes that occurred in adolescents and young adults in Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used for the analyses. Results: The incidence of repeating deliberate self-harm within the first 7 days after an index episode was 6% (403/6,768) in adolescents and 8% (842/10,198) in young adults. Socio-demographic risk factors included female gender and socioeconomic disadvantage. Compared with non-poisoning, self-poisoning predicted increased risk of having a repeated deliberate self-harm episode in males, but not in females. Borderline personality, impulse-control and substance use disorders diagnosed within one week before and one week after an index deliberate self-harm episode conferred the highest risk, followed by depressive and anxiety disorders. Having a preceding deliberate self-harm episode up to 7 days before an index episode was a strong predictor for the future repetition of a deliberate self-harm episode. Conclusion: Having a repeated deliberate self-harm episode within the first 7 days was related to a wide range of factors present at an index deliberate self-harm episode including socio-demographic characteristics, deliberate self-harm method and co-existing psychiatric conditions. These factors can inform risk assessments tailored to adolescents and young adults respectively to reduce the repetition of deliberate self-harm within a short but critical period, potentially contributing to reduce the repetition of deliberate self-harm in the long term. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016. Source

Nyaradi A.,University of Western Australia | Li J.,University of Western Australia | Li J.,Berlin Social Science Center | Li J.,Curtin University Australia | And 7 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2016

Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between early diet and academic performance during childhood. Methods Participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 2287). Frequency of consumption of food and beverages was collected at the one-, two- and three-year follow-ups, using a 24-hour food recall. Diet scores were developed from the number of eating occasions. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) data from grades five (age 10) and seven (age 12) were linked to the Raine study using The Western Australian Data Linkage System. The association between diet scores and WALNA scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Results A higher (i.e. better quality) diet score at one year of age was associated with significantly higher scores in mathematics, reading, writing and spelling at both grades five and seven. Associations were observed between a higher diet score at two years and academic scores for mathematics, writing and spelling at grade seven. Higher dairy consumption at ages one, two and three, and higher fruit consumption at age one were associated with higher academic scores at all ages. Conclusion Quality of early diet may be a predictor for later academic achievement. ©2015 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Brady D.,Berlin Social Science Center | Lee H.Y.,Duke University
Journal of European Social Policy | Year: 2014

One of the enduring conclusions of political economy is that the government's share of the economy tends to grow over time and with a rising gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Yet, from the late 1980s through to 2008, government spending as a percentage of GDP declined in the typical year in affluent democracies. Synthesizing and building on literatures on the welfare state, state size and neoliberalism, we evaluate three explanations for the expansion and retrenchment of government spending as a percentage of GDP. We estimate fixed effects models of three measures of changes and cuts in government spending. In the full sample 1971-2008, changes and cuts were driven by the structural pressures of unemployment and trade openness, and the institutional factor of the adoption of the Euro. However, this conceals important historical variation. In the earlier period of expansion, the power resource of unionization was the most robust influence. In the later period of retrenchment, changes and cuts were shaped by the adoption of the Euro and a set of structural pressures. In contrast to previous research, changes and cuts in government spending are not associated with a country's GDP per capita after the mid-1980s. We conclude by discussing implications for the welfare state and neoliberalism, and by encouraging caution for universal theories of state size. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Canzler W.,Berlin Social Science Center | Wittowsky D.,ILS Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development gGmbH
Utilities Policy | Year: 2016

Politically-driven climate protection targets call for decarbonization and a massive reduction of total energy consumption by 2050. A comprehensive transformation of existing transport systems and individual mobility is needed to achieve this. There will be no energy transition ("Energiewende") without a transport transition. Electromobility provides great savings compared to fossil-fueled transport. In addition information and communication technologies (ICT) have become a key factor of innovation and inter- and multimodality. With all structural changes (e.g. industrial restructuring or social change), converting existing organizational forms and mobility evokes conflicts. For example, competing spatial requirements of the energy sector and mobility as well as the exclusion of certain categories of persons are to be expected. Indeed, the transformation process is slowed down by shortcomings in the combination of energy and transport technologies, organizational culture and regulations. A number of questions still remain unanswered. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zachmann G.,BRUEGEL | Zachmann G.,Berlin Social Science Center | Peruzzi M.,BRUEGEL
Green Energy and Technology | Year: 2015

Low-carbon energy technologies are pivotal for decarbonising our economies up to 2050 and being able to at the same time ensure secure and affordable energy supplies. Consequently, innovation that reduces the cost of low-carbon energy sources would play an important role in reducing the cost of the transition. In this paper we want to assess the two most prominent innovation policy instruments (i) public research, development and demonstration (RD&D) subsidies and (ii) public deployment policies. Using a Lasso-regression we are able to select a model that is best able to perform in-sample predictions of patenting behaviour and international competitiveness in 28 OECD countries over 20 years. This approach allows including two dozen variables as well as a wide range of lags of the variables and interactions between them—in total some 47,000 variables. Our results indicate that both deployment and RD&D coincide with increasing knowledge generation and improving competitiveness of renewable energy technologies. According to our estimates, if Germany had invested one standard deviation more in deployment and RD&D support for wind technology than it actually did from 2000 on, the number of German wind patents would have been 166% higher in 2009. If it only increased deployment the number of patents would have been 20% higher and if it only increased RD&D the number of patents would have been 122% higher. This indicates two things. First, both support schemes together have a higher effect than the two individually. And second, RD&D support is unsurprisingly more effective in driving patents. Thereby, timing matters. Current wind deployment based on past wind RD&D spending coincides best with wind patenting. If we look into competitiveness we find a similar picture. A hypothetical increase in German deployment and RD&D support for wind technology by one standard deviation from 2000 on would according to our estimates, coincide with an improvement from 8th to 7th position in terms of revealed comparative advantage of German wind turbines on the world market. Thereby, the largest effect comes from deployment. Finally, we find significant cross-border effects, especially for wind deployment. Increasing deployment in one country coincides with increasing patenting in near-by countries. Based on the above-presented findings we argue that both deployment and RD&D support are needed to create innovation in renewable energy technologies. However, we worry that current support is unbalanced. Public spending on deployment has been two orders of magnitude larger (in 2010 about 48 bn Euro in the five largest EU countries in 2010) than spending on RD&D support (about 315 mn Euro). Consequently, basing the policy mix more on empirical evidence could increase the efficiency of innovation policy targeted towards renewable energy technologies. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source

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