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Frindte K.,University of Bonn | Allgaier M.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research nDiv | Grossart H.-P.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Grossart H.-P.,University of Potsdam | Eckert W.,Israel Oceanographic And Limnological Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The sediment-water interface of freshwater lakes is characterized by sharp chemical gradients, shaped by the interplay between physical, chemical and microbial processes. As dissolved oxygen is depleted in the uppermost sediment, the availability of alternative electron acceptors, e.g. nitrate and sulfate, becomes the limiting factor. We performed a time series experiment in a mesocosm to simulate the transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions at the sediment-water interface. Our goal was to identify changes in the microbial activity due to redox transitions induced by successive depletion of available electron acceptors. Monitoring critical hydrochemical parameters in the overlying water in conjunction with a new sampling strategy for sediment bacteria enabled us to correlate redox changes in the water to shifts in the active microbial community and the expression of functional genes representing specific redox-dependent microbial processes. Our results show that during several transitions from oxic-heterotrophic condition to sulfate-reducing condition, nitrate-availability and the on-set of sulfate reduction strongly affected the corresponding functional gene expression. There was evidence of anaerobic methane oxidation with NOx. DGGE analysis revealed redox-related changes in microbial activity and expression of functional genes involved in sulfate and nitrite reduction, whereas methanogenesis and methanotrophy showed only minor changes during redox transitions. The combination of high-frequency chemical measurements and molecular methods provide new insights into the temporal dynamics of the interplay between microbial activity and specific redox transitions at the sediment-water interface. © 2015 Frindte et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research nDiv | Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rusek J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2015

Next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are replacing traditional molecular biology protocols like cloning and Sanger sequencing. However, accuracy of NGS platforms has rarely been measured when quantifying relative frequencies of genotypes or taxa within populations. Here we developed a new bioinformatic pipeline (QRS) that pools similar sequence variants and estimates their frequencies in NGS data sets from populations or communities. We tested whether the estimated frequency of representative sequences, generated by 454 amplicon sequencing, differs significantly from that obtained by Sanger sequencing of cloned PCR products. This was performed by analysing sequence variation of the highly variable first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of the ichthyosporean Caullerya mesnili, a microparasite of cladocerans of the genus Daphnia. This analysis also serves as a case example of the usage of this pipeline to study within-population variation. Additionally, a public Illumina data set was used to validate the pipeline on community-level data. Overall, there was a good correspondence in absolute frequencies of C. mesnili ITS1 sequences obtained from Sanger and 454 platforms. Furthermore, analyses of molecular variance (amova) revealed that population structure of C. mesnili differs across lakes and years independently of the sequencing platform. Our results support not only the usefulness of amplicon sequencing data for studies of within-population structure but also the successful application of the QRS pipeline on Illumina-generated data. The QRS pipeline is freely available together with its documentation under GNU Public Licence version 3 at http://code.google.com/p/quantification-representative-sequences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Mayer J.,Saarland University | Mazzoni C.J.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research nDiv | Mazzoni C.J.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Greenwood A.D.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research
Virus Research | Year: 2012

It has recently been reported that the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) derives from a laboratory recombinant. However, sequences with characteristics of the 5' half of XMRV (termed PreXMRV-2) have been identified in several laboratory mouse genomes and cell lines suggesting parts of the XMRV genome exist as naturally occurring retroviruses in mice. We compare here PreXMRV-2 gag sequence diversity in mice to that of reported XMRV-like sequences by testing a panel of wild mouse and common inbred laboratory mouse strain genomic DNAs and by using high throughput amplicon sequencing. Sequences with features typical of previously reported PreXMRV-2 sequences, among them a 24 nt deletion, were repeatedly identified in different wild mice and inbred mouse strains within a high background of non-XMRV-like sequences. However, Sanger sequencing of clones from amplicons failed to retrieve such sequences effectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PreXMRV-2 gag sequences from mice, cell lines and patient samples belong to the same evolutionarily young clade and that such sequences are diverse and widespread within Mus musculus domesticus and laboratory mice derived from this species. No evidence of PreXMRV-2 like gag sequences could be obtained outside of the M. musculus lineage. The results suggest that accurate determination of presence, absence and relationships of specific murine retroviral strains benefit greatly from deep sequencing analysis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research nDiv | Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rusek J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 12 more authors.
Zoology | Year: 2016

Studies of parasite population dynamics in natural systems are crucial for our understanding of host-parasite coevolutionary processes. Some field studies have reported that host genotype frequencies in natural populations change over time according to parasite-driven negative frequency-dependent selection. However, the temporal patterns of parasite genotypes have rarely been investigated. Moreover, parasite-driven negative frequency-dependent selection is contingent on the existence of genetic specificity between hosts and parasites. In the present study, the population dynamics and host-genotype specificity of the ichthyosporean Caullerya mesnili, a common endoparasite of Daphnia water fleas, were analysed based on the observed sequence variation in the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of the ribosomal DNA. The Daphnia population of lake Greifensee (Switzerland) was sampled and subjected to parasite screening and host genotyping during C. mesnili epidemics of four consecutive years. The ITS1 of wild-caught C. mesnili-infected Daphnia was sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. The relative frequencies of C. mesnili ITS1 sequences differed significantly among years: the most abundant C. mesnili ITS1 sequence decreased and rare sequences increased over the course of the study, a pattern consistent with negative frequency-dependent selection. However, only a weak signal of host-genotype specificity between C. mesnili and Daphnia genotypes was detected. Use of cutting edge genomic techniques will allow further investigation of the underlying micro-evolutionary relationships within the Daphnia-C. mesnili system. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH.

Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research nDiv | Gonzalez-Tortuero E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rusek J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 8 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Microsporidia are spore-forming obligate intracellular parasites that include both emerging pathogens and economically important disease agents. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of microsporidia. Here, we investigated patterns of geographic population structure, intraspecific genetic variation, and recombination in two microsporidian taxa that commonly infect cladocerans of the Daphnia longispina complex in central Europe. Taken together, this information helps elucidate the reproductive mode and life-cycles of these parasite species. Methods: Microsporidia-infected Daphnia were sampled from seven drinking water reservoirs in the Czech Republic. Two microsporidia species (Berwaldia schaefernai and microsporidium lineage MIC1) were sequenced at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Geographical structure analyses were performed applying Fisher's exact tests, analyses of molecular variance, and permutational MANOVA. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the ITS region, the number of polymorphic sites and Tajima's and Watterson's estimators of theta were calculated. Tajima's D was also used to determine if the ITS in these taxa evolved neutrally. Finally, neighbour similarity score and pairwise homology index tests were performed to detect recombination events. Results: While there was little variation among Berwaldia parasite strains infecting different host populations, the among-population genetic variation of MIC1 was significant. Likewise, ITS genetic diversity was lower in Berwaldia than in MIC1. Recombination signals were detected only in Berwaldia. Conclusion: Genetic tests showed that parasite populations could have expanded recently after a bottleneck or that the ITS could be under negative selection in both microsporidia species. Recombination analyses might indicate cryptic sex in Berwaldia and pure asexuality in MIC1. The differences observed between the two microsporidian species present an exciting opportunity to study the genetic basis of microsporidia-Daphnia coevolution in natural populations, and to better understand reproduction in these parasites. © 2016 González-Tortuero et al.

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