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Ortega-Senovilla H.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Schaefer-Graf U.,Berlin Center for Diabetes in Pregnancy | Meitzner K.,Berlin Center for Diabetes in Pregnancy | Graf K.,Jewish Hospital | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Ligands of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), such as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), induce expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4). Recently ANGPTL4 has been reported to be a mediator of intracellular adipose lipolysis induced by glucocorticoids. Objective: To determine the concentrations of ANGPTL4 in cord serum of neonates born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and by pre-labor cesarean section (CS) from healthy women, and to relate them to parameters of neonatal lipolytic activity at birth. Measurements: In 54 neonates born by SVD and in 56 neonates born by CS, arterial cord blood was drawn to determine insulin, cortisol, triacylglycerols (TAGs), glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), individual fatty acids, ANGPTL4, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and leptin. Results: Birth weight and neonatal fat mass in SVD and CS showed no difference, but the concentrations of glycerol, adiponectin, RBP4, NEFAs and most individual fatty acids were higher in cord serum of neonates born by SVD compared to CS, indicating a higher adipose tissue breakdown in the SVD group. The concentrations of TAG and cortisol were also higher and that of insulin was lower in cord serum of SVD compared to the CS group. However, the concentration in cord serum of ANGPTL4 did not differ between the two groups and no positive correlation with either NEFA or glycerol concentrations were detected. Conclusion: ANGPTL4 is known to stimulate lipolysis in adults, but does not appear to mediate the increased activity in SVD, indicating the presence of different regulatory inputs. © 2013 Ortega-Senovilla et al.

Schaefer-Graf U.M.,Berlin Center for Diabetes in Pregnancy | Meitzner K.,Berlin Center for Diabetes in Pregnancy | Ortega-Senovilla H.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Graf K.,German Heart Institute and Jewish Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2011

Aims To evaluate the potential contribution of maternal glucose and lipids to fetal metabolic variables and growth in pregnancies with normal glucose tolerance in comparison with pregnancies with well-controlled gestational diabetes previously reported by us. Methods In 190 pregnancies with normal oral glucose tolerance tests (controls), insulin, glucose and lipid components were determined in maternal and arterial cord blood serum. Birthweight and neonatal fat mass were obtained after delivery. Values were adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, Caesarean section and gestational age. Measurements were compared with those of gestational diabetes previously reported. Results Maternal serum glucose, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and cholesterol levels did not differ between control pregnancies and those with gestational diabetes, whereas insulin, homeostasis model assessment and glycerol values were significantly lower in the former (2.6 vs. 5.6μmol/l and 176 vs. 193μmol/l, respectively). In contrast, cord blood glucose and free fatty acids were significantly lower in control pregnancies than in those with gestational diabetes (3.9 vs. 4.4mmol/l and 80.7 vs. 137μmol/l, respectively); the same was valid for insulin (0.03 vs. 0.05nmol/l) and homeostasis model assessment (1.0 vs. 1.87). In control pregnancies, maternal serum glucose, free fatty acids and glycerol correlated with those in cord blood, but not with neonatal weight and fat mass, as seen for free fatty acids in those with gestational diabetes. The negative correlation between cord blood triacylglycerols and neonatal weight or fat mass previously reported in gestational diabetes could not be confirmed in control pregnancies, where all fetal lipids showed a positive correlation to neonatal anthropometrics. Conclusion In normal pregnancies, in contrast to those with gestational diabetes, maternal lipids do not influence neonatal weight. Similar levels of maternal lipids in pregnancies with gestational diabetes and control pregnancies, but higher free fatty acids in the cord blood of those with gestational diabetes, indicate their enhanced placental transport and/or enhanced lipolysis as a result of decreased fetal insulin responsiveness. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

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