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Hoffmann A.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | Gunkel G.,TU Berlin
Limnologica | Year: 2011

The sandy littoral zone of Lake Tegel (Berlin, Germany) was investigated during 2004-2006 down to sediment depths ≥26. cm to derive a scheme of seasonal carbon turnover under induced bank filtration conditions. Carbon turnover processes were quantified regarding external and internal sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM), primary production, community respiration, redox potential as well as specific loads of soluble chemical compounds such as nitrogen, iron, manganese and DOC.Over the course of the year, infiltrating DOC decreased by about 13-20% within the upper 26cm sediment of the infiltration stretch. Gradients of all observed soluble compounds that are highly cross-linked to biological activities were highest in the topmost centimetre. In this depth mass balances (output-input) were negative concerning NO3-N (-1mgdm-2d-1, summer mean) and DOC (-2mgdm-2d-1, winter mean), respectively, while specific loads of cations such as manganese reached up to 0.2mgdm-2d-1 during summer. Carbon mineralization ranged between 3 and 7mg Cdm-2d-1 and was nearly twice as high in summer as in winter. The turnover of the infiltrating DOC contributed maximally 25% in summer to 50% in winter to the entire organic carbon mineralization. Gross and net primary production differed up to a factor of >10, indicating very fast turnover reactions and the predominance of community respiration and mineralization, respectively. The POC in the upper sediment layer (10cm) temporally varied around 1% sediment d.w.; benthic algae, organic seston input and autumnal leaf fall contributed similar percentages to the POC pool. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Fromme H.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Bischof W.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Dietrich S.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Lahrz T.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2013

Allergic disorders are the most common childhood-related chronic diseases in developed countries. It is essential to assess the exposure, especially in schools, where children spend a large portion of their time. We aimed to investigate allergen and endotoxin levels in the air of schools and to observe seasonal variations of these factors. We evaluated airborne concentrations of house dust mites allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat allergen (Fel d 1), and endotoxin in PM10 in 14 classrooms during the school days in the region of Munich, each over 20 consecutive days and in 1 classroom over the course of a year (at 83 days); we also tested outdoor air close to the schools. Endotoxin levels were quantified using two different analytical methods. In addition, indoor air climate parameters were measured. The median daily indoor CO2 and PM10 concentrations in the classrooms ranged from 423 to 3,135 ppm (median: 1,211 ppm) and 9 to 390 μg/m3 (median: 127 μg/m3), respectively. Fel d 1 in the PM10 samples was the most frequently detected allergen, with levels from 0.02 to 1.15 ng/m3 in a total of 301 samples (median: 0.19 ng/m3, 95th percentile: 0.57 ng/m3). Der p 1 and Der f 1 were detected in only 51% and 19% of the samples, with 95th percentiles at 0.5 and 0.3 ng/m 3. Endotoxin levels in the PM10 and inhalable dust samples ranged from 0.5 to 84.1 EU/m3 (median: 15.3 EU/m3; 95th percentile: 58.2 EU/m3) and from 0.03 to 115 EU/m3 (median: 8.4 EU/m3; 95th percentile: 27.9 EU/m3). Fel d 1 and endotoxin were found in higher levels in the winter months. The results of the two different indoor sampling techniques for endotoxin were statistically significantly correlated. The results of airborne allergens indicate a generally low exposure level in classrooms. With regard to endotoxin, our study showed higher levels in schools compared with residences. Copyright © 2013 JOEH, LLC. Source

Hartwig V.,University of Leipzig | Schulze C.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | Pfeffer M.,University of Leipzig | Daugschies A.,University of Leipzig | Dyachenko V.,Veterinary Laboratory Freiburg
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0 %) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0 %), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Hartwig V.,University of Leipzig | von Loewenich F.D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schulze C.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | Straubinger R.K.,Institute for Infectious Disease and Zoonoses | And 2 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2014

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Uter W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Schmid M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Schmidt O.,Institute for Consumer Products | Bock C.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | Wolter J.,State Office for Agriculture
Contact Dermatitis | Year: 2014

Background Contact sensitization to cobalt is common. Some industrial exposures have been identified, but cobalt allergy is also often diagnosed in 'non-occupational' patients. Exposure of consumers is largely unexplained. Objective To present the analytical results on cobalt release from earrings and piercing jewellery sampled in a German Federal surveillance scheme. Methods Two German state laboratories analysed cobalt release, after immersion in artificial sweat according to EN 1811, along with nickel release in 87 pieces of jewellery, which were mostly taken apart for separate examination of piercing posts (n = 139), clasps (n = 51), and/or decorative items (n = 52). The distribution of cobalt release was described by the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, taking into account that the majority of measurements were left-censored, that is, below the limit of quantification. Results Thirty-eight of 87 earrings and piercing jewellery items had at least one part releasing cobalt. The median cobalt release was estimated as 0.013 μg/cm 2/week, and 75% of parts released up to 0.085 μg/cm 2/week. Release varied somewhat between the three parts, with, for example, 22.1% of posts releasing ≥ 0.2 μg/cm2/week. Conclusions Cobalt release from earrings and piercing jewellery, in particular from piercing posts, is considerable. Scientifically based exposure limits should be set, as in the case of nickel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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