State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg

Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany

State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg

Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany
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Dugan H.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Dugan H.A.,Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Summers J.C.,Queen's University | Skaff N.K.,Michigan State University | And 16 more authors.
Scientific Data | Year: 2017

Anthropogenic sources of chloride in a lake catchment, including road salt, fertilizer, and wastewater, can elevate the chloride concentration in freshwater lakes above background levels. Rising chloride concentrations can impact lake ecology and ecosystem services such as fisheries and the use of lakes as drinking water sources. To analyze the spatial extent and magnitude of increasing chloride concentrations in freshwater lakes, we amassed a database of 529 lakes in Europe and North America that had greater than or equal to ten years of chloride data. For each lake, we calculated climate statistics of mean annual total precipitation and mean monthly air temperatures from gridded global datasets. We also quantified land cover metrics, including road density and impervious surface, in buffer zones of 100 to 1,500 m surrounding the perimeter of each lake. This database represents the largest global collection of lake chloride data. We hope that long-term water quality measurements in areas outside Europe and North America can be added to the database as they become available in the future. © The Author(s) 2017.


Rothe M.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Rothe M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Frederichs T.,University of Bremen | Eder M.,Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces | And 3 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2014

Vivianite, Fe3(PO4)2 · 8 H2O, is a ferrous iron phosphate mineral which forms in waterlogged soils and sediments. The phosphorus (P) bound in its crystal lattice is considered to be immobilised because vivianite is stable under anoxic, reducing, sedimentary conditions. Thus, vivianite formation can make a major contribution to P retention during early diagenesis. Much remains unknown about vivianite in sediments, because technical challenges have rendered direct identification and quantification difficult. To identify vivianite and assess its significance for P burial during early diagenesis we studied the consequences of a 1992/1993 in-lake application of FeCl3 and Fe(OH)3 aimed at restoring Lake Groß-Glienicke (Berlin, Germany). In a novel approach, we firstly applied a heavy-liquid separation to the iron-rich surface sediments which allowed direct identification of vivianite by X-ray diffraction in the high-density (ρ 2.3 g cm-3) sediment fraction. Secondly, we assessed the contribution of vivianite to P retention, combining results from chemical digestion with magnetic susceptibility data derived from magnetic hysteresis measurements. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the dark blue spherical vivianite nodules were 40-180 μm in diameter, and formed of platy- and needle-shaped crystal aggregates. Although equilibrium calculations indicated supersaturation of vivianite throughout the upper 30 cm of the sediment, the vivianite deposits were homogeneously distributed within, and restricted to, the upper 23 cm only. Thus, supersaturated pore water alone cannot serve as a reliable predictor for the in situ formation of vivianite. In Lake Groß-Glienicke, vivianite formation continues to be triggered by the artificial iron amendment more than 20 yr ago, significantly contributing to P retention in surface sediments. © 2014 Author(s).


Rothe M.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Rothe M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kleeberg A.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Kleeberg A.,State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

An increasing number of studies constrain the importance of iron for the long-term retention of phosphorus (P) under anoxic conditions, i.e. the formation of reduced iron phosphate minerals such as vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O). Much remains unknown about vivianite formation, the factors controlling its occurrence, and its relevance for P burial during early sediment diagenesis. To study the occurrence of vivianite and to assess its relevance for P binding, surface sediments of two hydrologically contrasting waters were analysed by heavy-liquid separation and subsequent powder X-ray diffraction. In Lake Arendsee, vivianite was present in deeper sediment horizons and not in the uppermost layers with a sharp transition between vivianite and non-vivianite bearing layers. In contrast, in lowland river Lower Havel vivianite was present in the upper sediment layers and not in deeper horizons with a gradual transition between non-vivianite and vivianite bearing layers. In both waters, vivianite occurrence was accompanied by the presence of pyrite (FeS2). Vivianite formation was favoured by an elevated iron availability through a lower degree of sulphidisation and was present at a molar ratio of total sulphur to reactive iron smaller than 1.1, only. A longer lasting burden of sediments by organic matter, i.e. due to eutrophication, favours the release of sulphides, and the formation of insoluble iron sulphides leading to a lack of available iron and to less or no vivianite formation. This weakening in sedimentary P retention, representing a negative feedback mechanism (P release) in terms of water quality, could be partly compensated by harmless Fe amendments. © 2015 Rothe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Richter B.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Schulze C.,State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg | Kammerling J.,Zoological Garden Cottbus | Mostegl M.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Weissenbock H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Avian Pathology | Year: 2010

Two Red-breasted Mergansers (Mergus serrator), one Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), and one Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) from a German zoological collection died of necrotizing typhlitis/ typhlohepatitis within 2 years. Using a newly established chromogenic in situ hybridization assay, numerous intralesional trophozoites of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum could be detected in formalin-fixed and paraffinembedded tissues from the caeca and livers of the affected birds. Partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA-gene revealed two unique nucleotide sequences very similar to T. gallinarum strains isolated from avian and human hosts. One turkey kept in the same zoological collection succumbed to histomonosis (blackhead disease) confirmed with chromogenic in situ hybridization at the time of the first duck fatalities. This turkey also harboured T. gallinarum trophozoites within necrotic cell debris in the caecal lumen, which might be epidemiologically related to the T. gallinarum infections in the ducks. © 2010 Houghton Trust Ltd.


Kruckenberg H.,European White fronted Goose Research Programme | Muller T.,Institute of Epidemiology | Freuling C.,Institute of Epidemiology | Muhle R.-U.,University of Potsdam | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2011

In order to investigate the potential role of arctic geese in the epidemiology, the spatial and temporal spread of selected avian diseases, in autumn 2002, a virological and serological survey designed as capture-mark-resighting study was conducted in one of the most important coastal resting sites for migratory waterfowl in Germany. Oropharyngeal, cloacal swabs and blood samples were collected from a total of 147 birds comprising of three different arctic geese species including White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Tundra Bean Goose (Anser fabalis rossicus), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) as well as from 29 non-migratory Canada Geese (Branta canadensis). Altogether, six adeno-like viruses (ALV; 95% CI, 1. 74-9. 92%) and two avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-4; 95% CI, 0. 19-5. 53%) were isolated mainly from juvenile White-fronted Geese. In addition, four Canada Geese were infected with lentogenic APMV-1 (95% CI, 3. 89-31. 66%) at the date of sampling. No avian influenza viruses, reo-like viruses could be isolated despite serological evidence. Likewise, no evidence of current or previous infection by West Nile virus was found. Of the 147 birds tagged in the following years, 137 birds were re-sighted between 2002 and 2008 accumulating to 1925 sightings. About 90% of all sightings were reported from the main wintering and resting sites in Germany and The Netherlands. Eight of the resighted geese were virus positive (ALV and APMV-4) at the time point of sampling in 2002. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Rothe M.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Rothe M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kleeberg A.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Kleeberg A.,State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg | Hupfer M.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2016

In this article, we review the nature, occurrence and environmental relevance of the authigenic ferrous iron phosphate mineral vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O) in waterlogged soils and aquatic sediments. We critically discuss existing work from freshwater and marine systems, laboratory studies and microbial batch culture experiments aiming to deduce common characteristics of the mineral's occurrence, and the processes governing its formation. Vivianite regularly occurs in close association with organic remains in iron-rich sediments. Simultaneously, it is a biogenic mineral product of metal reducing bacteria. These findings suggest that vivianite nucleation in natural systems is directed by the activity of such bacteria and crystal growth is particularly favoured within protected microzones. Taking into account recent findings from coastal marine sediments where vivianite authigenesis has been shown to be coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane, small-scale microbially mediated reactions appear to be crucial for the formation of vivianite. Small-scale heterogeneity within the sediment matrix may also explain why saturation calculations based upon bulk pore water constitutions often fail to accurately predict the occurrence of the mineral. Vivianite is not restricted to a specific trophic state of a system. The mineral forms in oligotrophic- as well as in eutrophic waters. However, depending on the iron inventory, the production, supply and degradation of organic matter determine the relative contribution of iron sulphide formation to the iron pool, and the concentration of inorganic phosphate and Fe2+ in pore waters. Thus, vivianite authigenesis is also governed by bulk chemical conditions such as the rate of sulphide formation relative to that of Fe2+ production. This situation allows stimulation of vivianite formation by iron supplementation aimed at restoring eutrophic lakes. Recent results from coastal marine sediments suggest that vivianite authigenesis is of significance for P burial in the marine realm. Vivianite authigenesis is likely important at the global scale, but has so far largely been ignored. © 2016 The Authors.


Kleeberg A.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Kleeberg A.,State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg | Neyen M.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Kalettka T.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

Given that water-filled kettle holes are mostly undergo a wet–dry cycle, and are directly fuelled by terrigenous material, it was hypothesized that the downward flux of matter, including P and its binding partners, varies between and within kettle holes, and is closely coupled to the prevalent water regime. Sedimentation was studied in two kettle holes close to Rittgarten (RG) and Kraatz (KR), Uckermark, NE Germany. Pairs of cylindrical traps at three sites in each kettle hole were sampled biweekly (June 2013–July 2014). Mean fluxes decreased with decreasing water level. KR was Fe-dominated binding P, and had submersed macrophytes. RG was Ca dominated and had low Fe concentrations suggesting that both apatite and oxidized Fe compounds equilibrated P release, with finally a surplus in P. Thus, RG was covered by duck weed. The higher C flux fuelled the sulphate reduction at higher rates than in KR, as also favoured by oxygen deficits due to duck weed coverage. Thus, internal eutrophication, i.e. where sulphate reduction and Fe sulphide formation lead to a lower Fe availability for P binding, is an issue for kettle holes increasingly degrading their ecosystem services. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Bilk S.,State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg | Schulze C.,State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg | Fischer M.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Beer M.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

A novel orthobunyavirus was first detected in German dairy cows in autumn 2011 and was subsequently found in the brains of malformed lambs, kids and calves in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Great Britain, Luxembourg and Spain. For rapid detection of this novel virus, named Schmallenberg virus, a real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) was developed at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut and provided to the federal veterinary state laboratories in Germany. For diagnostic purposes, the organ distribution of this new virus was analyzed in several organs and body fluids of 15 lambs and two calves showing typical malformations. Spleen, cerebrum, meconium, spinal cord, rib cartilage, umbilical cord, placental fluid out of the stomach as well as external placental fluid scraped from the coat of the foetuses were collected during necropsy. All animals were tested RT-qPCR positive in the external placental fluid, and all but one were also RT-qPCR positive in the cerebrum, the umbilical and the spinal cord. Our results suggest that both the external placental fluid and the umbilical cord could be suitable sample materials for the confirmation of an infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborns, at least in lambs. This is of special interest since those samples can be collected very easily on the farm without the need of a necropsy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2012

A novel orthobunyavirus was first detected in German dairy cows in autumn 2011 and was subsequently found in the brains of malformed lambs, kids and calves in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Great Britain, Luxembourg and Spain. For rapid detection of this novel virus, named Schmallenberg virus, a real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) was developed at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut and provided to the federal veterinary state laboratories in Germany. For diagnostic purposes, the organ distribution of this new virus was analyzed in several organs and body fluids of 15 lambs and two calves showing typical malformations. Spleen, cerebrum, meconium, spinal cord, rib cartilage, umbilical cord, placental fluid out of the stomach as well as external placental fluid scraped from the coat of the foetuses were collected during necropsy. All animals were tested RT-qPCR positive in the external placental fluid, and all but one were also RT-qPCR positive in the cerebrum, the umbilical and the spinal cord. Our results suggest that both the external placental fluid and the umbilical cord could be suitable sample materials for the confirmation of an infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborns, at least in lambs. This is of special interest since those samples can be collected very easily on the farm without the need of a necropsy.


PubMed | State Laboratory Berlin Brandenburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2012

Infection of the Bursa of Fabricius with Cryptosporidium baileyi was diagnosed in a group of hand reared Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) ducklings during one breeding season in a German zoological garden.The birds had died in an emaciated and anaemic state after problems with spontaneous feeding. The bursae were infected with moderate to high numbers of cryptosporidia, which were associated with hyperplasia, degeneration and sloughing of the affected epithelial cells and mild heterophilic bursitis, lesions typically seen in bursal cryptosporidiosis in other avian species. In addition, lymphatic tissue was nearly absent, which was probably caused by chronic stress and malnutrition related to the rearing of these highly stress-sensitive birds in an artificial environment. Companion ducklings from stress-resistant, spontaneously feeding species from the zoological collection were used to calm the Mergansers, but may have introduced the cryptosporidia into the rearing boxes. Another possible source for the introduction of C. baileyi were adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which were used to increase the hatching rate by a phase of natural breeding in the middle third of the incubation period of the Merganser eggs.

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