Buzdugan R.,Berkeley College
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of Zimbabwe’s National Behavioral Change Programme (NBCP) on biological and behavioral outcomes.METHODS: Representative household bio-behavioral surveys of 18-44 year olds were conducted in randomly selected enumeration areas in 2007 and 2011-2012. We examined program impact on HIV prevalence among young women, non-regular partnerships, condom use with non-regular partners, and HIV testing, distinguishing between highly-exposed and low-exposed communities and individuals. We conducted: i)difference-in-differences analyses with communities as unit of analysis; ii)analyses of key outcomes by individual-level program exposure.RESULTS: 4,776 people were recruited in 2007 and 10,059 in 2011-2012. We found high exposure to NBCP in 2011. Prevalence of HIV and reported risky behaviors declined between 2007 and 2011. Community-level analyses showed a smaller decline in HIV prevalence among young women in highly-exposed areas (11.0% to 10.1%) than low-exposed areas (16.9% to 10.3%), p=0.078. Among young men, uptake of non-regular partners declined more in highly-exposed areas (25% to 16.8%) than low-exposed areas (21.9% to 20.7%), p=0.055, and HIV testing increased (27.2% to 46.1% versus 31.0% to 34.4%, p=0.004). Individual-level analyses showed higher reported condom use with non-regular partners among highly-exposed young women (53% vs. 21% of unexposed counterparts, p=0.037).CONCLUSION: We conducted the first impact evaluation of a national behavioral change program and found positive effects of program exposure on key behaviors among certain gender and age groups. HIV prevalence among young women declined, but could not be attributed to program exposure. These findings suggest substantial program effects regarding demand creation and justify program expansion. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Crews S.C.,Berkeley College
ZooKeys | Year: 2011
The spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 occurs in both the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics and contains nearly half of the species in the family Selenopidae Simon, 1897. In this paper the members of the genus Selenops found in North America, Central America, and on islands of the Caribbean are revised, excluding Cuban endemics. No taxonomic changes are currently made to the species from the southwestern United States. In total, 21 new species are described, including S. arikok sp. n., S. chamela sp. n., S. amona sp. n., S. baweka sp. n., S. bocacanadensis sp. n., S. enriquillo sp. n, S. ixchel sp. n., S. huetocatl sp. n., S. kalinago sp. n., S. oviedo sp. n., S. morro sp. n., S. denia sp. n., S. duan sp. n., S. malinalxochitl sp. n., S. oricuajo sp. n., S. petenajtoy sp. n., S. guerrero sp. n., S. makimaki sp. n., S. souliga sp. n., S. wilmotorum sp. n., and S. wilsoni sp. n. Six species names were synonymized: Selenops lunatus Muma, 1953 syn. n. = S. candidus Muma, 1953; S. tehuacanus Muma 1953 syn. n., S. galapagoensis Banks, 1902 syn. n. and S. vagabundus Kraus, 1955 syn. n. = S. mexicanus Keyserling, 1880; S. santibanezi Valdez- Mondragón, 2010 syn. n. = S. nigromaculatus Keyserling, 1880; and S. salvadoranus Chamberlin, 1925 syn. n. = S. bifurcatus Banks, 1909. Lectotypes are designated for the following three species: S. marginalis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 (♂), S. morosus Banks, 1898 (♂), and S. mexicanus Keyserling, 1880 (♀). The female neotype is designated for S. aissus Walckenaer, 1837. The males of S. bani Alayón-García, 1992 and S. marcanoi Alayón-García, 1992 are described for the first time, and the females of S. phaselus Muma, 1953 and S. geraldinae Corronca, 1996 are described for the first time. Almost all species are redescribed, barring Cuban endemics and a few species recently described. New illustrations are provided, including those of the internal female copulatory organs, many of which are illustrated for the first time. A key to species is also provided as are new distributional records. Copyright Sarah C Crews.
Woo C.H.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory |
Holcombe T.W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory |
Unruh D.A.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory |
Sellinger A.,Berkeley College |
And 2 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2010
The solar cell performance of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) and poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are compared in devices using 4,7-bis(2-(l-(2-ethylhexyl)-4,5-dicyanoimidazol-2-yl)vinyi)benzo[c][l,2,5] -thiadiazole (EV-BT) as the electron acceptor. Despite their reduced light absorption, POPT:EV-BT devices generate higher photocurrents in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architectures than analogous P3HT:EV-BT devices. Optimized POPT:EV-BT BHJ devices achieve 1.4% average efficiency, whereas the analogous P3HT devices only reach 1.1%. Morphology does not account for the large difference in performance as AFM studies of the active layer suggest, comparable levels of phase separation in the two systems. Reverse bias analysis demonstrates that P3HT devices have a higher maximum potential than POPT devices, but P3HT devices appear to be more severely limited by recombination losses under standard operating conditions. A possible explanation for the superior performance in POPT devices is that the pendant phenyl ring in POPT can twist out-of-plane and increase the separation distance with the acceptor molecule. A larger donor/acceptor separation distance can destabilize the geminate pair and lead to more efficient charge separation in POPT:EV-BT devices. Our results emphasize the importance of donor/acceptor pair interactions and its effect on charge separation, processes in polymer solar cells. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Sweetnam A.,Berkeley College
Psychoanalytic Quarterly | Year: 2010
The author describes how her own internal change was a vital part of transformation between herself and two patients. She draws on Loewald's work as she discusses how change in her own internal relationship with her father was part of a lifelong emotional reorganization of oedipal relations. She describes a process of mutual change whereby her and her patients' unconscious growth each stimulated the other. She suggests that the analyst's own emotional growth is a vital, not an incidental, part of psychoanalysis, as it brings new life to the work for patients as well as analysts themselves. © The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 2010.
Slocum L.A.,University of Missouri-St. Louis |
Rengifo A.F.,Harvard University |
Herrmann C.R.,Berkeley College
Criminology | Year: 2013
Several theoretical perspectives posit a negative association between the extent of a neighborhood's organizational infrastructure and crime; yet, empirical support for this proposition has been limited in that researchers generally examine only a few types of organizations or combine them into one aggregate measure. Studies with few measures may omit organizations that are effective at reducing crime, whereas those using aggregate measures obscure differences across organizations in their ability to control crime. Using data from 74 block groups in the South Bronx, NY, this research seeks to specify more clearly the relationship between organizations and crime in a disadvantaged urban environment. We examine the relationship among nine different types of organizations and violent and property crime controlling for prior crime, land use, and area sociodemographic characteristics. Consistent with theories that highlight the importance of organizations for establishing ties outside the neighborhood, we find that block groups with more organizations that bridge to the larger community experience a decrease in crime. Property crime also is reduced in block groups with more organizations that promote the well-being of families and children. We find that schools are associated with an increase in property crime, whereas the effects of other organizations are context specific and vary based on neighborhood racial composition, commercial land use, and disadvantage. © 2013 American Society of Criminology.