Panigrahi J.K.,Berhampur University |
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2012
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Victory Devi C.,Manipur University |
Phaomei G.,Berhampur University |
Rajmuhon Singh N.,Manipur University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2014
YVO4:Dy3+, Bi3+ phosphors were prepared successfully by co-precipitation method using ethylene glycol as a capping agent as well as reaction medium at a relatively low temperature of 150 C. XRD patterns of all samples are well crystallized to a pure tetragonal phase of YVO4. The unit cell volume increases linearly with the Bi 3+ ion concentrations suggesting the quantitative incorporation of Bi3+ ions in lattice sites of Y3+ in YVO4 matrix. On introduction of Bi3+ ions, the VO4 3- excitation band shifts to longer wavelengths. Energy transfer from V 5+-Bi3+ CT state to Dy3+ was observed, giving rise to the characteristic visible emissions from Dy3+. The luminous intensity of the electric dipole transition as well as magnetic dipole transitions of Dy3+are enhanced significantly on co-doping of Bi 3+ ions. The optimum concentration of Dy3+ for highest luminescence is found to be 1 at.% Bi3+ and the luminescence intensity increases on annealing samples at 500 C. Furthermore, the emission colors of YVO4:5Dy3+ can be tuned from greenish blue to near white by changing the excitation wavelength and then to yellowish white on co-doping Bi3+ ions, making the phosphors a great potential for applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays (FEDs). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nayak R.C.,Berhampur University |
Satpathy L.,Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar
Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables | Year: 2012
We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and α-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4≤Z≤120 and 8≤A≤303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the η-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy η's supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact η-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around 31Na and 62Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Pattnaik S.,Taratarini College |
Nayak R.C.,Berhampur University
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2014
We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2) of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz-Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2) has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2), connecting in each case three neighboring even-even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2) values. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Mohanty R.,Keshav Memorial Institute of Technology |
Ravi V.,Banking Technology |
Patra M.R.,Berhampur University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2013
In this paper, we propose novel recurrent architectures for Genetic Programming (GP) and Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) to predict software reliability. The effectiveness of the models is compared with that of well-known machine learning techniques viz. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN), Counter Propagation Neural Network (CPNN), Dynamic Evolving Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (DENFIS), TreeNet, GMDH and GP on three datasets taken from literature. Further, we extended our research by developing GP and GMDH based ensemble models to predict software reliability. In the ensemble models, we considered GP and GMDH as constituent models and chose GP, GMDH, BPNN and Average as arbitrators. The results obtained from our experiments indicate that the new recurrent architecture for GP and the ensemble based on GP outperformed all other techniques. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.