Warscher M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Strasser U.,University of Innsbruck |
Kraller G.,Berchtesgaden National Park Administration |
Marke T.,University of Innsbruck |
And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Research | Year: 2013
Key Points Complex snow descriptions reproduce observed snow distribution Energy balance method enhances modeling daily snowmelt and discharge variations Simulating lateral snow transport improves runoff modeling in the catchment Runoff generation in Alpine regions is typically affected by snow processes. Snow accumulation, storage, redistribution, and ablation control the availability of water. In this study, several robust parameterizations describing snow processes in Alpine environments were implemented in a fully distributed, physically based hydrological model. Snow cover development is simulated using different methods from a simple temperature index approach, followed by an energy balance scheme, to additionally accounting for gravitational and wind-driven lateral snow redistribution. Test site for the study is the Berchtesgaden National Park (Bavarian Alps, Germany) which is characterized by extreme topography and climate conditions. The performance of the model system in reproducing snow cover dynamics and resulting discharge generation is analyzed and validated via measurements of snow water equivalent and snow depth, satellite-based remote sensing data, and runoff gauge data. Model efficiency (the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient) for simulated runoff increases from 0.57 to 0.68 in a high Alpine headwater catchment and from 0.62 to 0.64 in total with increasing snow model complexity. In particular, the results show that the introduction of the energy balance scheme reproduces daily fluctuations in the snowmelt rates that trace down to the channel stream. These daily cycles measured in snowmelt and resulting runoff rates could not be reproduced by using the temperature index approach. In addition, accounting for lateral snow transport changes the seasonal distribution of modeled snowmelt amounts, which leads to a higher accuracy in modeling runoff characteristics. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Winter M.-B.,Berchtesgaden National Park Administration |
Winter M.-B.,University of Gottingen |
Ammer C.,University of Gottingen |
Baier R.,Berchtesgaden National Park Administration |
And 4 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015
Early-successional forest ecosystems developing after natural disturbances, such as fire, windthrow or insect outbreaks, can support high diversity of habitat structures, species and processes. However, the specific structural and multi-taxon responses that best define a distinct early-seral pre-forest phase, and the longevity of that phase, remain important research questions. To address these questions, we assessed stand structural heterogeneity and species density of various taxa across three biological kingdoms in the initial early-seral period (~3. years after severe bark beetle outbreak), advanced early-seral period (~17-25. years after severe bark beetle outbreak) and mature spruce forests in unmanaged montane/high-montane ecosystems in Southeastern Germany. We evaluated the hypothesis that changes in structural heterogeneity and increases in diversity would peak in the initial stage and attenuate toward mature forest conditions by 17-25. years as the tree canopy closed.We found a clear change in forest structural heterogeneity following the outbreak - most prominently in reduced cover and more clustered patterning of live trees, increased light availability, increased cover of shrubs and herbs, and high volume of dead wood. Most of these structural changes were not ephemeral after outbreaks, but remained high or even increased after multiple decades, suggesting persistence of early-seral heterogeneity well into succession.Biodiversity as measured by species density and rarefaction curves showed variable responses to early-seral conditions depending on taxon and functional group. While some groups either showed no significant change with disturbance (e.g., most epigeics associated with the ground surface), or initially peaked after disturbance before declining quickly (e.g., saproxylic beetles specializing on fresh dead wood), several key groups showed maximum diversity in the advanced early-seral stage (e.g., herbs, herbivores, pollinators) - indicating that the timeframe over which increases occurred tended to be on the order of decades rather than years.Our findings suggest that in unmanaged forests after bark beetle attack, a structurally complex phase prior to tree canopy closure can last several decades, and that many aspects of early-seral biodiversity and ecosystem function only fully develop given this extended time period. Where management of montane forests includes objectives for sustaining biodiversity, accommodating the protracted early-seral stage is important to supporting the full range of organisms and functions associated with canopy-opening disturbances. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..