Makurdi, Nigeria

Benue State University
Makurdi, Nigeria

Benue State University is a state-owned and -operated university in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Its 2006 student enrollment was over 19,000 served by 429 faculty. It offers undergraduate and graduate programs with a catalog of over 50 graduate programs across seven colleges. It is accredited by the National Universities Commission. Wikipedia.

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of markers of kidney damage or of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2) [<1 mL(-1) (1.73 m2)1 for three months or more. CKD is associated with poor outcomes and high cost, disproportionately affecting the elderly, the Black race and the middle aged in Nigeria. Thus, new public health campaigns focus on early detection of CKD. To facilitate early detection of CKD, many national and international organisations now recommend routine reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) whenever serum creatinine is measured. The formulae/equations provide a quick estimate (eGFR) of the GFR without need for urine collection in clinical practice. Current guidelines advocate the use of prediction equations, such as the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study-derived equations. Laboratories in African should commence routine reporting of eGFR for a number of reasons; 1. The sensitivity of serum creatinine (Scr) in identifying CKD is low.2. In Nigeria, a representative country; screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is hardly considered in the routine practice of the primary and secondary care medical officers.3 Studies have shown that routine reporting of eGFR improved the documentation and identification of CKD by almost 50%.4 There is the possibility of reversing CKD if picked earlier.5. The high cost of treating CKD patients in advanced stages and the low per capital income status of the populace in Sub-Saharan Africa.6. Poor health infrastructure to manage advanced CKD patients in the continent.7. Several studies, now show lack of awareness of CKD among non-nephrologists that is related, at least in part, to difficulty in interpreting serum creatinine concentrations (the reciprocal, non-linear relationship between GFR and serum creatinine).8 Mathematical estimates of GFR [ as in eGFR] that incorporate creatinine concentration, as well as factors affecting creatinine production rates, such as size, gender, age and ethnic background, are more sensitive to changes in renal function than serum creatinine value alone.9 Recent guidelines define "action plans" for CKD according to the GFR, including referral to nephrologists at GFRs<30 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2).

Itodo A.U.,Kebbi State University of Science and Technology | Itodo H.U.,Benue State University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2010

In this study, we add to scholarly knowledge in simple terms, the forces or energy defining certain adsorption phenomenon, using isotherm models. GCMS measurement of equilibrium phase atrazine after adsorption onto Sheanut shells (SS) acid derived activated carbon were fitted into the D-R and Temkin isotherm relationships for energy data estimation. Sorption energy value (BD), mean free energy (ED) and heat of sorption (B). They were estimated as 0.7600mol2KJ-2, 0.8111 kjmol-1 and 0.790Jmol-1 respectively. The parameter predicting the type of adsorption was evaluated BD, B < 20kJ/mol and ED<8 which is an indication that physisorption (Non specific adsorption) dominates chemisorption and ion exchange. The D-R model with a higher correlation coefficient values, R2 = 0.979 proves a better choice in explaining sorption energies. Generally, sheanut shells can be used as alternative precursors for activated carbon production via the two steps and acid treatment schemes.

Utoo B.T.,Benue State University
African Health Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most common public health problems worldwide. Over one million people die annually of HBV related chronic liver disease. Maternal to fetal transmission from chronic carriers exceeds 90% and accounts for up to 40% of the world's chronic carriers in endemic areas. Methods: This was a descriptive study which involved Serial recruitment of 836 women attending the antenatal clinic at a health facility in Cross-River State, Nigeria from 1st January to 30th June 2010. HBsAg screening was done using an ELISA test. Results: Fifty five (6.6%) of the 836 women screened tested positive for HBsAg. The mean age and parity of sero-positive subjects was 26.9 ±5.0 (range 18-38 years) and 2.2±1.2 (0 to 5) respectively. The prevalence was more in women who were farmers (29.1%) and those with either none or low level of formal education (67.2%). Conclusion: Sero-prevalence of 6.6% among pregnant women is reported. Women education, economic empowerment and public enlightenment programmes focused on modification of risky social lifestyle is recommended. Efforts to promote routine screening of pregnant women, immunization and vaccination of infants should be sustained.

Musa D.I.,Benue State University | Musa D.I.,University of Exeter | Williams C.A.,University of Exeter
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2012

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the independent associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fatness with resting blood pressure (BP) in children (9-11 yr) and adolescents (12-15 yr) in Benue State of Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 3243 children (n = 1017) and adolescents (n = 2226) were evaluated for aerobic fitness, body fatness, resting preexercise BP and recovery BP at minutes 1, 5, and 10 after a progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run test. Regression models, controlling for age and recovery BP at 1, 5, and 10 min after the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run, determined the associations of independent variables with the dependent variables. RESULTS: Fatness and fitness were independent predictors of resting BP among participants, and the relationship of fatness with BP was more robust in adolescents than in children. In all cases, the relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Combined fitness and fatness in predicting BP was modest (R = 1%-3%) after controlling for age and postexercise BP. Postexercise BP was a major determinant of resting BP in both groups (R = 23%-93%). In adolescents, fatter boys had 1.9 times likelihood of systolic HTN compared with leaner peers. Systolic and diastolic BP scores varied by fit-fat groups, the fit-low-fat group demonstrated the most favorable BP profiles, whereas the unfit-high-fat group showed the most adverse profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of fatness, participants with higher CRF had more favorable BP profiles compared with their fat-unfit peers. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Oghagbon E.K.,Benue State University
Ethnicity and Disease | Year: 2014

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in patients with diabetes reflects quality of disease control and propensity to develop hyperglycemic complications. During more than 12 years of using HbA1c for monitoring of glycemic control among patients at Nigerian hospitals, the mean glycated hemoglobin ranged from 7.9% ± 2.4 to 8.3% ± 2.2. Most of these patients (63% to 68%) had poor glycemic controls with mean HbA1c greater than 7%. Factors that are implicated in this scenario are: 1) high cost of HbA1c testing, 2) ineffective management of risk factors, 3) poor patient compliance, 4) improperly managed diabetes education program, and 5) health care system defect. Central to improving diabetes glycemia is education of doctors, other health workers and patients, within the confines of an overhauled national health system. Physicians need to increase adherence to diabetes mellitus management guidelines and patients must be enrolled into a well-structured education program at health centers. Doctors, as leader of the health team, should drive such education schemes, which must be based on standard training curriculum, sufficient number of trained diabetes educators, and effective monitoring of patients. The most appropriate diabetes education model features small-tomoderate sized participant groups and makes use of motivational interviewing rather than a traditional advice-giving format. Improved health care funding is mandatory given the issue of cost and this can be helped by increased participation of patients in Nigeria's National Health Insurance Scheme. Failure to address the persistently elevated HbA1c will affect long-term quality of life, longevity and health care services in Nigeria.

Wuana R.A.,Benue State University | Okieimen F.E.,Benue State University | Imborvungu J.A.,Benue State University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Changes in heavy metal speciation and uptake by maize in a soil before and after washing with chelating organic acids, citric acid, tartaric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were assessed. A sandy loam was collected from the vicinity of the Benue industrial layout, Makurdi, Nigeria and spiked with a quinternary mixture of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead nitrates to achieve higher levels of contamination. Batch soil washing experiments performed on 1.0 g portions of the spiked soil using 0.05 M chelating agents at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:25 showed that washing efficiencies varied in the order: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid> citric acid> tartaric acid with metal extraction yields typically following the sequence, copper> nickel> zinc> cadmium> lead. Sequential extractions proposed by the European Communities Bureau of Reference method used to assess the redistribution of heavy metal forms in the soil showed that apparent metal mobilities were reduced upon soil washing. Citric acid removed most of the metals hitherto associated with the exchangeable and reducible fractions; tartaric acid, the exchangeable metal pools; and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the non-residual metal pools. Heavy metal assay of harvested biomass of maize grown on unwashed and washed soil samples indicated that metal transfer coefficients, decreased in the order of treatment: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Idoko O.M.,Benue State University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Effect of changes in season visa vise rural groundwater quality variability with respect to iron is examined in this study. Water samples were collected from 26 rural community boreholes and analyzed for iron concentrations as it affects the quality of water for drinking in line with WHO drinking water standards for both rainy and dry seasons. The analyses was carried out as prescribed according to standard method of examination of water. The result of analyses show 35% of the boreholes have elevated iron concentrations above WHO guide limit for rainy season as against that of the dry season which is only 7.7% of the boreholes. Iron concentrations in the boreholes were noted to be higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. The source of iron in groundwater may be attributed to dissolution of iron minerals from rock and soils, corrosion effect of galvanized hand pump components and land use activities. Agencies involved in rural water supply must ensure the safety of the groundwater being harnessed for use. This study demonstrate the need for groundwater quality management at the rural level because once polluted is very expensive to remedy. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.

Nwadioha S.I.,Benue State University
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal | Year: 2013

To determine the common aetiolog of acute bacterial meningitis in children and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. A retrospective study with a review of cerebrospinal fluid culture reports of paediatric patients aged 0-15 years, suspected of acute meningitis in the Medical Microbiology Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria from October 2006 to October 2009 from October 2006 to October 2009. A positive culture bacterial isolation rate of 3.3% (n=50/1500) with prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (24%), Neisseria meningitidis (22%), Escherichia coli (16%), Haemophilus influenzae (14%), Group B streptococci (8%) and Enterococci (8%) which were susceptible to ceftriaxone (96%), cefotaxime (95%) and ciprofloxacin (93%) across the bacterial isolates. Neonates were 55% (n=6.8/12.4) most at risk. Neonates are the most at risk of acute bacterial meningitis. In the absence of antibiotic susceptibility report, ceftriaxone should be considered as a first choice reliable antibiotic for empirical treatment of meningitis in children, in this environment.

Saalu L.C.,Benue State University
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2016

In spite of the many achievements in health care delivery in the current century as evidenced by the rapid progress and expansion of orthodox medicine, people in Nigeria like in most of the developing countries lack regular access to essential medicines. For these people, faith in and popularity of traditional methods have not decreased because modern medicine is unlikely to be a tenable treatment alternative primarily because of its high cost. The cost of modern medicine is constantly increasing with improvements in modern health technology and in many cases is inappropriate to the immediate needs of people in developing and underdeveloped countries. On the other hand, medicinal herbs are widely available and affordable, even in remote areas. In addition, consumers believe that herbal medicines are safe because they are "Natural". The constant resort to medical herbalism has however, thrown up certain health challenges arising from the side and unwanted effects of these herbs on the human anatomy and physiology. One such health condition is male infertility or sub-fertility as a result of the effect of medicinal herbs on the male reproductive organs. This review attempts to document those nigerian medicinal plants that possess the potentials to reduce male fertility particularly as demonstrated from the results of basic and allied medical sciences research and published in the peer reviewed scientific literature. © 2016 Linus Chia Saalu.

Ojabo C.O.,Benue State University
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria | Year: 2011

Benue State, Nigeria, is largely an agrarian community. Farm related ocular injuries abound in this environment. Approximately two-third of all patients presenting to the eye casualty department do so because of ocular trauma sustained on the farm. This study aims to study the pattern and burden of farm related ocular injuries and its consequences and institute appropriate measures that will minimize visual loss from such injuries. A retrospective analysis of 1560 patients' record treated for ocular injuries between June 2000 and May 2005. The biodata extracted for each patient included age, sex, occupation, cause of injury, ongoing activities at time of injuries, severity of injury, time interval before presentation and entry and exit visual acuity. Result showed that of the 1560 patients' record audited, 1113 (71%) were male and 447 (29%) female. Their age ranged between 2 and 75 years with peak age incidence in the 2nd and 3rd decades. More than two-third of all ocular injuries were sustained in the farm environment with spear-grass corneal abrasion being the most common lesion. Only 25% presented for attention on the day of injury. On presentation, 55% presented with visual impairment, 15% presented blind in the affected eye. Closed eye injuries were more common than open eye injuries with the former having better prognosis.

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