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Bennington, VT, United States

Bennington College is a private, nonsectarian liberal arts college located in Bennington, Vermont, USA. The college was founded in 1932 as a women's college and became co-educational in 1969. It is accredited with the New England Association of Schools & Colleges . Wikipedia.

Bullock J.P.,Bennington College | Bond A.M.,Monash University | Boere R.T.,University of Lethbridge | Gietz T.M.,University of Lethbridge | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society

Activation barriers to the electrochemical oxidation for the series PPh3-n(dipp)n (dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) in CH 2Cl2/Bu4NPF6 were measured using large amplitude FT ac voltammetry. Increasing substitution across this series, which offers the widest range of steric requirements across any analogous series of triarylphosphines reported to date, increases the energetic barrier to electron transfer; values of 18, 24, and 25 kJ mol-1 were found for compounds with n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These values are significantly greater than those calculated for outer sphere activation barriers, with deviations between observed and calculated values increasing with the number of dipp ligands. This suggests that the steric congestion afforded by these bulky substituents imposes significant reorganizational energy on the electron transfer processes. This is the first investigation of the effect of sterics on the kinetics of heterogeneous electron transfer across a structurally homologous series. Increased alkyl substitution across the series also increases the chemical reversibility of the oxidations and decreases the oxidation peak potentials. As the compounds for which n = 1 and 2 are novel, the synthetic strategies employed in their preparation are described, along with their full spectroscopic, physical, and crystallographic characterization. Optimal synthesis when n = 1 is via a Grignard reagent, whereas when n = 2 an aryl copper reagent must be employed, as use of a Grignard results in reductive coupling. Chemical oxidation studies were performed to augment the electrochemical work; the O, S, and Se oxidation products for the parent triarylphosphines for which n = 1 and 2 were isolated and characterized. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Weber B.H.,California State University, Fullerton | Weber B.H.,Bennington College
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C :Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Darwinism is defined here as an evolving research tradition based upon the concepts of natural selection acting upon heritable variation articulated via background assumptions about systems dynamics. Darwin's theory of evolution was developed within a context of the background assumptions of Newtonian systems dynamics. The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, or neo-Darwinism, successfully joined Darwinian selection and Mendelian genetics by developing population genetics informed by background assumptions of Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Currently the Darwinian Research Tradition is changing as it incorporates new information and ideas from molecular biology, paleontology, developmental biology, and systems ecology. This putative expanded and extended synthesis is most perspicuously deployed using background assumptions from complex systems dynamics. Such attempts seek to not only broaden the range of phenomena encompassed by the Darwinian Research Tradition, such as neutral molecular evolution, punctuated equilibrium, as well as developmental biology, and systems ecology more generally, but to also address issues of the emergence of evolutionary novelties as well as of life itself. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean.While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing themto substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in roomtemperature water (~22 °C) that was then heated at 0.16-0.3 °C min-1 and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (TLoR) and the righting time at temperatures below the TLoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean TLoR than E. lucunter. The mean TLoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum weremuch shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher TLoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean TLoR) was between 3.07-3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79-5.67 °C for Diadema.While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or both), this will have important consequences for the structure of coral reefs. © 2015 Sherman. Source

Derby N.,Bennington College | Olbert S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
American Journal of Physics

Both wire-wound solenoids and cylindrical magnets can be approximated as ideal azimuthally symmetric solenoids. We present an exact solution for the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid in an easy to use form. The field is expressed in terms of a single function that can be rapidly computed by means of a compact efficient algorithm, which can be coded as an add-in function to a spreadsheet, making field calculations accessible to introductory students. These expressions are not only accurate but are also as fast as most approximate expressions. We demonstrate their utility by simulating the dropping of a cylindrical magnet through a nonmagnetic conducting tube and comparing the calculation with data obtained from experiments suitable for an undergraduate laboratory. © 2010 American Association of Physics Teachers. Source

Ginoza R.,Bennington College | Mugler A.,Columbia University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

The identification of motifs-subgraphs that appear significantly more often in a particular network than in an ensemble of randomized networks-has become a ubiquitous method for uncovering potentially important subunits within networks drawn from a wide variety of fields. We find that the most common algorithms used to generate the ensemble from the real network change subgraph counts in a highly correlated manner, such that one subgraph's status as a motif may not be independent from the statuses of the other subgraphs. We demonstrate this effect for the problem of three- and four-node motif identification in the transcriptional regulatory networks of E. coli and S. cerevisiae in which randomized networks are generated via an edge-swapping algorithm. We find strong correlations among subgraph counts; for three-node subgraphs these correlations are easily interpreted, and we present an information-theoretic tool that may be used to identify correlations among subgraphs of any size. Our results suggest that single-feature statistics such as Z scores that implicitly assume independence among subgraph counts constitute an insufficient summary of the network. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source

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