Osaka University, Benesis Corporation, Medical and Biological Laboratories Co. | Date: 2011-10-26
Provided is a human antibody having a neutralization activity against a human influenza virus. More specifically, provided is a human antibody which recognizes a highly conserved region in a human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 or a human influenza B virus and has a neutralization activity against the virus. The human antibody is a human anti-human influenza virus antibody, which has a neutralization activity against a human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and binds to a hemagglutinin HA1 region of the human influenza A virus subtype H3N2, or which has a neutralization activity against a human influenza B virus, and includes, as a base sequence of a DNA encoding a variable region of the antibody, a sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 5 to 12.
Shirai T.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Shirai T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency |
Saito M.,Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology |
Saito M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency |
And 11 more authors.
Structure | Year: 2014
The structural details of the essential entity of prion disease, fibril prion protein (PrPSc), are still elusive despite the large body of evidence supporting the prion hypothesis. Five major working models of PrP Sc structure, which are not compatible with each other, have been proposed. However, no systematic evaluation has been performed on those models. We devised a method that combined systematic point mutation with threading on knowledge-based amino acid potentials. A comprehensive mutation experiment was performed on mouse prion protein, and the PrPSc conversion efficiency of each mutant was examined. The models were evaluated based on the mutation data by using the threading method. Although the data turned out to be rather more consistent with the models that assumed a conversion of the N-terminal region of core PrP into a β helix than with others, substantial modifications were also required to further improve the current model based on recent experimental results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Kajii M.,Benesis Corporation |
Suzuki C.,Benesis Corporation |
Kashihara J.,Benesis Corporation |
Kobayashi F.,Benesis Corporation |
And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2011
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrotic changes in skin and other organs involving excessive collagen deposition. Here we investigated the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on fibrosis in a murine model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced scleroderma. Scleroderma was induced in C3H/He J mice by subcutaneous BLM injections daily for 35 days. The collagen content in skin samples from the BLM-injected group (6.30 ± 0.11 mg/g tissue) was significantly higher than the PBS group (5.80 ± 0.10 mg/g tissue), and corresponded with dermal thickening at the injection site. In contrast, mice treated with IVIG for 5 consecutive days after initiating BLM injection showed lesser collagen content significantly (IVIG group, 5.61 ± 0.09 mg/g tissue; BLM vs. IVIG). In order to investigate the cellular and protein characteristics in the early stage of the model, the skin samples were obtained 7 days after the onset of experiment. Macrophage infiltration to the dermis, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1)-positive cells, and increased TGF-β1 mRNA expression were also observed in the BLM group. IVIG inhibited these early fibrogenic changes; MCP-1 expression was significantly lesser for the IVIG group (1.52 ± 0.19 pg/mg tissue) than for the BLM group (2.49 ± 0.26 pg/mg tissue). In contrast, TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly inhibited by IVIG. These results suggest that IVIG treatment may inhibit macrophage recruitment to fibrotic sites by down regulating MCP-1 and TGF-β production, and thus could be a potential drug for managing fibrotic disorders such as SSc. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.
Kanai Y.,Rakuno Gakuen University |
Kanai Y.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Miyasaka S.,Rakuno Gakuen University |
Uyama S.,Rakuno Gakuen University |
And 7 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012
Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmitted via the oral route through the consumption of contaminated water or uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat has been implicated in major outbreaks. Rats may play a critical role in HEV outbreaks, considering their negative effects on environmental hygiene and food sanitation. Although the serological evidence of HEV infection in wild rodents has been reported worldwide, the infectivity and propagation of HEV in wild rats remain unknown. To investigate if rats are a possible carrier of HEV, we studied wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were caught near a pig farm, where HEV was prevalent among the pigs. Methods. We examined 56 Norway rats for HEV. RNA from internal organs was examined for RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. Positive tissue samples were incubated with A549 cell line to isolate HEV. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results: Sixteen rats were seropositive, and the HEV RNA was detected in 10 of the 56 rats. Sequencing of the partial ORF1 gene from 7 samples resulted in partially sequenced HEV, belonging to genotype 3, which was genetically identical to the HEV prevalent in the swine from the source farm. The infectious HEVs were isolated from the Norway rats by using the human A549 cell line. Conclusions: There was a relatively high prevalence (17.9%) of the HEV genome in wild Norway rats. The virus was mainly detected in the liver and spleen. The results indicate that these animals might be possible carrier of swine HEV in endemic regions. The HEV contamination risk due to rats needs to be examined in human habitats. © 2011 Kanai et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Matsuda A.,National Health Research Institute |
Morita H.,National Health Research Institute |
Morita H.,Keio University |
Unno H.,National Health Research Institute |
And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2012
High-dose infusion of IgG (IVIG) is used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including Kawasaki disease (KD). Although the immunomodulatory effects of IVIG on blood cells such as macrophages have been well studied, its effects on tissue cells remain unclear. Here, we show that high-dose IgG specifically and completely inhibited TNF-α-induced, but not IL-1β-induced, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as G-CSF and IL-6 by cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). High-dose IgG did not inhibit TNF-α-mediated early signaling events of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways but it potently inhibited gene expression of G-CSF and IL-6 12 h after TNF-α-stimulation. Interestingly, suppression of the G-CSF and IL-6 gene expression correlated closely with functional inhibition of a transcription factor, C/EBPδ, whose binding sites in the promoters of G-CSF and IL-6 have been shown to be critical for their transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of intact IgG on HCAECs was exerted mainly via its F(ab') 2 fragment, and not its Fc fragment. These findings suggest that the clinical effects of IVIG on KD patients are at least in part due to its direct anti-inflammatory effects on the coronary endothelium, which is a major lesion site in the pathogenesis of KD. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kubota-Koketsu R.,Osaka University |
Yunoki M.,Osaka University |
Yunoki M.,Benesis Corporation |
Okuno Y.,Osaka University |
Ikuta K.,Osaka University
Biologics: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2012
Influenza A H2N2 virus, also known as the Asian flu, spread worldwide from 1957 to 1967, although there have been no cases reported in humans in the past 40 years. A vaccination program was introduced in Japan in the 1960s. Older Japanese donors could have been naturally infected with the H2N2 virus or vaccinated in the early 1960s. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) reflects the epidemiological status of the donating population in a given time period. Here, the possible viral neutralizing (VN) activities of IVIG against the H2N2 virus were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and VN activities of IVIG lots manufactured from 1993 to 2010 in Japan and the United States were evaluated against H2N2 viruses. High HI and VN activities against H2N2 viruses were found in all the IVIG lots investigated. HI titers were 32-64 against the isolate in 1957 and 64-128 against the isolates in 1965. VN titers were 80-320 against the isolate in 1957 and 1280-5120 against the isolates in 1965. Both the HI and VN titers were higher against the isolate in 1965 than in 1957. Thus, antibody titers of IVIG against influenza viruses are well correlated with the history of infection and the vaccine program in Japan. Therefore, evaluation of antibody titers provides valuable information about IVIGs, which could be used for immune stimulation when a new influenza virus emerges in the human population. © 2012 Kubota-Koketsu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Kanai Y.,Rakuno Gakuen University |
Kanai Y.,Thailand Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re emerging Infections |
Tsujikawa M.,Benesis Corporation |
Yunoki M.,Benesis Corporation |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2010
Pigs are presumed reservoirs for hepatitis E virus (HEV) transmission to humans. To examine infection kinetics, two litters of domestic pigs (A and B, each containing 10 piglets) infected naturally with HEV were studied until pigs were 6 months old. Maternal IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in litter A piglets, but not in litter B ones. All pigs shed HEV in feces when they were 30-110 days old, and 17 developed viremia at 40-100 days of age. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a highly close sequence of HEV genotype 3 in all pigs. The serum levels of specific IgG and IgA were similar in all pigs, although IgA was not detected in the feces. Interestingly, the onset of both viremia and seroconversion was delayed significantly in litter A pigs. The kinetics of fecal virus shedding was similar in both litters; shedding was not detected after the pigs were 120 days old. The differences in the infection kinetics between litters A and B suggested that maternal antibodies delayed the onset of viremia and seroconversion. Quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that HEV RNA in feces peaked 10 days after initial shedding of approximately 106.0 copies/g. The viral load was much lower in the serum than in the feces. At 200 days of age, HEV RNA was found in the internal organs of 3 out of 13 pigs. These study findings improve the understanding of the dynamics of natural HEV transmission in pigs, which could help in controlling virus transmission from pigs to humans. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yamashita A.,Research Institute for Microbial Diseases |
Kawashita N.,Osaka University |
Kubota-Koketsu R.,Research Institute for Microbial Diseases |
Inoue Y.,Research Institute for Microbial Diseases |
And 10 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010
The epitope sequences within the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus H3N2 at amino acid residues 173-181 and 227-239 that forms anti-parallel β-sheet structure are similarly recognized by human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), B-1 and D-1 that we recently obtained using the peripheral blood lymphocytes from two influenza-vaccinated volunteers. Both HuMAbs showed strong global neutralization of H3N2 strains. Here we show the significant conservation of the β-sheet region consisting of the above-mentioned two epitope regions in H3N2. In addition, we also identified the corresponding regions with similar structure in other subtypes such as H1N1 and H5N1. These two regions are similarly located underneath the receptor-binding sites of individual subtypes. Analysis of those regions using sequences available from the Influenza Virus Resource at the National Center for Biotechnology Information revealed that compared with those in the known neutralizing epitopes A-E, those sequences were fairly conserved in human H3N2 (n = 7955), swine H1N1 (n = 360) and swine H3N2 (n = 235); and highly conserved in human H1N1 (n = 2722), swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (n = 1474), human H5N1 (n = 319) and avian H5N1 (n = 2349). Phylogenetic tree for these regions formed clearly separable clusters for H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1, irrespective of different host origin. These data may suggest a possible significance of those regions for development of alternative vaccine that could induce neutralizing antibodies reactive against wide-range of influenza virus strains. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Benesis Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology | Year: 2012
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The ability to modulate cytokine production has been formerly described as one of the mechanisms of its action. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IVIG on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytic cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or THP-1 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were stimulated with LPS. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)] in the culture supernatants were determined using appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The mRNA of TNF- was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases was examined by Western blot analyses. IVIG suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF- and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Furthermore, IVIG inhibited TNF-, IL-6, and HMGB1 production from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells treated with PMA. In addition, Fc fragment prepared from the IVIG inhibited production of these cytokines from the cells to the same degree as IVIG, whereas Fab and F(ab)(2) fragments inhibited this only partially. We showed that IVIG and Fc fragments suppressed LPS-induced signal transduction pathways involving phosphorylation of NF-B, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, our results suggest that IVIG attenuates LPS-induced cytokine production predominantly mediated by its Fc region. The activity might be regulated by inhibiting NF-B, p38, and JNK pathways in human monocytic cells.
PubMed | Benesis Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vox sanguinis | Year: 2012
Our previous report showed that parvovirus B19 genotype 1 in different solutions derived from plasma preparations showed different heat-sensitivity patterns during liquid-heating. In this study, we similarly examined B19 genotype 2.Two plasma samples one containing B19 genotype 1 and the other genotype 2 DNA were used. Four process samples collected immediately before the heat treatment step in the manufacture of albumin, immunoglobulin, haptoglobin and antithrombin preparations were spiked with B19 and subsequently treated at 60C for 10 h. A low pH immunoglobulin solution was also spiked with B19 and treated at room temperature for 14 days. Infectivity was then measured.B19 genotype 2, similar to genotype 1, showed three patterns of inactivation: (i) a rapid inactivation in the albumin and immunoglobulin preparations, (ii) a slow inactivation in the haptoglobin preparation and (iii) only limited inactivation in the antithrombin preparation. Its sensitivity in the low pH immunoglobulin solutions also resembled that of genotype 1.Both genotypes 1 and 2 of B19 varied in sensitivity to liquid-heating and low pH among different plasma preparations.