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Lisle, IL, United States

Benedictine University is a private Roman Catholic university located in Lisle, a suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The school was founded in 1887 as St. Procopius College by the Benedictine monks of St. Procopius Abbey in the Pilsen community on the West Side of Chicago. The institution has retained a close relationship with the Benedictine Order, which bears the name of St. Benedict , the acknowledged father of western monasticism. The school secured its charter from the state of Illinois in 1890, and moved to its current location in 1901. St. Procopius College changed its name to Illinois Benedictine College in 1971, and became Benedictine University in 1996 adding a third school color of black to their existing colors in which the home football team wears a black jersey. Benedictine University is minutes from Metra's Burlington Northern train station in Lisle and a 30-minute drive from O'Hare International Airport and Midway International Airport. The university is in proximity to the many social and cultural offerings of the Chicago metropolitan area, including museums, professional athletic teams, broadway shows and the Morton Arboretum. Also nearby are two national research facilities—Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The university's location in the high-tech East-West Tollway corridor provides various internship and employment opportunities for students. Wikipedia.

Nelson P.H.,Benedictine University
European Biophysics Journal | Year: 2016

A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult’s law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed; others can be tested experimentally or by simulation. © 2016 European Biophysical Societies' Association

Villeger S.,IRD Montpellier | Villeger S.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Villeger S.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Novack-Gottshall P.M.,Benedictine University | And 2 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Despite growing attention on the influence of functional diversity changes on ecosystem functioning, a palaeoecological perspective on the long-term dynamic of functional diversity, including mass extinction crises, is still lacking. Here, using a novel multidimensional functional framework and comprehensive null-models, we compare the functional structure of Cambrian, Silurian and modern benthic marine biotas. We demonstrate that, after controlling for increases in taxonomic diversity, functional richness increased incrementally between each time interval with benthic taxa filling progressively more functional space, combined with a significant functional dissimilarity between periods. The modern benthic biota functionally overlaps with fossil biotas but some modern taxa, especially large predators, have new trait combinations that may allow more functions to be performed. From a methodological perspective, these results illustrate the benefits of using multidimensional instead of lower dimensional functional frameworks when studying changes in functional diversity over space and time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Shkrob I.A.,Argonne National Laboratory | Marin T.W.,Argonne National Laboratory | Marin T.W.,Benedictine University
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Halogenoplumbate perovskites (MeNH3PbX3, where X is I and/or Br) have emerged as promising solar panel materials. Their limiting photovoltaic efficiency depends on charge localization and trapping processes that are presently insufficiently understood. We demonstrate that in halogenoplumbate materials the holes are trapped by organic cations (that deprotonate from their oxidized state) and Pb2+ cations (as Pb 3+ centers), whereas the electrons are trapped by several Pb 2+ cations, forming diamagnetic lead clusters that also serve as color centers. In some cases, paramagnetic variants of these clusters can be observed. We suggest that charge separation in the halogenoplumbates resembles latent image formation in silver halide photography. Electron and hole trapping by lead clusters in extended dislocations in the bulk may be responsible for accumulation of trapped charge observed in this photovoltaic material. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Ronkainen N.J.,Benedictine University | Halsall H.B.,University of Cincinnati | Heineman W.R.,University of Cincinnati
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

Electrochemical biosensors combine the sensitivity of electroanalytical methods with the inherent bioselectivity of the biological component. The biological component in the sensor recognizes its analyte resulting in a catalytic or binding event that ultimately produces an electrical signal monitored by a transducer that is proportional to analyte concentration. Some of these sensor devices have reached the commercial stage and are routinely used in clinical, environmental, industrial, and agricultural applications. The two classes of electrochemical biosensors, biocatalytic devices and affinity sensors, will be discussed in this critical review to provide an accessible introduction to electrochemical biosensors for any scientist (110 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Nelson P.H.,Benedictine University
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

How many steps are required to model permeation through ion channels This question is investigated by comparing one- and two-step models of permeation with experiment and MD simulation for the first time. In recent MD simulations, the observed permeation mechanism was identified as resembling a Hodgkin and Keynes knock-on mechanism with one voltage-dependent rate-determining step Jensen, PNAS 107, 5833 (2010). These previously published simulation data are fitted to a one-step knock-on model that successfully explains the highly non-Ohmic current-voltage curve observed in the simulation. However, these predictions (and the simulations upon which they are based) are not representative of real channel behavior, which is typically Ohmic at low voltages. A two-step associationdissociation (AD) model is then compared with experiment for the first time. This two-parameter model is shown to be remarkably consistent with previously published permeation experiments through the MaxiK potassium channel over a wide range of concentrations and positive voltages. The AD model also provides a first-order explanation of permeation through the Shaker potassium channel, but it does not explain the asymmetry observed experimentally. To address this, a new asymmetric variant of the AD model is developed using the present theoretical framework. It includes a third parameter that represents the value of the permeation coordinate (fractional electric potential energy) corresponding to the triply occupied state n of the channel. This asymmetric AD model is fitted to published permeation data through the Shaker potassium channel at physiological concentrations, and it successfully predicts qualitative changes in the negative current-voltage data (including a transition to super-Ohmic behavior) based solely on a fit to positive-voltage data (that appear linear). The AD model appears to be qualitatively consistent with a large group of published MD simulations, but no quantitative comparison has yet been made. The AD model makes a network of predictions for how the elementary steps and the channel occupancy vary with both concentration and voltage. In addition, the proposed theoretical framework suggests a new way of plotting the energetics of the simulated system using a one-dimensional permeation coordinate that uses electric potential energy as a metric for the net fractional progress through the permeation mechanism. This approach has the potential to provide a quantitative connection between atomistic simulations and permeation experiments for the first time. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

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