Comert G.,Benedict College |
Cetin M.,Old Dominion University
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems | Year: 2011
Probe vehicle data are increasingly becoming more attractive for real-time system state estimation in transportation networks. This paper presents analytical models for the real-time estimation of queue lengths at traffic signals using the fundamental information (i.e., location and time) that probe vehicles provide. For a single queue with Poisson arrivals, analytical models are developed to evaluate how error changes in queue length estimation as the percentage of probe vehicles in the traffic stream varies. When the overflow queue is ignored, a closed-form solution is obtained for the variance of the estimation error. For the more general case with the overflow queue, a formulation for the error variance is presented, which requires the marginal probability distribution of the overflow queue as the input. In addition, an approximate model is presented for the latter case, which yields results that are comparable with the exact solution. Overall, the formulations presented here can be used to assess the error in queue length estimation from probe data without conducting simulation runs for various scenarios of probe vehicle market-penetration rates and congestion levels. © 2006 IEEE.
Olson A.,Benedict College
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010
This study examined the methods used to meet certification weight for wrestling and to measure the changes in body composition during 1 season for Division III college wrestlers. Nine college wrestlers completed this study. Body composition was analyzed by underwater weighing (UWW) and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance before and throughout the competitive season. Hydration status was measured by urine osmolality (Uosm) and urine specific gravity (Usg). Nutritional intake was measured for 2 1-week periods, once at the beginning and again near the end of the season. Subjects' fat-free mass (FFM) increased an average of 1.8 kg, whereas fat mass (FM) decreased 2.2 kg as indicated by UWW from the beginning to the end of the season. Wrestlers on average cycled their weight 3.4 kg (4.7% of body weight) per week. The majority of wrestlers cut weight by reducing calories and restricting fluids starting 2 days before the competition. Uosm and body weights on Friday suggested that for wrestlers to achieve the necessary weight loss by dehydration to "make weight" for a Saturday meet, wrestlers would approach a 5% level of dehydration. No loss of FFM because of weight cycling (WC) was evident to achieve competitive weight. Most wrestlers significantly restricted fluids and caloric intake in the 48 hours before weigh-in. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 200.00K | Year: 2014
Research Initiation Awards (RIAs) provide support for junior faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) who are starting to build a research program, as well as for mid-career faculty who need to re-direct and re-build a research program. It is expected that the award helps to further the faculty member?s research capability and effectiveness, improves research and teaching at the researchers home institution, and involves undergraduate students in research experiences.
Benedict College will research how to remove tetracycline from waste streams because antibiotic resistance associated with tetracycline in these wastes is increasing, and may result in more antibiotic-resistant pathogens to humans and other ecological receptors. The approach of this study is from a process engineering perspective, to use harvested swine and municipal waste cultures in small batch reactors, modifying parameters such as pH, operating temperatures, and solids retention times to optimize performance in terms of tetracycline degradation and methane production rates. The goal of the RIA project is to utilize anaerobic biological waste digestion in an attempt to maximize biological degradation of tetracycline, and also to capitalize on the methanogenesis that occurs in these waste streams. Biologically degrading tetracycline-containing waste in the context of methanogenesis has the added advantage of using the methane for operational energy use, or as a combustible fuel to heat-treat the effluent for thermal abiological destruction of tetracycline.
The educational impacts of this research are to train underrepresented minority students in cross-disciplinary research, combining engineering with microbiology, and training them in emerging contaminant removal and clean and renewable energy engineering. Emerging
contaminant removal and renewable energy research and engineering are both strong growth sectors of the economy and increasingly important to meet future energy and environmental demands.
The RIA expands knowledge on the extent to which biological degradation of pharmaceuticals like tetracycline can be achieved, as well as understanding of the extent of tetracycline degradation that can be achieved in a complex matrix. The research is therefore important because it addresses the above issues, benefitting the global society, while helping to train and place under-represented minorities in these growing research and employment sectors. Students will gain hands-on research skills in microbiology, analytic chemistry, and renewable energy engineering, making them attractive candidates for graduate-level study in the environmental field or in industry. As an Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) jurisidction, the project broadens participation geographically by potentially increasing research capacity and capability statewide.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 600.00K | Year: 2012
The college is enrolling cohorts of ten low-income students per year from groups historically underrepresented in science in this project entitled the Future Chemists Scholarships and Support (FoCuS) program.
Intellectual Merit: The college has designed a curriculum, social activities and an advising infrastructure that support FoCuS scholars throughout their college careers. These efforts are designed to improve retention of the FoCuS scholars and all students in the chemical sciences beyond the first year of college. As FoCuS students matriculate, these students who are majoring in chemistry or biochemistry are being supported through several key activities: 1) scholarships; 2) a Summer Chemistry Bridge program; 3) intensive mentoring and advising; 4) cohort support systems and social activities; 5) leadership opportunities; 6) career exploration; 7) research opportunities and 8) an innovative chemistry curriculum.
Broader Impacts: In order to fill the growing gap in the scientific workforce, the college is recruiting from groups currently underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) fields. This project is increasing retention of students majoring in the chemical sciences and has the potential to increase the diversity of students in the STEM workforce. The college has a long-standing interest in advising and mentoring students through cohort programs and is committed to improving diversity and providing access to education for financially needy students. For each of four years FoCuS is enrolling cohorts of 10 high achieving students from groups historically underrepresented in science. Thus, at least forty students are receiving direct funding and support, but all students enrolled in the chemistry major are benefiting from the redesigned chemistry major and support infrastructure. Results are being disseminated at conferences and through a publicly accessible website.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: HIST BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIV | Award Amount: 1.11M | Year: 2014
Implementation Projects provide support to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) to design, implement, study, and assess comprehensive institutional efforts to increase the number of students receiving undergraduate degrees in STEM and enhance the quality of their preparation by strengthening STEM education and research. The project at Benedict College seeks to build on previous successful efforts to increase participation of African-American students in STEM disciplines. The objectives and strategies of the Center for Engineering and Science are consistent with Benedict Colleges goal of increasing the number of well-prepared STEM graduates who enter in the workforce as engineers, teachers, or pursue STEM graduate education and research careers.
The objectives of the project are to: 1) increase retention of STEM freshmen students; 2) increase the five-year graduation rate of STEM majors; and 3) increase the number of engineering and science majors who gain admission and matriculate to graduate school. The project strategies supporting these objectives are evidence-based and will be monitored and evaluated for effectiveness. This evaluation will help to decide which activities will be sustained by Benedict College and will be disseminated as best practices for peer institutions.