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Evergetis E.,Agricultural University of Athens | Michaelakis A.,Benaki Phytopathological Institute | Haroutounian S.A.,Agricultural University of Athens
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The chemical content and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) derived from various Apiaceae (Umbeliferae) family taxa, including the most representative coastal (Malabaila aurea and Echinophora tenuifolia ssp. sibthorpiana), mountainous (Cachrys ferulacea and Chaerophyllum aromaticum) and cultivated (Anethum graveolens) specimens, were determined. The chemical analyses results herein showed that the EO of A. graveolens specimen contains a major component, particularly high amounts of α-phellandrene (59%) indicating that this widely cultivated plant may account as a novel-alternative industrial source for this molecule. The insecticide properties of the EOs studied - and their most abundant compounds - were evaluated against the Culex pipiens L. larvae of 3rd and early 4th instars. Results indicated that many of them display noteworthy toxicity, with the EO of A. graveolens being the most active, displaying an LC 50 value of 52.74mgL -1. The EOs of E. tenuifolia ssp. sibthorpiana and C. aromaticum were also highly active exhibiting LC 50 values near 60mgL -1. Among the tested oils, the EO of A. graveolens exhibits noteworthy potentials for use either as bioremediation cultivar in mosquito-thriving areas and/or the development of novel biocides for the control of mosquitoes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Quenouille J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vassilakos N.,Benaki Phytopathological Institute | Moury B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Taxonomy: Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. Virion and genome properties: PVY virions have a filamentous, flexuous form, with a length of 730nm and a diameter of 12nm. The genomic RNA is single stranded, messenger sense, with a length of 9.7kb, covalently linked to a viral-encoded protein (VPg) at the 5' end and to a 3' polyadenylated tail. The genome is expressed as a polyprotein of approximately 3062 amino acid residues, processed by three virus-specific proteases into 11 mature proteins. Hosts: PVY is distributed worldwide and has a broad host range, consisting of cultivated solanaceous species and many solanaceous and nonsolanaceous weeds. It is one of the most economically important plant pathogens and causes severe diseases in cultivated hosts, such as potato, tobacco, tomato and pepper, as well as in ornamental plants. Transmission: PVY is transmitted from plant to plant by more than 40 aphid species in a nonpersistent manner and, in potato, by planting contaminated seed tubers. Diversity: Five major clades, named C1, C2, Chile, N and O, have been described within the PVY species. In recent decades, a strong increase in prevalence of N × O recombinant isolates has been observed worldwide. A correlation has been observed between PVY phylogeny and certain pathogenicity traits. Genetic control of PVY: Resistance genes against PVY have been used widely in breeding programmes and deployed in the field. These resistance genes show a large diversity of spectrum of action, durability and genetic determinism. Notably, recessive and dominant major resistance genes show highly contrasting patterns of interaction with PVY populations, displaying rapid co-evolution or stable relationships, respectively. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.2.3-1 | Award Amount: 2.62M | Year: 2011

The BROWSE proposal is focussed directly and precisely on all the requirements of the call text. Specifically, it will: - Review, improve and extend the models currently used in the risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) to evaluate the exposure of operators, workers, residents and bystanders. - Use the new and improved exposure models to contribute to the implementation of Regulation 1107/2009 on authorisation of PPPs, replacing Directive 91/414/EC. - Use the new and improved exposure models to contribute to the implementation of the Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides. - Involve all relevant stakeholders and end-users and take full account of relevant gender issues in developing the exposure models and policy tools. The workplan is aligned with these key objectives. In addition, several key cross-cutting themes are established to ensure their consistent and integrated treatment throughout the project. These are: exposure scenarios, volatilisation, transfer coefficients, statistical modelling and calibration, and data management. Key stakeholder groups will be represented on the project Advisory Panel as well as participating directly via consultations and workshops, and in surveys to obtain new data on practices and sociobehavioural and gender factors influencing exposure. Models for key exposure scenarios covering different regions of the EU will be developed in order of priority based on consultation with stakeholders, implemented as user-friendly software, and tested with end-users. Project outputs will be delivered through established networks with end-users in EU and national authorities, national training organisations, the pesticide industry, and relevant trade unions and NGOs. The consortium is superbly equipped to address the project objectives, including international leading experts on every aspect and long experience in both the science and the regulatory aspects of exposure assessment.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-12 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2012

The PALM PROTECT consortium aims to develop reliable methods, for use by national plant protection organisations (NPPO), inspection services, growers and other end-users, for early detection, eradication, control and containment of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and the moth Paysandisia archon. The methods will be developed for use at origin, point of entry, in transit and on-site to combat these invasive pests of palm trees. The methods will support stakeholders and end-users in the implementation of Council Directives 2000/29/EC, 2007/365/EC, 2008/776/EC, 2009/7/EC and 2010/467/EU. The objectives identified to achieve these goals are: 1) to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the biology (life cycles, host range, capacity for dispersal, behaviour) of R. ferrugineus and P. archon to facilitate decision making for risk assessment and optimisation of monitoring and control methods. 2) To combat the spread and establishment of R. ferrugineus and P. archon by the development of technologies for the early detection and monitoring of these pests. Detection in quarantine areas using dogs, acoustic and thermal methods, and in open areas using trapping and aerial/satellite imaging, along with a decision support system 3) To develop methods to eradicate, control and contain R. ferrugineus and P. archon, to restrict their further invasion of EU territories. Scientifically based protocols will be developed for quarantine treatments, for eradication and containment including preventive and curative techniques, and proper disposal of infested material. 4) To disseminate the findings of this work both within and outside the EU Community, through working with NPPOs, the European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) and other stakeholders. PALM PROTECT will address gaps in current technology for the detection, eradication and containment of R. ferrugineus and P. archon, thereby helping to minimise the economic and environmental impact of these pests.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.2-06 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2012

The proposed project aims to develop innovative methods, tools and concepts for the replacement of copper in European organic and low input fruit, grapevine, potato, and tomato production systems. Copper-free production systems will be achieved by (i) providing alternative compounds, (ii) smart application tools and (iii) by integrating these tools into traditional and novel copper-free crop production systems. The copper-free apple, grapevine, potato and tomato production systems will be (iv) evaluated in a multi-criteria assessment with respect to agronomic, ecologic and economic performance. CO-FREE will also develop strategies to develop (v) smart breeding goals by development of crop ideotypes and (vi) foster consumer acceptance of novel disease-resistant cultivars by consumers and retailers. By involving farmers, advisors, plant protection industry, policy makers and researchers as well as the stakeholders of the European organic and low input sector (food supply chain, retailers, producers associations), CO-FREE will ensure a rapid development, dissemination and adoption of the copper replacement strategies. The multidisciplinary consortium proposed for the project includes 11 academic and 9 industry (all SMEs) partners from 10 European countries. All partner institutions are leaders in their respective fields and/or are leading providers of advisory services to farmers, retailers, policy makers and other stakeholders in the organic and low input sector.

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