Beersheba, Israel

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev is a university in Beersheba, Israel. Wikipedia.

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The invention relates to a catalyst suitable for use in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide-containing gas, said catalyst comprising spinel phase of the formula [Fe^(2+)(Fe^(3+)_(y)Al^(3+)_(1-y))_(2)O_(4)]. Processes for preparing the catalyst and processes for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide-containing gas in the presence of the catalyst are also disclosed.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Date: 2015-02-03

The invention is a system and method that enable obtaining ultra-high resolution interference, phase and OCT images at high speed. The system uses neither mechanical moving elements nor any optical/electro optical modulating means for obtaining the OCT images. Two OCT operating modes are available: for ultra-high resolution the system allows either spatial coherence TD-FF-OCT or temporal coherence TD-FF-OCT imaging, whereas for high resolution and ultra-high speed the system allows FD-FF-OCT imaging with full range imaging. In the TD mode, the OCT enface images are obtained in real time. In the FD mode, the 2D complex signal is reconstructed in real time. In both cases the method has the advantage of very high speed imaging with great immunity to noise.

Bar - Ilan University and Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Date: 2015-04-30

A gain cell includes a write bit line input, a read bit line output, a write trigger input and a read trigger input. The gain cell also includes a write transistor, retention element and read transistor. Each of the transistors includes a respective first diffusion connection, gate connection and second diffusion connection. The write transistor first diffusion connection is connected to the write bit line input and the write transistor gate connection is connected to the write trigger input. The read transistor first diffusion connection being connected to the read bit line output and the second diffusion connection is connected to the read trigger input. The retention element buffers between write transistor and the read transistor during data retention. The retention element also connects or disconnects a write transistor diffusion connection to/from a constant voltage in accordance with a retained data level at the read transistor gate connection.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Date: 2016-12-13

Dislosed is a device for up-conversion of Short Wavelength Infra-Red (SWIR) images into visible images. The device comprises a sub micrometer thickness structure that is composed of several sub-layers, each having a typical thickness of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The device is composed of two main sections one on top of the other: (a) a highly efficient SWIR absorption thin layer and (b) a highly efficient organic light emitted diode (OLED). The generated visible image is emitted from the OLED through a top transparent cathode, which is deposited on the OLED.

Ginossar E.,University of Surrey | Grosfeld E.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Solid-state Majorana fermions are generating intensive interest because of their unique properties and possible applications in fault tolerant quantum memory devices. Here we propose a method to detect signatures of Majorana fermions in hybrid devices by employing the sensitive apparatus of the superconducting charge-qubit architecture and its efficient coupling to microwave photons. In the charge and transmon regimes of this device, we find robust signatures of the underlying Majorana fermions that are, remarkably, not washed out by the smallness of the Majorana contribution to the Josephson current. It is predicted that at special gate bias points the photon-qubit coupling can be switched off via quantum interference, and in other points it is exponentially dependent on the control parameter EJ/EC. We propose that this device could be used to manipulate the quantum state of the Majorana fermion and realize a tunable high coherence four-level system in the superconducting-circuit architecture. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Dekel R.,Tel Aviv Medical Center | Drossman D.A.,University of North Carolina and Drossman Gastroenterology | Sperber A.D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2013

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is manifested by chronic abdominal pain associated with irregular bowel movements. Although not life threatening, IBS is associated with impaired quality of life that ranges from mild to severe. Areas covered: The pathogenesis of IBS is not completely understood, but involves dysfunction of the brain-gut axis including peripheral visceral hypersensitivity and central maladaptive processing of visceral pain input. Stress and concomitant psychopathologies such as somatization, anxiety and depression are thought to play a major role in the development, clinical course and response to treatment. Psychopharmacological agents such as selective serotonin/serotonin- norepinephrine receptor antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants as well as other agents are commonly used in treating moderate to severe IBS. This review will provide the pathophysiological rationale for the use of psychopharmacological agents in IBS, review the main classes of drugs and evidence for their use in IBS and offer a practical approach to the use of these drugs. Expert opinion: Psychotropic drugs can play a pivotal role in the treatment of IBS patients, so doctors should be familiar with their use. Further research with these drugs is needed to solidify our current knowledge and increase our therapeutic options. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Amara N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Krom B.P.,University of Groningen | Kaufmann G.F.,Scripps Research Institute | Meijler M.M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Different signaling systems have been discovered, with still more proteins and small molecules involved in QS likely to be uncovered in future. Interactions between plants and microorganisms are ubiquitous. The ascent of plants on land and its subsequent first interactions with soil microbes has been estimated to have occurred around 500 million years ago, and the ability of plants to defend themselves against continuous attacks of pathogens has been paramount to their evolutionary success. The first QSM-inactivating enzyme was identified by Dong by screening treated soil samples and laboratory bacterial collections. The use of AHL-degrading enzymes has been proposed as a strategy to attenuate bacterial virulence. Reimmann and co-workers reported that over-expression of aiiA homologues of two Bacillus spp in P. aeruginosa PAO1 resulted in decreased production of elastase (LasB).

Dubinsky L.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Krom B.P.,University of Groningen | Meijler M.M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Diazirines are among the smallest photoreactive groups that form a reactive carbene upon light irradiation. This feature has been widely utilized in photoaffinity labeling to study ligand-receptor, ligand-enzyme and protein-protein interactions, and in the isolation and identification of unknown proteins. This review summarizes recent advances in the use of diazirines in photoaffinity labeling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Osaadon P.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Osaadon P.,Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
Eye (London, England) | Year: 2014

Previous research has implicated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Although many studies reviewed the use of anti-VEGF for diabetic macular oedema, little has been written about the use of anti-VEGF for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This study is a review of relevant publications dealing with the use of anti-VEGF for the treatment of PDR. The articles were identified through systematic searches of PUBMED and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. At the end of each section, we summarized the level of evidence of the scientific literature. Off-label use of anti-VEGF agents was found to be beneficial in PDR, especially in cases with neovascular glaucoma, persistent vitreous haemorrhage, and before vitrectomy. The disadvantages of the use of anti-VEGF are its short-effect duration, causing tractional retinal detachment in cases with pre-existing pre-retinal fibrosis and endophthalmitis in rare cases. There is no conclusive evidence from large randomized trials regarding the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment in PDR. However, numerous case series, sound biochemical mechanism of action, and increasing experience with using anti-VEGF drugs can be used to support the ongoing use of this treatment modality in selected patients.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.3-3 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2010

Over the last years, large outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in several European countries and neighbouring areas are on the rise. This disease poses a great threat to public health due to its high mortality rate, modes of transmission and geographical distribution. Climate changes and observation of the CCHFV vector in central Europe alarm the European community as we cannot exclude that future outbreaks will take place in non-endemic area of Europe. To date, there is no vaccine available and no selective antiviral drug for the management of the disease. The general knowledge of migration, epidemiology, re-assortment and recombination of the virus is very limited. To fill these gaps, the CCH Fever project proposes to create a multidisciplinary collaborative research environment by bringing together selected competitive advantages such as: operative capacity with appropriate high security research facilities, reference centers and clinical samples from endemic areas and an international network of experienced researchers. This multidisciplinary research consortium will facilitate the progress in several key research areas of the field. This program will mainly focus on (i) developing sensitive and biosafe state-of-art diagnostic tools for CCHFV, (ii) gathering the forces and resources in Europe to build a Biobank of clinical samples, (iii) building a comprehensive database consisting in clinical, laboratory and surveillance data, (iv) taking advantage of unique and state-of art tools to progress towards vaccine candidates and specific antivirals against this bio-threat and (v) disseminating the appropriate knowledge to the health care workers in endemic regions and contributing to capacity building. These achievements will provide tools for local and European public health authorities to prevent or counter future outbreaks and monitor the spread of the disease thanks to the established novel and unique tools and resources.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-4.3-02 | Award Amount: 1.94M | Year: 2009

GRASP aims to contribute to the analysis and articulation of the current and future role of the EU as a global and regional actor in multilateral security governance, in a context of challenged multilateralism, where the EU aims for effective multilateralism. This project will examine the notion and practice of multilateralism in order to provide the required theoretical background for assessing the linkages between the EUs current security activities with multi-polarism, international law, regional integration processes and the United Nations system. The projects work plan will consist of the following components: (i) conceptual integrated analyses of the evolving concepts of multilateralism and security and the EUs role as a security actor; (ii) case-studies of the EUs approach to a number of specific security issues (regional conflict; terrorism; WMD proliferation; migration; energy and climate change; and severe violations to human rights); (iii) a transversal comparative analysis applying and integrating the case study findings; and lastly, (iv) a foresight study, building off the projects findings that will detail scenarios for future EU policy towards external security relations and multilateral approaches to threats and challenges. The research will be policy-oriented and include a strong interactive dimension, in order to assure ongoing feedback from the target-public. The work will be undertaken by a consortium of European research centers that have already collaborated on these issues (FP6). This group is enlarged by the inclusion of a number of institutes from outside the EU (Israel, Canada, South Africa and China) that will bring in further expertise on specific security issues in addition to important regional perceptions, necessary to avoiding a narrow Euro-centric approach and enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the role of the EU on the global stage.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2015

Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential services to human societies. Anthropogenic pressures, however, cause serious threat to ecosystems, leading to habitat degradation, increased risk of collapse and loss of ecosystem services. Knowledge-based conservation, management and restoration policies are needed to improve ecosystem benefits in face of increasing pressures. ECOPOTENTIAL makes significant progress beyond the state-of-the-art and creates a unified framework for ecosystem studies and management of protected areas (PA). ECOPOTENTIAL focuses on internationally recognized PAs in Europe and beyond in a wide range of biogeographic regions, and it includes UNESCO, Natura2000 and LTER sites and Large Marine Ecosystems. Best use of Earth Observation (EO) and monitoring data is enabled by new EO open-access ecosystem data services (ECOPERNICUS). Modelling approaches including information from EO data are devised, ecosystem services in current and future conditions are assessed and the requirements of future protected areas are defined. Conceptual approaches based on Essential Variables, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions allow for a deeper understanding of the Earths Critical Zone. Open and interoperable access to data and knowledge is assured by a GEO Ecosystem Virtual Laboratory Platform, fully integrated in GEOSS. Support to transparent and knowledge-based conservation and management policies, able to include information from EO data, is developed. Knowledge gained in the PAs is upscaled to pan-European conditions and used for planning and management of future PAs. A permanent stakeholder consultancy group (GEO Ecosystem Community of Practice) will be created. Capacity building is pursued at all levels. SMEs are involved to create expertise leading to new job opportunities, ensuring long-term continuation of services. In summary, ECOPOTENTIAL uses the most advanced technologies to improve future ecosystem benefits for humankind.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.38M | Year: 2012

The final goal of this proposal is to develop an SPM technique which is capable of identifying the type of atom which is under the tip while tunneling. The idea is to exploit the recent success in detection the hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins on the surface and to detect the hyperfine coupling between the electron spin on the tip and a nuclear spin on the surface. ESN-STM is an emerging technique that is capable of single spin detection through modulation at the Larmor frequency of the tunneling current. Recently preliminary studies have shown that using ESN-STM for chemical contrast is a feasible and realistic goal. To achieve this goal, several improvements to the technique are necessary. To this end, we propose to develop and study four advanced ESN-STM setups: 1) at ambient conditions, 2) at ultra-high vacuum (UHV), 3) at low temperature (LT) and 4) LT-UHV. Each of these setups has its own particular advantage. We shall improve the rf recovery system, the spectroscopic analysis and we shall use magnetic tips and quadrature detection. The spectroscopic parameters that we will use are the g factor and hyperfine tensors and the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times. With the new technique, the chemical identity of the spin centers, the surrounding nuclei, the viscosity, the oxidation state and the motion of atoms and molecules etc can be revealed on the single atom and single molecule levels. The spectral parameters will be sensitive to the local environment. This local information is normally averaged out in macroscopic spectroscopy. The (expected) successful improvement of ESN-STM will provide the SME a market for a new technique of studying paramagnetic species on the surface. Yet, a full success of the project in developing an SPM technique with atom identification capability will result in a huge market for a new nano-chemical analysis tool.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-01;SST-2007-4.1-02 | Award Amount: 5.28M | Year: 2009

Powered Two Wheeler (PTW) users are greatly over-involved in serious and fatal crashes. They have between 5 and 25 times the risk of having a fatal crash compared to car drivers, depending on the country. The number of PTWs on European roads has more than doubled over the last two decades. The recent MAIDS (Motorcycle Accident In-Depth Study) study of PTW crashes in Europe found that behavioural and ergonomic issues were major contributing factors to PTW crashes: the primary accident cause for PTW crashes was the failure of drivers to perceive two-wheelers; and human error was a major contributing factor to most crashes, for both PTW and car drivers. The majority of PTW crashes involved a collision with a car. Many large-scale research programs have been undertaken to understand the behavioural and ergonomic factors that contribute to crashes involving 4-wheeled vehicles. These have been effective in informing countermeasure development, which has led to significant reductions in crashes. To our knowledge, no comparable human factors and behavioural research programs have been initiated in the PTW domain, in Europe or elsewhere. The high rate of motorcycle-related deaths and injuries calls for new and refined countermeasures, deriving from solid behavioural and ergonomics research. In this proposal we outline an innovative program of research, involving partners from Europe, Israel and Australia, that directly targets those behavioural and ergonomic factors cited in the MAIDS study as contributing to PTW crashes. This includes research on crash causes and human error, the worlds first naturalistic riding study involving instrumented PTWs, research on motorcycle rider risk awareness and perception, the development of new research tools to support the research program, in-depth research on the factors that underlie driver failures to see PTWs and their riders, and the development of recommendations for practical countermeasures for enhancing PTW rider safety.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.83M | Year: 2017

ES-Cat will use directed evolution as a tool to reproduce Natures remarkable ability to generate molecular machines - in particular enzymes that perform at levels near perfection. Instead of seeing rational and combinatorial approaches as alternatives, we combine them in this network to achieve a smarter and more efficient exploration of protein sequence space. By harnessing the forces of Darwinian evolution and design in the laboratory we want to (i) screen large and diverse libraries for proteins with improved and useful functions, (ii) optimize existing proteins for applications in medicine or biotechnology and (iii) provide a better understanding of how existing enzymes evolved and how enzyme mechanisms can be manipulated. This Network brings together leading academic and industrial groups with diverse and complementary skills. The range of methodologies represented in ES-Cat allows an integrated approach combining in silico structural and sequence analysis with experimental high-throughput screening selection methods (phage-, ribozyme and SNAP display, robotic liquid handling, lab-on-a-chip/microfluidics) with subsequent systematic kinetic and biophysical analysis. This integration of methods and disciplines will improve the likelihood of success of directed evolution campaigns, shorten biocatalyst development times, and make protein engineering applicable to a wider range of industrial targets. It will also train the next generation of creative researchers ready to fill roles in tailoring enzymes and other proteins for industrial application in synthetic biology efforts to move towards a bio-based economy, rivaling advances that are being made in the US and allowing the EU economy to harvest its evident socio-economic benefits.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 1.11M | Year: 2009

The general objective of PRACTICE is to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. Specific objectives are: 1. To create an international platform of long-term monitoring sites for assessing and investigating practices to combat desertification. 2. To develop integrated evaluation tools to assess the cost-effectiveness of practices to combat desertification, taking into account changes in both biophysical and socio-economic properties, by synergistically exploiting the recent advances on assessment and evaluation methodologies and approaches. 3. To assess prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification for croplands, rangelands and woodlands, considering the impacts on socio-economic status, soil functions, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. 4. To identify and document best practices to combat desertification considering multiple purposes at different spatial (local to global) scales, and to establish cost-effective thresholds for the various management alternatives. 5. To develop education material and translational science strategies, and implement innovative participatory approaches to link science to society, to share and transfer evaluation methods and best practices, addressing and involving stakeholders at all levels, from farmers to local organisations, to national and international bodies.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.10 | Award Amount: 6.83M | Year: 2013

Society is progressively moving towards a socio-technical ecosystem in which the physical and virtual dimensions of life are more and more intertwined and where people interaction often takes place with or mediated by machines. The scale at which this is happening and the differences in culture, language and interests makes the problem of establishing effective communication and coordinated action increasingly challenging. So far, the attention has been mainly devoted to systems that provide or impose some form of harmonization or lightweight coordination of meaning and actions where machines do most of the computation and humans are at the periphery and only act as consumers. Our goal is to move towards a hybrid system where people and machines tightly work together to build a smarter society. We envision a new generation of Collective Adaptive Systems centred on the two foundational notions of compositionality and diversity where humans and machines compose by synergically complement each other thus bridging the semantic gap between low level machine and high level human interpretation of data and where they interoperate collectively to achieve their possibly conflicting goals both at individual and societal levels. Operationally, peers in the system will implement a continuous unlimited cycle in which data is sensed, interpreted, shared, elaborated and acted upon. Actions are taken on the basis of system suggestions and the way humans react to them, while generating new data thus alimenting the cycle ad infinitum.To meet this very ambitious goal the SmartSociety project will develop foundational principles for the operations and design of hybrid and diversity-aware collective adaptive systems, paving the way to the arising of a smarter form of society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.65M | Year: 2009

The discovery of porous hybrid materials constructed from inorganic nodes and organic multifunctional linkers has established a new area of inorganic-organic hybrids (Metal-Organic Frameworks, MOFs) with extraordinary performance as compared to traditional porous solids such as zeolites and activated carbon. NanoMOF will focus beyond discovery and integrate MOFs into products with industrial impact within a strong cooperation of established MOF research institutions and industrial end users. The extraordinary properties of MOFs are expected to lead to a significant ecologic and economic impact in three areas: 1) Clean air, pollution, and toxicity risks of gaseous chemicals are environmental concerns with specific materials needs for selective adsorption in porous materials and advanced filter systems. Industrial feed gases and exhaust gases require a high purity to ensure durable processes and avoid pollution. The integration of MOFs into textile products will be used to develop air permeable personal protective clothing. For industrial and house-hold fuel cell reformer units novel MOF-based sulphur removal systems will be developed. 2) Safe delivery of highly toxic electronic grade gases (etching gases, dopants) is crucial for tool operation in semiconductor and solar industry. 3) Catalysis is an ecologically relevant and economically attractive technology. The replacement of liquid acids by solid state catalysts avoids the production of toxic liquid waste. MOF catalysts for (trans)esterification processes are designed for the conversion of fatty acids and triglycerides into valuable products for the oleochemical industry. The integration of MOFs into industrial relevant processes and products is supported by advanced modelling, simulation and process monitoring techniques. The project aims for a higher integration of MOFs into products with a high added value in order to propel Europe into an internationally leading position in the industrial use of MOFs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-4 | Award Amount: 15.74M | Year: 2013

Epilepsy is a devastating condition affecting over 50 million people worldwide. This multidisciplinary project is focused on the process leading to epilepsy, epileptogenesis, in adults. Our main hypothesis is that there are combinations of various causes, acting in parallel and/or in succession, that lead to epileptogenesis and development of seizures. Our central premise and vision is that a combinatorial approach is necessary to identify appropriate biomarkers and develop effective antiepileptogenic therapeutics. The project will focus on identifying novel biomarkers and their combinations for epileptogenesis after potentially epileptogenic brain insults in clinically relevant animal models, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and status epilepticus (SE); explore multiple basic mechanisms of epileptogenesis and their mutual interactions related to cell degeneration, circuit reorganization, inflammatory processes, free radical formation, altered neurogenesis, BBB dysfunction, genetic and epigenetic alterations; and translating these findings towards the clinic by validating biomarkers identified from animal models in human post TBI brain tissue and blood samples, post-mortem brain tissue in individuals that died soon after SE, and human brain and blood samples from chronic epilepsy cases. The project will identify novel combinatorial biomarkers and novel disease-modifying combinatorial treatment strategies for epileptogenesis, create an Epilepsy Preclinical Biobank, and validate translational potential of results from animal models in human tissue. To adequately address the proposed goals, the project will develop technological breakthroughs, such as completely novel chemogenetic approaches, novel MRI techniques, novel multimodal organic recording devices for simultaneous recordings of EEG / cellular unit activity and biochemical measurements, novel bioluminescence for in vivo promoter activity analysis, and novel systems biology approaches.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.17 | Award Amount: 9.41M | Year: 2010

EXPEER will bring together, major observational, experimental, analytical and modelling facilities in ecosystem science in Europe. By uniting these highly instrumented ecosystem research facilities under the same umbrella and with a common vision, EXPEER will form a key contribution to structuring and improving the European Research Area (ERA) within terrestrial ecosystem research. EXPEER builds on an ambitious plant for networking research groups and facilities. The joint research activities will provide a common framework and roadmap for improving the quality, interaction and individual as well as joint performance of these infrastructures in a durable and sustainable manner. EXPEER will provide a framework for increased use and exploitation of the unique facilities through a strong and coordinated programme for Transnational Access to the infrastructures. Extensive outreach and collaboration with related networks, infrastructures as well as potential funding bodies will ensure that EXPEER will contribute with its key experiences to the shaping and designing of future research networks and infrastructures, and that it has full support from all stakeholders in reaching its long-term objectives. The establishment of the EXPEER Integrated Infrastructure will enable integrated studies of the impacts of climate change, land use change and loss of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems through two major steps: 1. Bringing together the EXPEER Infrastructures to enable collaboration and integration of observational, experimental and modelling approaches in ecosystem research (in line with the concept developed in ANAEE); 2. Structuring existing network of ecosystem observational, monitoring and experimental sites across Europe (LTER-Europe). Through its integrated partnership, uniting both the experimental, observational, analytical and modelling research communities, EXPEER has the multidisciplinary expertise and critical mass to integrate and structure the European long-term ecosystem research facilities providing improved services and benefits to the whole research community as well as the society in general.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev, Technion Research & Development Foundation Ltd. and The Interdisciplinary Center | Date: 2010-04-12

A method for error detection includes storing in an associative memory (24, 50, 70) multiple data entries (30), each data entry including a data item (28) together with one or more check symbols (40) computed with respect to the data item. A predetermined sequence of search keys (32) is applied to the memory, thereby causing the memory to generate, in parallel, match results with respect to the data entries. The match results are processed in order to identify an error in at least one of the data entries.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 10.02M | Year: 2011

BIOFAT is a microalgae to biofuel Demonstration project with a farming area of 10-ha for microalgae cultivation and a target annual productivity of 100 tons per ha. The project will integrate all the processes from single cell to biofuel production. The production stage will be based on photobioreactors for inocula production, and raceways for production of bulk biomass and induction of oil/starch accumulation, necessary to obtain the biofuel (biodiesel and bioethanol). Carbon dioxide derived from fermentation will be used. Biomass harvesting will be done by pre-concentration and subsequent centrifugation. A low-energy input centrifuge will be used. Extraction will be done by mechanical cell disruption of wet (25-30% dry solids) paste. Oil will be transformed into biodiesel by transesterification, and carbohydrates to bioethanol through fermentation. Oil and carbohydrate accumulation will be obtained by nutrient stress using specific algal strains. Only marine strains will be used to avoid any competition with food crops. BIOFAT will also develop the concept of algorefinery (i.e., high value co-products besides biofuels). BIOFAT will demonstrate at 10-ha scale proven and tested technologies which have been developed by Consortium members at small scale. Innovation will be in the scaling-up of the process to the 10-ha Demo Plant. Specific Engineering and Business Plans for setting up the 10-ha Demo Plant will be based on the results obtained from operation of 2 0,5 ha Pilot Plants (Italy and Portugal). The 2 prototypes existing in Israel and Italy will be used for the training of a development team. The overall sustainability of the algal biofuel and co-products production will be evaluated by LCA. The project will have a duration of 4 years. A funding of 7,733 K will be requested to the EC. A specific investment for the Demo Plant will be provided by investors according to the Business Plan developed by the Consortium and by mobilizing the necessary investment support from RSFF.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 7.89M | Year: 2015

Superfluidity is a state in which matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity. Our project aims at achieving superfluidity in the network: the ability to instantiate services on-the-fly, run them anywhere in the network (core, aggregation, edge) and shift them transparently to different locations. The SUPERFLUIDITY project tackles crucial shortcomings in todays networks: long provisioning times, with wasteful over-provisioning used to meet variable demand; reliance on rigid and cost-ineffective hardware devices; daunting complexity emerging from three forms of heterogeneity: heterogeneous traffic and sources; heterogeneous services and needs; and heterogeneous access technologies, with multi-vendor network components. The SUPERFLUIDITY solution is based on: a decomposition of network components and services into elementary and reusable primitives; a native, converged cloud-based architecture; the virtualization of radio and network processing tasks; platform-independent abstractions, permitting reuse of network functions across heterogeneous hardware platforms, while catering to the vendors need for closed platforms/implementations; and high performance software optimizations along with leveraging of hardware accelerators. As a result, the 5G network will benefit from: i) location-independence: network services deployable in heterogeneous networks; ii) time-independence: near instantaneous deployment and migration of services; iii) scale-independence: transparent service scalability; and iv) hardware-independence: development and deployment of services with high performance irrespective of the underlying hardware. Through these properties, SUPERFLUIDITY will provide a converged cloud-based 5G concept that will enable innovative use cases in the mobile edge, empower new business models, and reduce investment and operational costs. The SUPERFLUIDITY consortium gathers an impressive and uncommon blend of Telco and IT players that can make its vision a reality.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2015

A collective effort is needed to create the environmental research infrastructure for answering pressing questions in a world of rapid social, economic and environmental change. The overall aim of the eLTER project is to advance the European network of Long-Term Ecosystem Research sites and socio-ecological research platforms to provide highest quality services for multiple use of a distributed research infrastructure. eLTERs major objectives and methods are to: (1) identify user needs for the research infrastructure in relation to major societal challenges through consultations with scientific, policy and business stakeholders and horizon scanning; (2) streamline the design of a cost-efficient pan-European network, able to address multiple ecosystem research issues, in collaboration with related global and European research infrastructures, e.g. LifeWatch; (3) develop the organisational framework for data integration and enable virtual access to the LTER data by enabling data publishing through distributed Data Nodes and by providing access to data on key research challenges through a Data Integration Platform; (4) foster the societal relevance, usability and multiple use of information, data and services through new partnerships with the providers of remotely sensed data, analytical services and scenario testing models, and via the adoption of new measurement technologies. The LTER-Europe network and the European Critical Zone community will collaborate to achieve these goals. 162 sites in 22 countries will provide data on long-term trends in environmental change, some reaching back 100 years. Test cases using these data will address a range of environmental and social issues to push innovation in network level services and steer conceptual developments. The envisaged LTER Infrastructure will enable European-scale investigation of major ecosystems and socio-ecological systems, and support knowledge-based decision making at multiple levels.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2013

Biosensor development is a very promising and prospective field of research in food- clinical- and environmental analysis. Besides conventional analytical methods biosensors specifically detect only some decisive components. However, miniaturised sensor systems are able to detect components in the femto/ato-gramm region with almost no interference to other components in the investigated system. The advantage of such technologies is beside the high sensitivity/selectivity, the cost reduction and the very fast response of such analytic systems. Complex sensor systems will be developed for multiple parameter sensing on real samples combined with signal enhancement strategies. The network created by SAMOSS will improve the further development of biosensors in combination with optochemical sensing techniques in the fields of application and by broader distribution of knowledge. The main topics of the development will comprise the research and development of new materials for optochemical sensing and microfluidic applications, microfluidic sample handling modules, multifunctional elements, signal enhancement and innovative detection systems. SAMOSS will create a European Centre of Excellence for training young researchers in Biosensor Research and Development suited for Applications in Medicine, Food and Beverage Technologies as well as Environmental issues. Through well trained researchers SAMOSS will provide widely skilled personnel for a) the European Biosensor Research in Academia and b) the European Biosensor Industry. As a European Centre of Excellence SAMOSS will deliver a flexible and adaptable network of young researchers that is capable to accomplish the European needs in research and development of new, innovative biosensors for food and beverage analysis, environmental analysis and health care. Thus they will be well trained to become future team leaders in these research and development fields, whether in the domain of academia or in the private sector.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2009-3.4-1 | Award Amount: 10.23M | Year: 2010

CROPS will develop scientific know-how for a highly configurable, modular and clever carrier platform that includes modular parallel manipulators and intelligent tools (sensors, algorithms, sprayers, grippers) that can be easily installed onto the carrier and are capable of adapting to new tasks and conditions. Several technological demonstrators will be developed for high value crops like greenhouse vegetables, fruits in orchards, and grapes for premium wines. The CROPS robotic platform will be capable of site-specific spraying (targets spray only towards foliage and selective targets) and selective harvesting of fruit (detects the fruit, determines its ripeness, moves towards the fruit, grasps it and softly detaches it). Another objective of CROPS is to develop techniques for reliable detection and classification of obstacles and other objects to enable successful autonomous navigation and operation in plantations and forests. The agricultural and forestry applications share many research areas, primarily regarding sensing and learning capabilities.

Car CO2 emissions are to be limited to 120 g/km for all new passenger cars by 2012. If they are unable to achieve targets, then this may have a significant negative impact on manufacturers. Cars also produce emissions such as Nitrogen oxides, Hydrocarbons, Carbon monoxide and particulate matter which are subject to tight controls. For marine application, existing and forthcoming legislation is aiming at reducing the emissions of Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons and particulate matter. In addition, concerns about rising fuel costs are driving the need for greater fuel efficiencies. As a result, a disruptive technology step is required that will enable the manufactures or cars and marine engines to meet the forthcoming legislative standards. One very attractive way of achieving this is to generate power from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) waste heat. A prototype system created by BMW can generate up to 250W of electricity under normal driving conditions that can cut fuel consumption by up to 2%. However, the thermo-electric materials used for these applications to date have a number of clear limitations as they can be easily thermally damaged, are expensive and only achieve low efficiencies. The POWER DRIVER project aims to overcome the limitations relating to the production of an automotive and marine power generation system by integrating cutting-edge nano-structured silicide and functionally graded telluride thermo-electric materials into a heat exchanger assembly that will enable electrical power to be generated from the exhaust system without affecting back-pressure or engine balance. By doing this, the exhaust system created will offer greatly improved environmental performance due to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions (CO2, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulates) at a cost that is affordable to the end-user. It is predicted that (even if the additional weight of the unit is considered) fuel efficiency will increase by at least 5%, leading to a corresponding 5% reduction in emissions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.01M | Year: 2012

The aim of SPREE project is to identify potential Servicizing Policies and simulate their effect on absolute decoupling of economic growth and resource use, while achieving societal benefits. Servicizing Systems facilitate the transition from selling products to providing services. Except for ICT, these are still quite rare. SPREE is dedicated to promote the implementation of Servicizing Systems in 3 different sectors: water, mobility and agri-food. We propose to use an advanced Agent Based Modelling (ABM) approach to structure and test options for Servicizing Systems and Policies. This provides a generic framework that allows exploring short and long term effects, and assessment of the 3 sectors in different countries. Based on the models results and complementary qualitative analysis we will construct Servicizing Policy Packages that take into account the environmental, economic and social dimensions and trade-offs between them. Thus, SPREE results will help to realize EU strategies particularly in the framework of EUROPE 2020. Based on conceptualization of Servicizing Systems, we use existing instruments and develop new tools that fit into the evaluation of emerging Servicizing Systems and policies effects. We define more suitable dynamic tools needed for ex-ante assessment of newly created supply chains that can emerge out of Servicizing activities. Using ABM, we demonstrate how Servicizing Systems develop and test outcomes of proposed policies on the creation of successful Servicizing opportunities leading to absolute decoupling. The SPREE consortium consists of 10 partners from 7 different countries, and includes public bodies and research institutes to provide a sound base for both Servicizing Systems and Policy. The key deliverable is Servicizing Policy Packages that exploit existing synergies to achieve a truly sustainable EU economy where economic growth is decoupled from environmental impact, society prospers and a global example is set.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2011.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 8.99M | Year: 2012

In order to gauge its significance, conceptual change in the study of borders must be seen in relation to fundamental social, economic and geopolitical transformations that have taken place in the past decades. In addition, major paradigmatic shifts in scientific debate, and in the social sciences in particular, must also be considered. Recognising the close interrelationships between social change and paradigm shifts, the EUBORDERSCAPES project will analyse the evolving concept of borders in terms of a mutually linked emergence of post-national, post-colonial, post-modernist and post-Communist strands of inquiry. State borders are the frame of reference, rather than ethnographic/anthropological boundaries. However, this approach emphasises the social significance and subjectivities of state borders while critically interrogating objective categories of state territoriality and international relations. The research proposed here will, furthermore, not only be focused at the more general, at times highly abstract, level of conceptual change. This approach will also allow us to compare and contrast how different and often contested conceptualisations of state borders (in terms of their political, social, cultural and symbolic significance) resonate in concrete contexts at the level of everyday life.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.04M | Year: 2012

Systems Chemistry (the chemistry of complex mixtures of interacting molecules) is a rapidly developing new fronteir in the chemical sciences. Where chemistry has for centuries been a firmly reductionistic science, Systems Chemistry breaks with this tradition by focussing on complexity and emergent behaviour. This network brings together nearly all major academic players active in Europe on experimental approaches to Systems Chemistry in general and molecular networks in particular. Our consortium is of exceptional quality and is a balanced mix of highly experienced scientists with mutiple publications in Science and/or Nature and talented young scientists of whom four have recently been awarded prestigious ERC starting grants. We have two full partners from industry that provide essential analytical support and the perspective on commercialisation of complex chemical systems. Aim of our high-level consortium is to provide a comprehensive high-quality training program on Systems Chemistry, in the context of a cutting-edge and wide-ranging research program, focusing on two important phenomena: adaptation and replication in molecular networks. These subjects will be developed towards application in enantioselective organoautocatalysis, molecular Boolean logic protocols, self-synthesising materials that exhibit electronic conductivity and adaptive biological functionality, sensing of bio-analytes, assessing molecular similarity and materials for anti-counterfeiting. Our comprehensive training and research program will deliver a new generation of young researchers eager to push the frontiers of the rapidly emerging field of Systems Chemistry, expanding Europes lead in this exciting new area.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.1-10 | Award Amount: 16.21M | Year: 2009

Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports a link between chronic inflammation and cancer and indicates a role for inflammatory cells in the initiation, progression and metastasis of malignancy. The objective of the collaborative integrated project INFLA-CARE is to structure a European collective of scientific and technological excellence in the field of Inflammation & Cancer which will capitalise on the available expertise and develop effective anti-inflammatory strategies and novel agents for cancer prevention and treatment. The project will specifically seek to identify molecular and cellular targets for cancer therapy through the development and systematic study of state-of-the-art pre-clinical models of inflammation-driven cancer. By mobilising the outstanding research experience and technological capacities of the network participants, the program will accelerate the translation of knowledge obtained by basic research into new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which will be used for the detection, prevention and improved management of several types of human cancer. INFLA-CARE will also ensure spreading of scientific excellence and dissemination of knowledge beyond the network, by encouraging innovation and transfer of knowledge and by raising public understanding of scientific and health issues. The impact of the program is therefore expected to be multi-dimensional, namely scientific, educational and innovation-related, enhancing European competitiveness and addressing major scientific issues and societal needs.

News Article | November 30, 2016

Bidoo Cave in the hills west of Hebron opens with towering arches that lead through subterranean chambers carved perhaps thousands of years ago. Cut into the walls of one cavern are hundreds of small, rectangular niches where ancient residents once raised pigeons for meat, eggs and ritual sacrifice. The cave could be an archaeological treasure, but soot coats the walls and the floor is littered with rubbish, including burnt tyres and wiring. Deep inside the cavern, beside a giant rock, is a lone upside-down computer monitor. Bidoo is used by local children to burn 'e-waste' — mostly leftover foams and plastics from computers and televisions. Electronics are dismantled in nearby villages as part of a massive recycling industry outside Hebron in the Palestinian territories. The scale of this industry is enormous: roughly half of all the e-waste generated in Israel finds its way to a cluster of four villages in the area. About 80% of households there — including both adults and children — are involved either directly or indirectly in processing e-waste to extract copper and other valuable metals. The informal, unregulated trade takes a heavy toll. Hundreds of e-waste burn sites are scattered about the region and have polluted the soil with lead, as well as dioxins and other toxic compounds. “The landscape is saturated with these contaminants,” says Yaakov Garb, an environmental scientist at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Sde Boker, Israel, who has spent the past five years mapping the burn sites and assessing their effects on the health of people who live nearby. “Most houses are within a stone's throw of a current site or former site.” Locals say that the burning sickens entire villages with respiratory illnesses, and water that runs off the contaminated hillsides kills vegetation. Although medical information there is spotty, preliminary studies have found very high lead levels in children. And studies of exposure to similar e-waste sites in China have documented a range of health effects, including increases in spontaneous abortions, still births, DNA damage and breathing difficulties1. Now, an innovative plan is taking shape to clean up the electronics recycling industry in the Hebron Hills. Garb is working with local leaders, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations to remediate the toxic sites and replace burning with non-polluting recycling methods that still allow residents to earn a living. The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) plans to provide US$2.7 million to support the project, which is awaiting approval by the Palestinian Authority. And in a rare example of cooperation, the Israeli and Palestinian governments are nearing agreements to put the plan into action, says Garb. “What he's been able to pull together is nothing short of miraculous; getting both sides to agree like that at all levels, it's remarkable,” says Richard Fuller, chief executive of the non-governmental agency Pure Earth in New York City, which will be overseeing the project. The Palestinian clean-up scheme, he says, could serve as a model project for similar toxic e-waste sites in poor communities around the world, where millions of tonnes of electrical equipment gets dumped each year. Garb has a long history of working across borders — both international and academic. Born in Johannesburg in 1960, he came to Israel as a 13 year old with his parents, who saw no future in apartheid-era South Africa. He has studied irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa, former toxic waste sites in the Czech Republic and deforestation in Guatemala. E-waste caught his attention in 2008, when he noticed something odd while conducting a freight survey in the southern West Bank. Each morning, 70 to 80 trucks left the Hebron area and passed into Israel. They returned to the West Bank each night, laden with washing machines, refrigerators, toaster ovens, LCD screens, computers and furniture. After publishing his traffic survey, Garb set the data aside for a few years, until he did a study analysing the water sources in hundreds of West Bank towns and villages. Residents of the town of Beit Awwa told a student working with Garb: “We used to collect the rainwater, but we don't because of the 'black rain'.” Laundry, hung out to dry, came back soot-coloured. The villagers blamed the black rain on the local recyclers, who burn electrical cables and wiring to extract copper. That made Garb even more curious. He and another graduate student, John-Michael Davis of Memorial University of Newfoundland in St John's, Canada, analysed the local e-waste economy from top to bottom by conducting hundreds of interviews and doing randomized surveys. Davis even moved to Beit Awwa for more than a year to immerse himself in the community. Their study2 is the first to chart the entire e-waste recycling economy anywhere, says Garb. They found that the items in the trucks came from a variety of sources in Israel: technology companies or government ministries upgrading computers or routers and disposing of the old equipment; repair labs that discard or sell old televisions or other hard-to-fix items; and households getting rid of old appliances. Some of it ends up in Beit Awwa, says Davis, where there is a big market for discarded furniture and appliances. Although many items are refurbished and resold, large quantities of electronic waste are dismantled and burnt in an industry spread across Beit Awwa and three adjacent villages: Idhna, Al-Kum and Deir Sammit. He and Garb calculated that some 60,000 tonnes of e-waste — about half of what is produced in Israel — were processed at these four villages in 2014. Some residents break down or repair the equipment in informal facilities, and others burn components at more than 500 sites in and around the villages. About 70 of these sites have, at some point in the past decade, burned at least a tonne of waste per day over the course of a year, says Garb. The local industry took off in 2004 after the price of copper jumped and Israel's construction of a security barrier made it difficult for Palestinian men in this area to cross into Israel for work. This kind of e-waste traffic from prosperous to poorer communities happens around the world. According to a report3 compiled by the United Nations, an estimated 41.8 million tonnes of waste electrical and electronic equipment was generated in 2014 (see 'Mountains of e-waste'). Europe and Asia are the largest producers, and African and Asian countries — including Ghana, Nigeria, China, Pakistan, India and Vietnam — are key destinations for shipments of hazardous e-waste for dumping. In the Palestinian territories and much of the developing world, recyclers rely on inexpensive methods — using hammers and axes to dismantle equipment and burning cables to extract the copper. These techniques are also among the most polluting. So when Garb became aware of the problem in what is practically his backyard, he felt compelled to try clean it up, he says. In combination with Palestinian and Israeli officials, Garb and his colleagues are attempting to transform the illegal, unregulated enterprise into a formal recycling trade — with facilities that allow for safe extraction of valuable components. Instead of stamping out the industry, which he says would drive it elsewhere in the West Bank, Garb hopes to build a partnership that will benefit all parties. A tour of Beit Awwa and surrounding villages reveals how much is at stake. An acrid smell fills the air as Garb walks past ramshackle workshops and blackened hills. One facility is stacked high with old lamps, refrigerators, sinks, cables, metal cabinets, motherboards, keyboards and a pile of burned metal scrap. Nailed to a pole outside, an old Hebrew sign warns, “Please keep [area] clean.” A boy, about ten years old, saunters about in flip-flops over the greasy black ground. According to a small survey by Garb, the average age at which burners start in the industry is 15. Many residents worry about the recycling industry. At a burn site close to a quarry east of Idhna, two men driving past in their truck stop to talk to Garb. They complain that rainwater run-off from the fires has rendered nearby fields so contaminated that crops cannot grow there. During burning, chickens die or lay eggs without shells or yolks, say the workers. In an unpublished study, Garb and Davis found hints that one type of cancer might be more common near burn sites. Garb has worked with a local group, Al Yassaria Women's Association, as well as Noam Weisbrod, a contaminant hydrologist from Ben-Gurion University, to submit a proposal to the US Agency for International Development to study household exposure to e-waste burning and its health effects, including birth defects and cancer. Preliminary results from other studies suggest that children in the area are getting high doses of heavy-metal pollution. Sulaiman Swaitti, a Palestinian nurse from Beit Awwa who is now a master's student in public health and environmental studies at Ben-Gurion University, analysed levels of lead in the blood of 22 children from Deir Sammit. Twelve children had concentrations above 5 micrograms per decilitre, the point at which the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends public-health action; the highest value was 18.7 micrograms per decilitre. For comparison, a separate study4 of children in the West Bank found an average lead level of 4.2 micrograms per decilitre. Swaitti plans to do a more formal study by measuring lead in blood samples from 40 children in each of the other villages, plus a control group. He will also test dust in their households for heavy metals, and correlate the results with school grades. “We have been suffering from this e-waste for a very long time — from the emissions from the burning of plastics, copper and aluminium,” says Muhamad Sweity, administrator of the Al Yassaria municipality, which covers Deir Sammit, Beit Awwa and Al-Kum. “We suffer from many, many problems: contamination of water, agriculture, farm animals, nature.” Children who live close to the burn sites have breathing problems, he says, and olive-tree yields have declined year after year. “We tried several times to solve the problem with the aid of the police, the [Israeli] Civil Administration, the government — nothing helped us,” Sweity says. Although burning e-waste is illegal, oversight in the area is complicated because local Palestinian police have to coordinate with the Israeli Civil Administration — which has military and administrative control of the area — to enter the region where much of the burning takes place. By the time police get there, the people responsible are typically gone. And many families earn their livelihood from recycling, so they are reluctant to give it up. What is really needed, Sweity says, is financial support for clean recycling companies, as well as better police enforcement and inspection schemes. That's where Garb comes in. With his calm and easy-going manner, he gets a warm welcome in the Palestinian villages and also works effectively with Israeli authorities and other parties. “Somehow I seem to be put together in a way that allows me to move between the Arab and Jewish worlds, and between the social worlds of consulates and scrap yards, ministries and smugglers,” says Garb. That sensibility has helped to give Garb a unique role in this area, says Johan Schaar, head of development cooperation at the Consulate General of Sweden in Jerusalem. Sweden has been active in promoting development in the Palestinian territories, and Schaar first met Garb three years ago. “What Yaakov has done, all this mapping that he has been able to do in these villages, that he has gained the confidence of all the people involved in this, is quite extraordinary,” he says. Garb's efforts stand out, say others in the region, because there is a high degree of tension there, with little progress towards peace after nearly 50 years of Israeli occupation of the West Bank. In December 2015, SIDA gave Garb and Pure Earth a $180,000 grant that funded a trial remediation of two sites in Beit Awwa. Workers used a tractor to scrape off the black surface goop, and then dug out the remaining toxic grime with picks and shovels. They transferred the material to a double-sealed plastic storage deposit at the same site. (Garb is now negotiating to move the contaminated soils to a certified facility for hazardous-waste disposal in Israel.) That was just the first phase of a much broader project. In January this year, Garb and his team drew up an ambitious programme consisting of three components: clean up the hazardous-waste sites, create a sustainable Palestinian recycling sector and prevent further contamination of sites. The plan to build a sustainable recycling industry was key to convincing the Israeli Civil Administration to come on board, Garb says. Schaar says that SIDA expects to provide a $2.7-million grant, channelled through Pure Earth, to implement the broader plan. One part will be used to clean up 100 toxic waste sites. Another portion will fund an interim programme of free, legal copper recycling for residents of these villages. And a third will pay for a small rapid-response unit to shut down illegal burning. Fuller says the project yields multiple benefits by “giving jobs to the poorest, helping to build that economy, and that helps the whole peace process”. The Israeli government and Palestinian Environmental Quality Authority are now in the final stages of negotiating an agreement to put the plans into place. The cleaner future that Garb envisions is slowly taking shape in a small warehouse in Idhna. At the Safa Recycling and Material Processing company, workers shovel wiring from electronics and electrical cables into a $220,000 grinding machine that shreds copper cables and separates them from their plastic sleeving. Safa's owner, Ismail Suleiman, says that when he bought the machine, “everyone was happy and clapping”, but it has been difficult to turn that into a profitable business. Grinding the cables costs much more than burning them. And he had trouble obtaining the proper permits to import the cables legally from Israel, he says. “There is no enforcement of laws by the Palestinian Authority against burning,” he says. “Any way you look at it, it's a mess.” Money from the Swedish pilot project has helped. In February, the SIDA grant provided funds for locals to bring in cables for free grinding. Recyclers were so eager that they processed 15 tonnes in just 3 days, demonstrating that they might embrace a cleaner alternative to burning if it is economical. A portion of the new Swedish grant would provide an economic incentive to continue this legal recycling. The Israeli government has also become involved in the clean-up efforts, because smoke from the four villages affects Israeli residents as well. Benny Elbaz, the Israeli Ministry of the Environment official who heads the West Bank environmental division of the Israeli Civil Administration in Beit El, is upbeat about the upcoming agreement. “We're doing everything we can to ensure the success of this project,” he says. Elbaz plans to expand the initial pilot recycling project at Safa to other materials and other companies. Garb, too, has high hopes for extending the scope of the industry. He foresees “competitive boutique recycling”, in which Palestinians develop their own micro-niches for hand-dismantling devices and extracting rare-earth metals such as neodymium from the powerful magnets found in microphones and hard drives. Pure Earth sees the Palestinian–Israeli initiative as a model for how to clean up burn sites in urban centres of many other poor places around the world, including those in Africa. Fuller says that Garb's project is one of the best designs he has seen, because it is politically viable. “I hope that we're going to do it in many other places,” he says. But making the shift from burning to clean recycling is challenging, says Kees Baldé, an associate programme officer at the United Nations University in Bonn, Germany, and co-author of the 2014 report3 on global e-waste. The higher costs of clean recycling and local corruption in many areas often conspire to doom such efforts. If the Palestinian–Israeli agreement succeeds, Baldé says, “I think that the societal impact is going to be big”. With proper facilities, e-waste recyclers will earn more money, and be protected from the toxins released by burning, he says. Even if it works well, the project in the Hebron Hills will not completely solve the problem there, says Garb, although it will put a big dent in it. The blackened slopes around Beit Awwa and nearby villages show just how far he and his colleagues have to go in cleaning up the pollution. But here and there, a delicate purple wildflower or a green shoot pokes up amid the scattered phone cases and burned rocks — a sign of what could be. And the agreement over e-waste is a rare case of Israelis and Palestinians working together for a better future, says Garb, “to see beyond the politics of the moment to the long-term human and environmental significance”.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: CIRC-04-2016 | Award Amount: 3.01M | Year: 2016

R2 examines the shift from the broad concept of a Circular Economy (CE) to one of a Circular Economy Business Models (CEBM), by tackling both market failure (business, consumers) and policy failure (conflicts, assumptions, unintended consequence). Its innovation lies in having a strong business-focus, examining stimuli beyond environmental goals (including ICT and eco-innovation), and in examining the role of policy innovation (including the use of policy nudges and of Policy Packages). R2 unfolds in diverse contexts with a strong emphasis on involvement and exchange. The research design employs mixed-methods, with a strong emphasis on case studies but also including desktop research, feasibility assessments (including surveys where applicable), policy formulation & stakeholder involvement. The ultimate goal of the project is to see the widespread implementation of the CE based on successful Business Models to ensure sustained economic development, to minimize environmental impact and to maximize social welfare. The goal of the R project is therefore to develop sustainable business models that would facilitate the circular economy and to propose Policy Package that will support these business models. The R2Pi Consortium consists of 14 partners from 9 Member states and associated countries. The wide range of expertise, knowledge, tools and connections existing among the consortium members will be leveraged to develop innovative practical tools and procedural guidelines that may be widely and systematically applied across many different business sectors in diverse regions and countries, across the spectrum from large established EU countries to newer and smaller member states.. Through these innovative business models and Policy Packages, the European economy will move into a more sustainable, resource efficient and resilient economic track. R will position Europe as a world leader in advancing the circular economy model.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008

A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: FoF-ICT-2011.7.3 | Award Amount: 10.94M | Year: 2011

With ComVantage we envision an interorganisational collaboration space turning todays organisation-centric manufacturing approach into a product-centric one. Manufacturers will benefit from a flexible, efficient platform that helps them to operate as one virtual factory and thus gain competitive advantages in their markets. Based on best practises of Web 2.0 technologies the collaboration space will be an extension to existing business and engineering software. It will allow to share, administrate and monitor focused information throughout a products life cycle in a de-centralised manner. The close collaboration on the B2B and B2C levels will foster existing trends such as Open Innovation or Crowd Sourcing.\nThe framework of the virtual factory will encompass a secure access control that is founded on dynamic workflow models and flexible user roles accounting for large enterprises, SMEs and for end-customers. It will enable temporary and de-centralised access management for ad-hoc collaboration between geographically distributed experts.\nTo adhere to changing working situations, to efficient communication, and to rich interaction technologies ComVantage will focus on mobile devices. Intuitive and trustful mobile apps shall support users in fast decision making and problem solving. Information from different sources across the organisations is provided and maintained via Linked Data . The integration of sensor data allows for products to be members of the collaboration space.\nA continuous evaluation of the ICT and business model considering use cases throughout the project will verify the added-value of ComVantage for the European industry. The utilisation of existing technologies, a close user approach, and an incremental project set-up will provide sound concepts ready for fast productisation. Thus implementing ComVantage will increase lean communication, agile and highly efficient production processes, cost control and a low carbon footprint.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.40M | Year: 2008

This project intends to use directed evolution as tool to reproduce Natures remarkable ability to generate molecular machines - in particular enzymes that perform at levels near perfection. By harnessing the forces of Darwinian evolution in the laboratory we want to (i) screen large and diverse genome libraries for protein with new and useful functions, (ii) optimize existing proteins for applications in medicine, biotechnology and cell biology and (iii) provide a better understanding of how existing enzymes evolved and study enzyme mechanisms in general. The proposed Network brings together leading academic and industrial groups with diverse and complementary skills: the development of a variety of innovative biotechnology tools for the generation and exploitation of large genomic and man-made libraries, expertise in mechanistic enzymology and an unrivalled technology platform including phage display, in vitro compartmentalization, ribosome display, selective protein labelling and high-throughput screening that will be key to achieve the ambitious goals of this project. The project is a continuation of a highly successful framework 5 network. The partnership has now been extended by two successful SMEs at different stages of their development and one of Europes premier medium-sized biotech companies that are keen to utilise and market the expected results of this collaborative effort.

Rivenson Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Stern A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut
Optics Express | Year: 2010

Super-resolution is an important goal of many image acquisition systems. Here we demonstrate the possibility of achieving super-resolution with a single exposure by combining the well known optical scheme of double random phase encoding which has been traditionally used for encryption with results from the relatively new and emerging field of compressive sensing. It is shown that the proposed model can be applied for recovering images from a general image degrading model caused by both diffraction and geometrical limited resolution. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

Rivenson Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Stern A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut
IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology | Year: 2010

Compressive sensing is a relatively new measurement paradigm which seeks to capture the essential aspects of a high-dimensional object using as few measurements as possible. In this work we demonstrate successful application of compressive sensing framework to digital Fresnel holography. It is shown that when applying compressive sensing approach to Fresnel fields a special sampling scheme should be adopted for improved results. © 2010 IEEE.

Kalichman L.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Vulfsons S.,Pain Relief Unit
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine | Year: 2010

Myofascial pain is a common syndrome seen by family practitioners worldwide. It can affect up to 10% of the adult population and can account for acute and chronic pain complaints. In this clinical narrative review we have attempted to introduce dry needling, a relatively new method for the management of musculoskeletal pain, to the general medical community. Different methods of dry needling, its effectiveness, and physiologic and adverse effects are discussed. Dry needling is a treatment modality that is minimally invasive, cheap, easy to learn with appropriate training, and carries a low risk. Its effectiveness has been confirmed in numerous studies and 2 comprehensive systematic reviews. The deep method of dry needling has been shown to be more effective than the superficial one for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger points. However, over areas with potential risk of significant adverse events, such as lungs and large blood vessels, we suggest using the superficial technique, which has also been shown to be effective, albeit to a lesser extent. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling. There also is a great need for further investigation into the development of pain at myofascial trigger points.

Aloni D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Stern A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut
Optics Express | Year: 2011

Recent works have demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) object reconstruction is possible from integral images captured in severely photon starved conditions. In this paper we propose an iterative approach to implement a maximum likelihood expectation maximization estimator with several types of regularization for 3D reconstruction from photon counting integral images. We show that the proposed algorithms outperform the previously reported approaches for photon counting 3D integral imaging reconstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using iterative statistical reconstruction techniques for 3D photon counting integral imaging. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Chen X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Dong X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Be'Er A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Swinney H.L.,University of Texas at Austin | Zhang H.P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

In Bacillus subtilis colonies, motile bacteria move collectively, spontaneously forming dynamic clusters. These bacterial clusters share similarities with other systems exhibiting polarized collective motion, such as bird flocks or fish schools. Here we study experimentally how velocity and orientation fluctuations within clusters are spatially correlated. For a range of cell density and cluster size, the correlation length is shown to be 30% of the spatial size of clusters, and the correlation functions collapse onto a master curve after rescaling the separation with correlation length. Our results demonstrate that correlations of velocity and orientation fluctuations are scale invariant in dynamic bacterial clusters. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Abrahamson N.A.,Pacific Gas and Electric Company | Silva W.J.,Pacific Engineering and Analysis | Kamai R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2014

Empirical ground motion models for the average horizontal component from shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions are derived using the PEER NGA-West2 database. The model is applicable to magnitudes 3.0-8.5, distances 0-300 km, and spectral periods of 0-10 s. The model input parameters are the same as those used by Abrahamson and Silva (2008), with the following exceptions: the loading level for nonlinear effects is based on the spectral acceleration at the period of interest rather than the PGA; and the distance scaling for hanging wall (HW) effects off the ends of the rupture includes a dependence on the source-to-site azimuth. Regional differences in large-distance attenuation and VS30scaling between California, Japan, China, and Taiwan are included. The scaling for the HW effect is improved using constraints from numerical simulations. The standard deviation is magnitude-dependent, with smaller magnitudes leading to larger standard deviations at short periods, but smaller standard deviations at long periods. Directivity effects are not included through explicit parameters, but are captured through the variability of the empirical data. © 2014, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Xiao X.,University of Connecticut | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut | Martinez-Corral M.,University of Valencia | Stern A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

Three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging technologies have been extensively researched for many applications in the fields of entertainment, medicine, robotics, manufacturing, industrial inspection, security, surveillance, and defense due to their diverse and significant benefits. Integral imaging is a passive multiperspective imaging technique, which records multiple two-dimensional images of a scene from different perspectives. Unlike holography, it can capture a scene such as outdoor events with incoherent or ambient light. Integral imaging can display a true 3D color image with full parallax and continuous viewing angles by incoherent light; thus it does not suffer from speckle degradation. Because of its unique properties, integral imaging has been revived over the past decade or so as a promising approach for massive 3D commercialization. A series of key articles on this topic have appeared in the OSA journals, including Applied Optics. Thus, it is fitting that this Commemorative Review presents an overview of literature on physical principles and applications of integral imaging. Several data capture configurations, reconstruction, and display methods are overviewed. In addition, applications including 3D underwater imaging, 3D imaging in photon-starved environments, 3D tracking of occluded objects, 3D optical microscopy, and 3D polarimetric imaging are reviewed. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Taube R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Peterlin B.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Peterlin B.M.,University of Helsinki
Viruses | Year: 2013

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has limited the replication and spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, despite treatment, HIV infection persists in latently infected reservoirs, and once therapy is interrupted, viral replication rebounds quickly. Extensive efforts are being directed at eliminating these cell reservoirs. This feat can be achieved by reactivating latent HIV while administering drugs that prevent new rounds of infection and allow the immune system to clear the virus. However, current approaches to HIV eradication have not been effective. Moreover, as HIV latency is multifactorial, the significance of each of its molecular mechanisms is still under debate. Among these, transcriptional repression as a result of reduced levels and activity of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb: CDK9/cyclin T) plays a significant role. Therefore, increasing levels of P-TEFb expression and activity is an excellent strategy to stimulate viral gene expression. This review summarizes the multiple steps that cause HIV to enter into latency. It positions the interplay between transcriptionally active and inactive host transcriptional activators and their viral partner Tat as valid targets for the development of new strategies to reactivate latent viral gene expression and eradicate HIV. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Kovner A.,University of Connecticut | Lublinsky M.,University of Connecticut | Lublinsky M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large Nc approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the "projectile dipole model"). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Riemer H.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Shavitt S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Koo M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Markus H.R.,Stanford University
Psychological Review | Year: 2014

Attitudes, theorized as behavioral guides, have long been a central focus of research in the social sciences. However, this theorizing reflects primarily Western philosophical views and empirical findings emphasizing the centrality of personal preferences. As a result, the prevalent psychological model of attitudes is a person-centric one. We suggest that incorporating research insights from non-Western sociocultural contexts can significantly enhance attitude theorizing. To this end, we propose an additional model-a normative-contextual model of attitudes. The currently dominant person-centric model emphasizes the centrality of personal preferences, their stability and internal consistency, and their possible interaction with externally imposed norms. In contrast, the normative-contextual model emphasizes that attitudes are always context-contingent and incorporate the views of others and the norms of the situation. In this model, adjustment to norms does not involve an effortful struggle between the authentic self and exogenous forces. Rather, it is the ongoing and reassuring integration of others' views into one's attitudes. According to the normative-contextual model, likely to be a good fit in contexts that foster interdependence and holistic thinking, attitudes need not be personal or necessarily stable and internally consistent and are only functional to the extent that they help one to adjust automatically to different contexts. The fundamental shift in focus offered by the normative-contextual model generates novel hypotheses and highlights new measurement criteria for studying attitudes in non-Western sociocultural contexts. We discuss these theoretical and measurement implications as well as practical implications for health and well-being, habits and behavior change, and global marketing. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Kovner A.,University of Connecticut | Lublinsky M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2013

We discuss the general mechanism leading to long-range rapidity and angular correlations produced in high energy collisions (the ridge). This effect naturally appears in the high energy QCD and is strongly sensitive to physics of the gluon saturation. We comment on various recent practical realizations of the main idea, paying special attention to Nc counting and stress the relevance of Pomeron loops. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Kovner A.,University of Connecticut | Lublinsky M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

We present a general, model independent argument demonstrating that gluons produced in high energy hadronic collision are necessarily correlated in rapidity and also in the emission angle. The strength of the correlation depends on the process and on the structure/model of the colliding particles. In particular we argue that it is strongly affected (and underestimated) by factorized approximations frequently used to quantify the effect. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Rivenson Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Stern A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

In recent years compressive sensing (CS) has been successfully introduced in digital holography (DH). Depending on the ability to sparsely represent an object, the CS paradigm provides an accurate object reconstruction framework from a relatively small number of encoded signal samples. DH has proven to be an efficient and physically realizable sensing modality that can exploit the benefits of CS. In this paper, we provide an overview of the theoretical guidelines for application of CS in DH and demonstrate the benefits of compressive digital holographic sensing. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Rivenson Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Stern A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

A single-exposure in-line (SEOL) holography is a digital holographic setup that has been used in the study of cell identification. In this paper we demonstrate improved three-dimensional performance of the SEOL holography setup by applying the principles of the recently introduced compressive-sensing theory. This, along with proper modeling of the sensing process, enables improved depth-resolution features, especially when considering noisy environments. We then study and demonstrate that by using the proper reference and object-beam amplitude partition, the compressive SEOL holography setup is found to be almost ideal. This occurs since it allows the recovery of low-signal-to-noise-ratio objects and rapid acquisition rate associated with the off-axis holography setup, combined with the high resolution and field of view associated with the in-line holography setup. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Bar-Sadan M.,Jülich Research Center | Bar-Sadan M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Barthel J.,Jülich Research Center | Shtrikman H.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Houben L.,Jülich Research Center
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Incorporation of catalyst atoms during the growth process of semiconductor nanowires reduces the electron mean free path and degrades their electronic properties. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is now capable of directly imaging single Au atoms within the dense matrix of a GaAs crystal, by slightly tilting the GaAs lattice planes with respect to the incident electron beam. Au doping values in the order of 10 17-18 cm 3 were measured, making ballistic transport through the nanowires practically inaccessible. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-NIGHT | Award Amount: 231.23K | Year: 2009

Israeli Researchers Night 2009 (IRN09) is designed to attract Israelis of all ages, background and geografic location nationwide. The event is part of a worldwide celebration marking 200 years to the birthday of Charles Darwin, 150 years to the Theory of Evolution, 400 years to the Galileo Telescope and the Year of Astronomy. A broad range of compelling scientific activities, held nationwide and supported by the Ministry of Science, Culture and Sport will contribute to altering public stereotypes of researchers, and to a greater understanding of the pivotal role of researchers (in both universities and industries) and their contribution to the betterment of society and mankind as a whole. This years event will comprise rich and imaginative programmes, featuring leading researchers from Israeli universities, research institutions, major science museums and industry, engaged in cutting edge scientific discovery and technological innovation. Events will include interactions and exchanges with scientists whose research has received EU grants, and a variety of hands-on activities for youngsters and others. Forums will take the shape of informal settings, such as Science Cafes, where scientists and the public can get acquainted with each other in an unthreatening environment. Each event location will boast a European Corner, devoted to heightening public awareness of the EU-Israeli RD collaboration; the EUs outlook and social and global vision, as well as its FP7, CIP and EuropaAid activities. Israels major science museums will post the top posters entering the nationally competition, Imagine Researchers Night 2010. Following the Researchers Night Event the poster exhibition will tour the country. Although the official date of the European event was set for Friday evening, September 25, Israel got a special permission to hold its event one night earlier due to religious restrictions.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-NIGHT | Award Amount: 389.09K | Year: 2013

With 7 years of experience, support (in time, efforts and funds) from Israel Ministry of Science and Technology, 36,500 visitors last year, one Guinness World Record, 14 venues all over Israel from Kiryat-Shmona in the very north to Eilat in the very south and a National TV, National Radio and major newspapers coverage our strong consortium is really committed to Researchers Night success. In 2013 our Researchers Night event will be even bigger while most of the partners will send researchers to meet the audience outside the campuses at local cafs of neighbor cities. This way we will increase the number of people enjoying the face to face meetings with researchers and will tighten the connection between the universities and the community for yearlong cooperation. All of the partners which will operate 2013 Researchers Night event already have the experience and took part in previous Researchers Nights events. Partners which will run the event in 2013 are ALL of the universities in Israel, two of the leading collages and 2 science museum which one of them is the National Museum of Science, Technology & Space which will also coordinate the project. The main theme for this year Researchers Night event will be Space and us in conjunction with marking 10 years for the Columbia tragedy and the preservation of Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut, legacy of excellence and science. Management of 2013 will stay the same as in 2011 and 2012 successful events.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.3.2.1 | Award Amount: 5.43M | Year: 2013

Microalgae are very attractive for the purpose of producing energy-rich molecules as they are photosynthetic organisms that can live in various aqueous environments, such as saline water. This gives them a low water footprint and moreover they do not have to compete with cultivated farmland. Although they are not superior to higher plants concerning photosynthetic efficiency, microalgae do have high growth rates and they provide much higher oil yields than higher plants such as palm, soybean or rapeseed, and do not produce lignocelluloses. Microalgae do not only use sunlight as energy source, but they are also very efficient in using fertilizers and waste streams as nutrient source. They could be used to clean these streams by removal of nitrogen and phosphate and use flue gas as source for carbon dioxide. The potential of microalgae is clear but the technology for producing biofuels from microalgae is still immature. In order to make microalgae as a source for biofuels competitive with fossil fuels, it is important to reduce operational costs and to achieve a positive energy balance (fossil energy input is higher than energy output). The overall aim of FUEL4ME is to establish a sustainable chain for continuous biofuel production using microalgae as a production platform, thereby making 2nd generation biofuels competitive alternatives to fossil fuels. This will be achieved by: 1) Transforming the current 2-step process for algal biomass production into a continuous 1-step process with high lipid content (production process); 2) Development of a continuous downstream process using all components of the algal biomass (conversion process); 3) Integration of production and conversion process. After setting up and proof of concept within controlled indoor conditions, the continuous process will be tested outdoors under real production conditions in four different regions (NL, IL, IT ES). Simultaneous with research on biomass production, a continuous downstream process will be developed. Finally the whole process (both biomass production and conversion into biofuel) will be integrated and subjected to an economic analysis and life cycle analysis. Partners in this project are: DLO-Food&Biobased Research, DLO-Plant Research International, Wageningen University, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Fotosintetica & Microbiologica S.r.l., Biotopic, Evodos B.V., Pursuit Dynamics, FeyeCon Carbon Dioxide Technologies BV, Neste Oil, JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, IDConsortium S.L.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-20-2014 | Award Amount: 4.30M | Year: 2015

Following the EC SET-Plan Education and Training Roadmap, the concept of this proposal is to develop a joint PhD programme between universities and research centres, on the topic of Thermal Energy Storage (TES). The goal of INPATH-TES is to create a network of universities and research institutes to implement a joint PhD programme on TES technologies. The final result of such a network is to educate professionals on these technologies for the European research and industry institutions. The consortium includes 14 universities that will implement the joint PhD programme, two research institutions (AIT and PROMES-CNRS), three companies and two SME (Arcelik, Abengoa Solar NT, KIC InnoEnergy, UFP and LAIF), that will cooperate in defining the programme and in its implementation and deployment. The specific objectives of the project will lead to the qualification of professionals for the European research and industry institutions, bringing Europe to continue being leaders in these technologies. The partners in the proposal will be the core of a future larger network of excellent R&D institutions, and industries for co-funding and industrial placement, sharing infrastructure capacities, and enhancing mobility of students. The overall approach of the project involves a work plan divided in six work packages, being either coordination or support activities. Coordination activities: WP1 Management and coordination; WP3 Developing, maintaining and updating a PhD programme in TES; and WP4 Implementation of the PhD programme in TES. Support activities: WP2 External communication and dissemination; WP5 Stakeholder involvement and extension of partnerships; and WP6 Framework for monitoring and evaluation of INPATH-TES as well as IPR and regulatory issues.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: DRS-07-2014 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2015

In recent years crises and disasters (Eyjafjallajkull and Deepwater Horizon 2010, Fukushima Daiichi 2011) have made it obvious that a more resilient approach to preparing for and dealing with such events is needed. DARWIN will improve response to expected and unexpected crises affecting critical infrastructures and social structures. It addresses the management of both man-made events (e.g. cyber-attacks) and natural events (e.g. earthquakes). The main objective is the development of European resilience management guidelines. These will improve the ability of stakeholders to anticipate, monitor, respond, adapt, learn and evolve, to operate efficiently in the face of crises. Guidelines will be presented in formats for easy usage and maintenance to avoid them being dust-collectors on a shelf. To enable dynamic, user-friendly guidelines the project will adapt innovative tools (e.g. serious gaming, training packages), test and validate the guidelines, and establish knowledge about how organisations can implement guidelines to improve resilience. A multidisciplinary approach is applied, involving experts in the field of resilience, crisis and risk management, social media and service providers in the Air Traffic Management and health care domains. To ensure transnational, cross-sector applicability, long-term relevance and uptake of project results, a Community of Crisis and Resilience Practitioners (CoCRP) will be established, including stakeholders and end-users from other domains and critical infrastructures and resilience experts. The CoCRP will be involved in an iterative evaluation process to provide feedback on the guidelines. The target beneficiaries of DARWIN are crisis management actors and stakeholders responsible for public safety, such as critical infrastructures and service providers, which might be affected by a crisis, as well as the public and media. The project duration will be 36 months, requesting financing of 4.9M.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-NIGHT | Award Amount: 298.46K | Year: 2010

Based on the success in previous years, IRN2010 was extended to additional institutes, and many additional sites at industries, and designed to attract Israelis of all ages, background and geographic location nationwide to meet researchers face-to-face. Number of sites was more than doubled and covers all of Israel (see map), with many places (science-caf and round tables) outside the Campuses where researchers will meet the public. The event will focus this year on How are researchers advancing Water technologies and Climate Change research?, with additional other scientific aspects. A broad range of compelling scientific activities, held nationwide and supported by the Ministry of Science & Technology and the Ministry of Industry, Trade & Employment, will contribute to altering public stereotypes of researchers, and to a greater understanding of the pivotal role of researchers in the economic development of Israel, and their contribution to the betterment of society and mankind as a whole. This event will comprise rich and imaginative programmes, featuring leading researchers from Israeli universities, research institutions, major science museums and industries, engaged in cutting edge scientific discovery and technological innovation. They will meet the public in their laboratories, in Science-Caf, at Round-Table Events, in the museums next to exhibitions and in lectures, where they will tell their personal stories. Events will include interactions with scientists who have received EU ERC and Marie Curie grants and a variety of hands-on activities for youngsters and others. Forums will take the shape of informal settings, where scientists and the public can get acquainted with each other in an unthreatening environment. We will emphasis the researchers passion for teaching the young generation on Water Technologies and Climate changes.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-2008-PEOPLE-NIGHT | Award Amount: 364.81K | Year: 2008

The Israel Night of Scientists 2008 (INOS08) is designed to attract participants of all ages from Israels diverse populations throughout the entire country. The Night will be part of Israels national 60 years celebration; this will increase public awareness of the event due to the national campaign promoting celebratory activities. INOS08 will provide a forum where scientists will adopt a role that is both informative and receptive. They will not only introduce the public to their fascinating research but will also encourage participation in open discussion. The event will thereby provide scientists with an opportunity to understand and respond to the concerns and aspirations of the general community. And, hopefully, it will also change the negative public perception of scientists and their work. A detailed impact assessment will endeavor to assess both quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of the night on both the public and the participating scientists. The Night will be filled with rich and imaginative programs presenting the cutting edge of scientific discovery and technological innovation. The nationwide events will include informal settings, such as Science Cafes, where scientists and the public can meet and get to know each other better! In each location there will be a European stand devoted to heightening public awareness of the EU-Israel collaboration in R & D over the past twelve years and the EUs political and societal vision, as well as FP7. Israels three major science museums will have displays of photographs from the nationally promoted competition of Scientists in their Daily Life. An exhibition of the photographs will also travel nationwide after the Night of Scientists to provide an ongoing awareness of INOS08. The program for INOS08 will be run by the INOS08 consortium which consists of seven leading academic research universities and institutes, three major science museums, and the Ministry of Science, Culture and Sport.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-ITN-2008 | Award Amount: 3.66M | Year: 2009

A functional understanding of the cerebellum, the structure of the human brain with the most neurons, requires the combined effort of scientists working from the cellular level up to the behavioural level, and it requires scientists trained to cross these levels. The C7 network brings together 9 research groups to form a European institute for the interdisciplinary study of the cerebellum. The network will provide a unique multi-disciplinary training experience for young researchers in systems neuroscience. We are joined by 5 industrial partners who will help to realize important technological innovations and the commercial potential by developing cutting-edge technology for research and clinical applications. With a combination of electrophysiology, behavioural and clinical research, computational modelling and neuroimaging we will aim to answer three important questions: a) What is the computation performed in cerebellar networks? We will provide a multi-level description of the basic cerebellar computational unit, the micro-column. b) How do distributed synaptic changes lead to learning? We link structure to function through an intense program of experimentation and modelling on the fast adaptation of motor behaviour thought by many to be the main function of the cerebellum. c) How do the closed loops between the cerebellum and neocortex generate motor control and cognition? Multi-site recordings, TMS and clinical studies will reveal the previously unexplored interaction between cerebellum and related structures. C7 includes two clinical research centres and two patient organizations, promoting the transfer of insights from basic science to clinical practice. In particular, we will explore brain compensation following cerebellar dysfunction using genetic mouse models and TMS. In sum, C7 will provide the interdisciplinary training environment necessary for a new understanding of the cerebellum.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-11-2015 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2016

WASTE2FUELS aims to develop next generation biofuel technologies capable of converting agrofood waste (AFW) streams into high quality biobutanol. Butanol is one of the most promising biofuels due to its superior fuel properties compared to current main biofuels, bioethanol and biodiesel. In addition to its ability to reduce carbon emissions, its higher energy content (almost 30% more than ethanol), its ability to blend with both gasoline and diesel, its lower risk of separation and corrosion, its resistance to water absorption, allowing it to be transported in pipes and carriers used by gasoline, it offers a very exciting advantage for adoption as engines require almost no modifications to use it. The main WASTE2FUELS innovations include: Development of novel pretreatment methods for converting AFW to an appropriate feedstock for biobutanol production thus dramatically enlarging current available biomass for biofuels production Genetically modified microorganisms for enhancing conversion efficiencies of the biobutanol fermentation process Coupled recovery and biofilm reactor systems for enhancing conversion efficiencies of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation Development of new routes for biobutanol production via ethanol catalytic conversion Biobutanol engine tests and ecotoxicological assessment of the produced biobutanol Valorisation of the process by-products Development of an integrated model to optimise the waste-to-biofuel conversion and facilitate the industrial scale-up Process fingerprint analysis by environmental and techno-economic assessment Biomass supply chain study and design of a waste management strategy for rural development By valorising 50% of the unavoidable and undervalorised AFW as feedstock for biobutanol production, WASTE2FUELS could divert up to 45 M tonnes of food waste from EU landfills, preventing 18 M tonnes of GHG and saving almost 0.5 billion litres of fossil fuels.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-NIGHT | Award Amount: 258.67K | Year: 2011

With two governmental offices supporting, all universities and the main leading colleges in Israel taking part, Researchers Night 2011 event expected to be a great success and to fulfill its objectives. Read on... Israel`s Researchers Night (IRN) has been a highly successful national science project. Every year, many people attend the event and numerous institutions want to partner on an event that has become a sort of informal Researchers National Day. Moreover, the partnership on Researchers Night in Israel has turned the IRN consortium into a much larger and stronger community science education body, which has begun to take on additional joint actions in the field of science orientation. In 2011 we plan to expand emphasis on academic research and its implementation in industry, at the encounter with scientists as ordinary people like us. Four additional academic institutions will run activities in 2011. The Open University (OUI), Sami Shamoon Collage (SCE) and Haifa University (HAIFAU) which will join us for the first time and will also finance the activities using own funds, Bar-Ilan university which was responsible for WP3 but on 2011 will run activities during the night instead. Ort Braude College which hosted some successful activities last year will join us this year as well using own funds for 2011 activities. We believe that with almost no budget expand, these newly added institutions, yielding a greater number and range of participating scientists, will contribute to the attractiveness of the event and appeal to Israelis of all ages, backgrounds and geographic locations, who will come to meet researchers face-to-face. We will cover geographically the entire country, with many event locations (science-caf and round-tables) outside the campuses, where the public and researchers will have a chance to converse at eye level. The 2011 event will focus on Chemistry in line with UNESCOs International Year of Chemistry (2011)

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.8.1 | Award Amount: 2.78M | Year: 2012

Embedded systems are the invisible electronics and corresponding software that bring intelligence to objects, processes and devices. The main challenge in engineering education for embedded systems at university level is a complex and multidisciplinary approach which includes understanding of various systems based on different technologies and system solution optimizations. The main idea behind the project is to provide a unified platform which will cover a complete process for embedded systems learning. A modular approach is considered for skills practice through supporting individualisation in learning. This platform shall facilitate a novel development of universal approach in creative learning environment and knowledge management that encourage use of ICT. New learning model is challenging the education of engineers in embedded systems design through real-time experiments that stimulate curiosity with ultimate goal to support students to understand and construct their personal conceptual knowledge based on experiments. In addition to the technological approach, the use of cognitive theories on how people learn will help students to achieve a stronger and smarter adaptation of the subject. Applied methodology will be evaluated from the scientific point of view in parallel with the implementation in order to feed back results to the R&D.\nAs a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will ensure a sufficient number of educated future engineers in Europe, capable of designing complex systems and maintaining a leadership in the area of embedded systems, thereby ensuring that our strongholds in automotive, avionics, industrial automation, mobile communications, telecoms and medical systems are able to develop. In such a manner, the E2LP intends to increase European competitiveness in the learning process of embedded computer engineering, ensuring further technological and methodological development of the educational approach in this field.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.8.2 | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2008

In the near future, it is reasonable to expect that new types of systems will appear, designed or emerged, of massive scale, expansive and permeating their environment, of very heterogeneous nature, and operating in a constantly changing networked environment. We expect that most such systems will have the form of a large society of networked artifacts that are small, have limited sensing, signal processing, and communication capabilities, and are usually of limited energy. Yet by cooperation, they will be organized in large societies to accomplish tasks that are difficult or beyond the capabilities of todays conventional centralized systems. The scale and nature of these systems requires naturally that they are pervasive and are expected to operate beyond the complete understanding and control of their designers, developers, and users. These systems or societies should have particular ways to achieve an appropriate level of organization and integration that is achieved seamlessly and with appropriate levels of flexibility. The aim of this project is to establish the foundations of adaptive networked societies of small or tiny heterogeneous artifacts. We indent to develop an understanding of such societies that will enable us to establish their fundamental properties and laws, as well as, their inherent trade-offs. We will approach our goal by working on a usable quantitative theory of networked adaptation based on rigorous and measurable gains. We also indent to apply our models, methods, and results to the scrutiny of large-scale simulations and experiments, from which we expect to obtain valuable feedback. The foundational results and the feedback from simulations and experiments will form a unifying framework for adaptive nets of artifacts that hopefully will enable us to come up with a coherent working set of design rules for such systems. In a nutshell, we will work towards a science of adaptive organization of pervasive networks of small or tiny artifacts.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.2.2-2 | Award Amount: 14.17M | Year: 2008

RESOLVE has been outlined to better understand the regulatory networks that control the devel-opmental processes in organ repair and to identify mechanisms which cause the termination of regu-lar organ development leading to fibroproliferative wound healing. Fibroproliferative wound healing represents a major pathology in elderly people shifting regular organ development into progressive organ fibrosis with complete loss of organ function. Based on the identification of valuated molecu-lar targets of fibroproliferative repair, RESOLVE aims to create suitable treatment strategies to achieve healthy ageing in the elderly. In doing so, RESOLVE will create a significant impact on life quality of elderly people. RESOLVEs outcomes will strengthen the competitiveness of European science and biotechnology industry and contribute to cost saving strategies in the health care sector. RESOLVEs structured scientific approach combines as yet fragmented fields of research using model organisms which represent (a) different forms of wound healing, (b) different human diseases and (c) different genetic backgrounds, guaranteeing social and scientific relevance, modularity of re-search and the integration of existing biological knowledge, technical expertise and medical experi-ence. In addition, sequential generation of data during improvement or worsening ensures clinical relevance and leads to a stringent exploitation strategy. The sustainable outcomes of RESOLVEs efforts will be: (A) the urgently needed diagnostic tool for fibroproliferative wound healing in various organs, (B) highly valuable transgenic animals offering test systems for fibroproliferative wound healing, and (C) a characterization of compounds capable of interfering with targets involved in fibroprolifera-tive repair.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE.2010.3.2-03 | Award Amount: 7.18M | Year: 2011

Microalgae are a highly promising resource for the sustainable production of a wide variety of biomaterials for a wide range of applications. Microalgae can transform solar energy at high efficiency directly into valuable biological products using marginal water resources, waste nutrients and exhaust CO2 without the needs for high value cropland. A wide variety of eukaryotic microalgae of high evolutionary diversity produce naturally valuable products like polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, medically active carbohydrates etc. Nevertheless only a few commercially viable algal products have entered the market. Algal cultivation and induction of high value product accumulation is a complex problem, algae grow in diluted solutions and require large areas and water volumes, causing high cultivation and harvesting costs and posing contamination problems and variable productivities due to climate variability. Genetic modifications to make microalgae better suit industrial applications are possible over a wide range of target mechanisms: stress tolerance, product accumulation pathways, cellular chlorophyll contents, novel metabolic pathways, resistance to pathogens and competition, etc. Due to the wide variability of algal strains under consideration, available techniques for genetic manipulations have to be adapted or developed for all algal strains of interest. Our consortium will adapt genetic engineering techniques to various algal strains of economic interest focusing on carotenoid and PUFA production and the overexpression of peptides of commercial value. In parallel we will develop cultivation technologies, harvesting and extraction methods for lipids, carotenoids and proteins using existing model algae strains that will then be adapted to suitable improved strains. Furthermore products will be tested for energy, pharmaceutical, nutritional or medical applications for economic evaluation of the production processes and their economic exploitation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: EE-02-2015 | Award Amount: 4.22M | Year: 2015

In ZERO-PLUS, a comprehensive, cost-effective system for Net Zero Energy (NZE) settlements will be developed and implemented. The system will be composed of innovative solutions for the building envelope, for building energy generation and management, and for energy management at the settlement level. A reduction of operational energy usage to an average of 0-20 kWh/m2 per year (compared with the current average of 70-230 kWh/m2) will be achieved through a transition from single NZE buildings to NZE settlements, in which the energy loads and resources are optimally managed. A primary objective of the project will be to develop a system whose investment costs will be at least 16% lower than current costs. In order to reduce balance of system costs, an approach of mass customization will be employed. Mass produced technologies will be integrated in a system that is optimally designed according to the local climate and site of each project in which it is implemented. To this end, a structured process will be developed and applied for the integration, optimization and verification of the design. The projects work programme will ensure a rapid market uptake, within its four-year scope, of the innovative solutions that will be developed. These solutions will be implemented in four different demonstration projects throughout the EU, with varying climates and building types. The results of their implementation will be monitored, analyzed and disseminated. A comprehensive market analysis and business plan will support the commercial exploitation of the projects results. The project will be carried out by a consortium that includes universities, project owners, technology providers and organizations, which will closely collaborate in all the projects phases.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2015

The PACE research and training programme sits at the interface between basic science, technology and clinics, in order to unveil how humans control and adapt their movements in complex, naturalistic environments. Such a research agenda has major consequences for understanding how these movements are impacted by specific brain insults and how these impairments can be compensated for via new rehabilitation methods. Improving rehabilitation programmes for sensory and motor disabilities across the lifespan is a major societal challenge in western countries and many obstacles need to be overcome. To provide but one example, with regard to eye-hand coordination of upper limb movement remaining abilities are rarely assessed in stroke patients or sensory-disabled children and this impacts both prognostic estimation and rehabilitation. New technologies, such as robotics or virtual reality, provide an exciting change in perspective to transfer state-of-the-art knowledge from basic research on sensorimotor transformation into the clinical domain. To meet these societal challenges, it is crucial to train a new generation of early-stage researchers in a programme such as PACE where fundamental and applied/clinical research are effectively integrated via collaborative research, doctoral secondments and theoretical courses in other words, one in which clinicians, neuroscientists, theoreticians and engineers can contribute around a well-defined problem: how humans acquire, lose and recover movement performance. With 8 academic, 1 clinical and 1 private beneficiaries, and 5 partner organizations (4 industrial, 1 in science communication), PACE structures a training and research programme that is both highly interdisciplinary and intersectoral. Our goal is to meet both fundamental and clinical well-identified challenges as well as preparing young scientists for future european research & development in the fields of human movement studies and rehabilitation medicine.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.2.2-4 | Award Amount: 840.61K | Year: 2008

AIM. To investigate the reasons for the exclusion of the elderly in clinical trials and to provide solutions for this problem. INTRODUCTION. Although the elderly account for high drug consumption, they are underrepresented in clinical trials. With an increasingly ageing European population it is essential to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of drugs. Clinical trials need to take into account the relevant issues of this population, i.e. changed metabolism, multiple chronic conditions and poly-pharmacy. To examine this issue and effect a paradigm shift it is necessary to target gatekeepers and stakeholders of clinical trials. METHODS. The project will be coordinated by the Medical Economics and Research Centre, Sheffield, with guidance from the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Ageing at Keele University, UK. The 5 work packages (WP) will be carried out by a multi-disciplinary team of highly qualified experts in Geriatrics, Gerontology and social sciences. WP1 will involve a systematic review of the literature and review of ongoing clinical trials to assess the extent of exclusion of the elderly. Based on these findings WP2 and WP 3 will investigate why the elderly are underrepresented in clinical trials and what can be done to improve their participation. This will be carried out in 9 countries: UK, Spain, Holland, Italy, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Israel and the Czech Republic. WP2 will research the views of health professionals and ethicists using structured questionnaires. WP3 will explore the perceptions of older patients and carers using a focus group methodology. For WP4, the recommendations from WP2 and WP3 will be used to develop a charter for the elderly in clinical trials. WP5 will disseminate and implement the findings. CONCLUSION. PREDICT will promote the inclusion of the elderly in clinical trials in Europe. This project will facilitate the improvement of the rights of older people and the quality of health care for the ageing population.

Kovner A.,University of Connecticut | Lublinsky M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Mulian Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The Jalilian-Marian, Iancu, McLerran, Weigert, Leonidov, Kovner Hamiltonian for high energy evolution of QCD amplitudes is presented at the next-to-leading order accuracy in αs. The form of the Hamiltonian is deduced from the symmetries and the structure of the hadronic light cone wavefunction and by comparing the rapidity evolution of the quark dipole and the three-quark singlet states with results available in the literature. The next-to-leading corrections should allow for more robust phenomenological applications of perturbative saturation approach. © 2014 American Physical Society.

News Article | December 6, 2016

There you are, cruising down the freeway, listening to some tunes and enjoying the view as your autonomous car zips and swerves through traffic. Then the fun ends and it becomes time take over the wheel. How smooth is that transition going to be? Twenty-two drivers put that question to a test -- on a track, not a freeway -- to find out. The results, which were published in the first issue of Science Robotics on Dec. 6, could help in the design of future autonomous cars. The researchers, who had a combined expertise in autonomous car design, human-robot interaction research and neuroscience, found that the transition could be rough. Drivers who experienced certain changes in driving conditions since their last time at the wheel, such as changes in speed, since their last time at the wheel had a period of adjustment in their steering. "Many people have been doing research on paying attention and situation awareness. That's very important," said Holly Russell, lead author of the research and former graduate student in the Dynamic Design Lab at Stanford University. "But, in addition, there is this physical change and we need to acknowledge that people's performance might not be at its peak if they haven't actively been participating in the driving." The trouble the drivers had getting used to different driving conditions wasn't enough to cause them to miss their turns, but it was noticeable in the researcher's measurements and by watching them wobble the wheel to account for over- and understeering. These challenges bring up the possibility that, depending on the particulars of the driver, the driving conditions and the autonomous system being used, the transition back to driver-controlled driving could be an especially risky window of time. Study participants drove a 15-second course consisting of a straightaway and a lane change. Then they took their hands off the wheel and the car took over, bringing them back to the start. After going through this process four times, they drove the course 10 additional times with steering conditions that were modified to represent changes in speed or steering that may occur while the car drives itself. Changing the steering ratio from the standard 15:1 to 2:1 simulated the more sensitive steering feel drivers experience at a higher speed. This modification made the car turn more sharply to simulate the way less steering wheel movement is needed to make a lane change at a high speed versus at a low speed. All drivers were given advance warning of the changes and had some opportunity to probe the difference during the straightaway. Regardless, during the altered steering ratio trials, the drivers' steering maneuvers differed significantly from their paths previous to the experimental modifications. "Even knowing about the change, being able to make a plan and do some explicit motor planning for how to compensate, you still saw a very different steering behavior and compromised performance," said Lene Harbott, co-author of the research and research associate in the Revs Program at Stanford. The participants also drove the course another six times, after being taken back to the start by the car, with the original conditions restored. Again, drivers who experienced the steering ratio change displayed a clear period of adjustment, undershooting the steering wheel turning required to complete their lane change. In neuroscience this is explained as a difference between explicit and implicit learning, said IIana Nisky, co-author of the study and senior lecturer at Ben-Gurion University in Israel. Even when a person is aware of a change, their implicit motor control is unaware of what that change means and can only figure out how to react through experience. This driving test is close to a real-life version of a classic neuroscience experiment that assesses motor adaptation. In one example of these experiments, participants use a hand control to move a cursor on a screen to specific points. The way the cursor moves in response to their control is adjusted during the experiment and they, in turn, change their movements to make the cursor go where they want it to go. Just as in the driving test, people who take part in this experiment have to adjust to changes in how the controller moves the cursor. They also must adjust a second time if the original response relationship is restored. "Even though there are really substantial differences between these classic experiments and the car trials, you can see this basic phenomena of adaptation and then after-effect of adaptation," said Nisky. "What we learn in the laboratory studies of adaptation in neuroscience actually extends to real life." It also showed that the effect and after-effect of motor adaptation applies to skilled tasks that people have learned over a long period of time. What this means for autonomous cars Although these drivers were not so thrown off by the changes in steering that they drove off-course, the fact that there is a period of altered steering behavior is still significant. There are so many different variables involved in driving that anything that compromises driving performance could lead to an accident. In this research, the test vehicle was developed at Stanford and doesn't represent any system currently available. The study addressed one specific example of handover, but there is still a lot to learn about how people respond in other circumstances, depending on the type of car, the driver and how the driving conditions have changed. "If someone is designing a method for automated vehicle handover, there will need to be detailed research on that specific method," said Harbott. "This study is tip of an iceberg." Additional co-authors on this paper include Allison Okamura, professor of mechanical engineering, member of Stanford Bio-X and member of the Stanford Neurosciences Institute; Chris Gerdes, professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford; and Selina Pan, former postdoctoral fellow in Stanford's Dynamic Design Lab. This work is funded by the Revs Program at Stanford University, the Toyota Class Action Settlement Safety Research and Education Program, the Israel Science Foundation, the Helmsley Charitable Trust through the Agricultural, Biological and Cognitive Robotics Initiative of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

THUNDER BAY, ON--(Marketwired - November 23, 2016) - Zenyatta Ventures Ltd. ("Zenyatta" or "Company") (TSX VENTURE: ZEN) ( : ZENYF) today announced the delivery of 10 kilograms of high-purity Albany graphite to Ben-Gurion University of the Negev ('BGU') and Larisplast Ltd. ("Larisplast") in Israel for the start of the next phase of testing of a pilot plant scale program. The main objective of the pilot plant in Israel is to further test a new concrete admixture containing Albany derived graphene but with a much larger volume of concrete. The scientific and engineering data obtained will yield valuable information for potentially designing a larger scale demonstration plant. Recently, BGU demonstrated that the addition of the Company's graphene into concrete can achieve a faster curing time and a superior mechanical performance that inhibits premature failure and tolerates large forces like those produced during earthquakes or explosions. Also, this new admixture has the potential to reduce the amount of cement that will be used in construction, thereby considerably cutting carbon dioxide emissions related to its production. Importantly, work has shown Zenyatta's Albany graphite is easily converted to graphene with significantly higher yields of graphene nano-particles than any other natural graphite types that were tested at BGU. Graphene was first produced in 2004 at the University of Manchester by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov who were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene." Graphene (or Carbon) is a single sheet of pure graphite that is one atom thick, flexible, transparent, light, stronger than diamonds or steel and is highly conductive. Graphene is making inroads in diverse industries, including transportation, medicine, electronics, energy, construction, defence and desalination. So far, one obstacle to its widespread use is the high manufacturing cost for high-quality graphene. A lower-cost approach is to use high-purity natural graphite, like Zenyatta's material, as the starting point. Dr. Bharat Chahar, VP of Market Development for Zenyatta stated, "The graphene concrete application and composite material in general can potentially be a significant end use for our high-purity graphite material. Our initiative with Larisplast and BGU is an important and new target application for Albany graphite. We are very excited to start our pilot plant collaboration program with our Israeli partners while we continue to test and develop our material for Li-ion batteries, fuel cells, powder metallurgy and other applications with several global corporations." Zenyatta, BGU and Larisplast have received grant funding from the Canada-Israel Industrial R&D Foundation under the Ontario-Israel Collaboration Program for this pilot scale test. Upon successful completion of testing, an Agreement between the Parties contemplates the formation of a new corporation ('Newco') jointly owned (50/50) by Zenyatta and Larisplast for the purposes of marketing this new specialized admixture product. Zenyatta would be the exclusive provider of purified graphite to Newco and any other party working with Larisplast on this technology. Cement production for the concrete industry is a significant contributor of carbon dioxide which is a major greenhouse gas. Wide-spread use of a new graphene enhanced admixture product will have the potential to reduce the amount of cement used in construction and consequently cut considerable carbon dioxide emissions. In 2015, a total of 4.1 billion tonnes of cement was produced globally (Source: USGS). Approximately 25% of this total is in the use of Ultra-High Performance Concrete and High Performance Concrete which have the same ingredients as normal concrete but with special high cost additives. The potential increase in concrete performance enhanced with graphene would allow for a better and wider range of structures such as specialized bridges, taller buildings, marine structures and construction in seismically active areas. This could represent a very large and valuable target market for Zenyatta. Larisplast is an industry leader in Israel specializing in the field of concrete admixtures. The company develops, produces, markets and distributes high quality products and materials for Israel's concrete industry according to strict Israeli's standards. Larisplast operates on a nationwide basis in Israel and is currently developing international markets and distribution channels. BGU is a research leader in alternative energy, robotics and nano-technology while playing a critical role in transforming Israel's high-tech growth. Specifically, the BGU research group focuses on carbon nanotubes and graphene product derivatives for new applications. The Advanced Technologies Park (ATP), adjacent to BGU is home to many multi-national high-tech companies, such as EMC, Oracle, Hewlett Packard, and Deutsche Telekom, which are leveraging the R&D expertise of BGU mainly through B. G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd. ("BGN"). BGN is the technology transfer and commercialization company for development of university technologies with industry partners. BGU's expertise in nanoscience is advancing new materials to convert light and heat into electrical energy, to produce lightweight cars and planes of unprecedented strength. Researchers are developing incredibly small transistors to power computers, membranes for desalinating water, graphene surfaces loaded with specific drugs for delivery to targeted diseased cells, graphene reinforcement in cement-based materials and hydrogen storage device as a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Zenyatta continues to develop its rare igneous-hosted Albany graphite deposit in Ontario, Canada. The Company's highly crystalline graphite deposit is fluid-derived rather than the typical and abundant sedimentary flake type graphite deposits. Albany is the largest and only graphite project of its kind in the world and was discovered by Zenyatta while exploring for Copper-Nickel in 2011-12. The unusual geologic mode of formation accounts for the favourable purity, crystallinity and particle size of graphite found in the Albany deposit. Dr. Andrew Conly (Professor, Geology at Lakehead University) observed, "Evidence has shown that Zenyatta has discovered a unique sub-class of a hydrothermal graphite deposit unlike any other. Igneous breccia-hosted graphite deposits like Albany are very rare, and to the best of my knowledge, none are currently being mined or even in an advanced stage of exploration globally. The far more common flake-type (sedimentary) graphite deposits form through a completely different geological process." The Albany graphite deposit is situated 30 km north of the Trans-Canada Highway, power line and natural gas pipeline near the communities of Constance Lake First Nation and Hearst. A rail line is located 70 km away with an all-weather road approximately 10 km from the graphite deposit. The world trend is to develop products for technological applications that need extraordinary performance using ultra-high purity graphite powder at an affordable cost. Albany graphite can be upgraded with very good crystallinity without the use of aggressive acids (hydrofluoric) or high temperature thermal treatment therefore having an environmental advantage over other types of upgraded high-purity graphite material. The outlook for the global graphite market is very promising with demand growing rapidly from new applications. It is now considered one of the more strategic elements by many leading industrial nations, particularly for its growing importance in high technology manufacturing and in the emerging "green" industries such as electric vehicle components. The application for graphitic material is constantly evolving due to its unique chemical, electrical and thermal properties. It maintains its stability and strength under temperatures in excess of 3,000°C and is very resistant to chemical corrosion. It is also one of the lightest of all reinforcing elements and has high natural lubricating abilities. Some of these key physical and chemical properties make it critical to modern industry. Mr. Aubrey Eveleigh, P.Geo., Zenyatta's President and CEO, is the "Qualified Person" for the purposes of National Instrument 43-101 and has reviewed, prepared and supervised the preparation of the technical information contained in this news release. Information Sources: LafargeHolcim, US Geological Survey ('USGS'), US Environmental Protection Agency, US Department of Transportation, Freedonia Group, Marca Espana, Macleans Magazine, UCLA newsroom & personal communication with engineering firms. For Further Information Please visit the Company's website at: CAUTIONARY STATEMENT: This analysis does not represent a statistically large sample size. Furthermore, these positive results do not mean that Zenyatta can extract and process Albany graphite for graphite applications on an economic basis. Without a formal independent feasibility study, there is no assurance that the operation will be economic. Zenyatta has completed a Preliminary Economic Assessment regarding the Albany Project (the 'PEA') in support of its development work (see Zenyatta press release of 1 June 2015). The PEA is preliminary in nature, it includes inferred mineral resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves, and there is no certainty that the preliminary economic assessment will be realized. Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release may contain forward looking information and Zenyatta cautions readers that forward looking information is based on certain assumptions and risk factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations of Zenyatta included in this news release. This news release includes certain "forward-looking statements", which often, but not always, can be identified by the use of words such as "potential", "believes", "anticipates", "expects", "estimates", "may", "could", "would", "will", or "plan". These statements are based on information currently available to Zenyatta and Zenyatta provides no assurance that actual results will meet management's expectations. Forward-looking statements include estimates and statements with respect to Zenyatta's future plans, objectives or goals, to the effect that Zenyatta or management expects a stated condition or result to occur, including the expected timing for release of a pre-feasibility study, the expected uses for graphite in the future, and the future uses of the graphite from Zenyatta's Albany deposit. Since forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and address future events and conditions, by their very nature they involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Actual results relating to, among other things, results of metallurgical processing, ongoing exploration, project development, reclamation and capital costs of Zenyatta's mineral properties, and Zenyatta's financial condition and prospects, could differ materially from those currently anticipated in such statements for many reasons such as, but are not limited to: failure to convert estimated mineral resources to reserves; the preliminary nature of metallurgical test results; the inability to identify target markets and satisfy the product criteria for such markets; the inability to complete a prefeasibility study; the inability to enter into offtake agreements with qualified purchasers; delays in obtaining or failures to obtain required governmental, environmental or other project approvals; political risks; uncertainties relating to the availability and costs of financing needed in the future; changes in equity markets, inflation, changes in exchange rates; fluctuations in commodity prices; delays in the development of projects; capital and operating costs varying significantly from estimates and the other risks involved in the mineral exploration and development industry; and those risks set out in Zenyatta's public documents filed on SEDAR. This list is not exhaustive of the factors that may affect any of Zenyatta's forward-looking statements. These and other factors should be considered carefully and readers should not place undue reliance on Zenyatta's forward-looking statements. Although Zenyatta believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking information in this news release are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on such information, which only applies as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Zenyatta disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, other than as required by law.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev and Mor Research Applications Ltd. | Date: 2012-07-12

Antisense oligonucleotides against cPLA_(2 )are provided, which are capable of inhibiting cPLA_(2 )expression as well as superoxide production, especially in phagocytes. These antisense oligonucleotides are powerful agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, in particular arthritis, as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. The antisense oligonucleotides or compositions comprising the same may be used in methods of treatment of such diseases.

Alcohol addiction ranks among the primary global causes of preventable death and disabilities in human population, but treatment options are very limited. Rational strategies for design and development of novel, evidence based therapies for alcohol addiction are still missing. Within this project, we will utilize a translational approach based on clinical studies and animal experiments to fill this gap. We will provide a novel discovery strategy based on systems biology concepts that uses mathematical and network theoretical models to identify brain sites and functional networks that can be targeted specifically by therapeutic interventions. To build predictive models of the relapse-prone state of brain networks we will use magnetic resonance imaging and neurochemical data from patients and laboratory animals. The mathematical models will be rigorously tested through experimental procedures aimed to guide network dynamics towards increased resilience. We expect to identify hubs that promote relapse-proneness and to predict how aberrant network states could be normalized. Proof of concept experiments in animal will need to demonstrate this possibility by showing directed remodeling of functional brain networks by targeted interventions prescribed by the theoretical framework. Thus, our translational goal will be achieved by a theoretical and experimental framework for making predictions based on fMRI and mathematical modeling, which is verified in animals, and which can be transferred to humans. To achieve this goal we have assembled an interdisciplinary consortium (eight European countries) of world-class expertise in all complementary skills required for the project. If successful this project will positively impact on the development of new therapies for a disorder with largely unmet clinical needs, and thus help to address a serious and widespread health problem in our societies.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev and Mor Research Applications Ltd. | Date: 2014-03-10

Antisense oligonucleotides against cPLA_(2 )are provided, which are capable of inhibiting cPLA_(2 )expression as well as superoxide production, especially in phagocytes. These antisense oligonucleotides are powerful agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, in particular arthritis, as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. The antisense oligonucleotides or compositions comprising the same may be used in methods of treatment of such diseases.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: Health | Award Amount: 2.04M | Year: 2014

IF-EBOLa has been strategically designed to efficiently respond to critical needs required to control the current EBOV outbreak from spreading. The work will involve two of the main EVD outbreak sites, Sierra Leone and Guinea. MDs, public health authorities and virus experts working on site, under ethical regulatory rules, will extend their collaboration to companies and institution to form a consortium of outstanding complementary partners, sharing their innovative technological approaches for a common goal. Our project aim is to contribute to provide an innovative early and accurate diagnostic for an early treatment and includes 2 phases: (I) a phase of preparation including, ethical authorizations, antibody production, technical and field organization as well as the beginning a follow-up of the homeostatic profile of contacts early-EBOV diagnosed and self-cured convalescent individuals in the absence of existing treatment, (with an ultrasensitive detection method of pernicious microorganisms, from the EC USDEP project qualified as a European success story USDEP project in 2010 by the EC-Project Officer) and (II) using a wide validated approach revisited with an innovative concept (strongly supported EC/EMA-WHO), we propose to carry out an experimental passive-immune therapy based on neutralizing capacity of horse anti-EBOV polyclonal F(ab)2 on early-diagnosed patients (n>300 that will be adapted in function of the epidemic situation) to impact and reduce their pre-existing viremia, their mortality, the evolution of their homeostasis profile, during and after this treatment (once patients become convalescents). The homeostasis status evolution will help to generate high quality scientific data to understand the EVD, the effect of this therapy and cure parameters characterized at 3 different levels: immune (transcriptomes, NGS, metagenomics); infectious (other than EBOV, DNA arrays), and EBOV diversity (sequencing and metagenomics).

Mor Research Applications Ltd. and Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Date: 2011-08-24

An embodiment of the invention provides a method of diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea, the method comprising: acquiring a sleep sound signal comprising sounds made by a person during sleep; detecting a plurality of snore sounds in the sleep sound signal; determining a set of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients for each of the snore sounds; determining a characterizing feature for the sleep sound signal responsive to a sum of the variances of the cepstral coefficients; and using the characterizing feature to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea in the person.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 8.58M | Year: 2009

Within the AQUAREHAB project, different innovative rehabilitation technologies for soil, groundwater and surface water will be developed to cope with a number of hazardous (nitrates, pesticides, chlorinated and aromatic compounds, mixed pollutions,) within heavily degraded water systems. The technologies are activated riparian zones/wetlands; smart biomass containing carriers for treatment of water in open trenches; in-situ technologies to restore degraded surface water by inhibiting influx of pollutants from groundwater to surface water; multifunctional permeable barriers and injectable Fe-based particles for rehabilitation of groundwater. Methods will be developed to determine the (long-term) impact of the innovative rehabilitation technologies on the reduction of the influx of these priority pollutants towards the receptor. A connection between the innovative technologies and river basin management will be worked out. In a first stage of the project, the technologies and integration of their impact in river basin management will be developed in three different river basins (Denmark, Israel, Belgium). In a second stage, the generic approaches will be extrapolated to one or two more river basins. One of the major outcomes of the project will be a generic river basin management tool that integrates multiple measures with ecological and economic impact assessments of the whole water system. The research in the project is focussed on innovative rehabilitation strategies to reduce priority pollutants in the water system whereas the generic management tool will include other measures related to flood protection, water scarcity and ecosystem health, The project will aid in underpinning river basin management plans being developed in EU Member States, and will demonstrate cost effective technologies that can provide technical options for national and local water managers, planners and other stakeholders (drinking water companies, industry, agriculture,

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 142.80K | Year: 2013

INNOSTORAGE proposal is driven by the need to develop efficient thermal storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM). One of the main contributions to the rational use of energy is given by the TES systems. They accommodate efficient storage of thermal energy, promoting the possibility of using renewable energy such as solar energy, ambient cold and residual heat. The use of PCM for TES is the system that has aroused more practical interest, due to their large energy storage density available within a narrow temperature range. In this project we aim to study means of improving the development of the constituent PCM, their encapsulation and use in a number of important applications in both the domestic and industrial sectors, with the final aim of achieving commercialization in the European market. The implementation of these storage systems may lead to marked energy savings and significant lowering of CO2 emission. The research scheme considers the expertise and capabilities of each partner and also the possibility of creating new synergies among them. It will be implemented through 7 work packages covering the objectives of new materials, with special emphasis to cost, and the characterization of their thermophysical properties. It will also cover the modelling of materials and systems, and their applications in industry and in PCM in construction elements. The proposed exchanged program includes visits of experts and ESRs in all the work packages with the overall aim of extend, enhance and strengthen established collaboration among the INNOSTORAGE partners, increasing the individual mobility and career prospects of each researcher. These exchanges will involve a transfer of knowledge at different levels and training opportunities for ESRs searching the future scientific development of the groups through their involvement in projects relevant for future experiments. It is also an important objective the dissemination of the exchange activities.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.1 | Award Amount: 6.09M | Year: 2010

Wireless networks importance for the Future Internet is raising at a fast pace as mobile devices increasingly become its entry point. However, todays wireless networks are unable to rapidly adapt to evolving contexts and service needs due to their rigid architectural design.\nWe believe that the wireless Internets inability to keep up with innovation directly stems from its reliance on the traditional layer-based Internet abstraction. Especially, the Link Layer interface appears way too abstracted from the actual wireless access and coordination needs. FLAVIA fosters a paradigm shift towards the Future Wireless Internet: from pre-designed link services to programmable link processors. The key concept is to expose flexible programmable interfaces enabling service customization and performance optimization through software-based exploitation of low-level operations and control primitives, e.g., transmission timing, frame customization and processing, spectrum and channel management, power control, etc.\nFLAVIAs approach is based on three main pillars: i) lower the interface between hardware-dependent layers and upper layers, ii) apply a hierarchical decomposition of the MAC/PHY layer functionalities, and iii) open programmable interfaces at different abstraction levels. To prove the viability of this new architectural vision, FLAVIA will prototype its concept on two wireless technologies currently available, 802.11 and 802.16, representing todays two main radio resource allocation philosophies: contention-based and scheduled. Moreover, FLAVIA will assess the applicability of the proposed architecture concepts to the emerging 3GPP standards.\nFLAVIAs concept will allow boosting innovation and reducing the cost of network upgrades. Operators, manufacturers, network designers, emerging third-party solution developers, and even spontaneous end users, will be able to easily and rapidly optimize and upgrade the wireless network operation, quickly prototype and test their new protocols, and adapt the wireless access operation to emerging scenarios or service needs.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 14.00M | Year: 2013

NANOREM is designed to unlock the potential of nanoremediation and so support both the appropriate use of nanotechnology in restoring land and aquifer resources and the development of the knowledge-based economy at a world leading level for the benefit of a wide range of users in the EU environmental sector. NANOREM uniquely takes a holistic approach to examining how the potential for nanoremediation can be developed and applied in practice, to enhance a stronger development of nanoremediation markets and applications in the EU. NANOREMs ambitious objectives are: 1) Identification of the most appropriate nanoremediation technological approaches to achieve a step change in practical remediation performance. Development of lower cost production techniques and production at commercially relevant scales, also for large scale applications. 2) Determination of the mobility and migration potential of nanoparticles in the subsurface, and their potential to cause harm, focusing on the NP types most likely to be adopted into practical use in the EU. 3) Development of a comprehensive tool box for field scale observation of nanoremediation performance and determination of the fate of NPs in the subsurface, including analytical methods, field measurement devices, decision support and numerical tools. 4) Dissemination and dialogue with key stakeholder interests to ensure that research, development and demonstration meets end-user and regulatory requirements and information and knowledge is shared widely across the EU. 5) Provide applications at representative scales including field sites to validate cost, performance, and fate and transport findings. The NANOREM consortium is multidisciplinary, cross-sectoral and transnational. It includes 28 partners from 12 countries organized in 11 work packages. The consortium includes 18 of the leading nanoremediation research groups in the EU, 10 industry and service providers (8 SMEs) and one organisation with policy and regulatory interest.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SiS.2007-;SiS-2007- | Award Amount: 916.26K | Year: 2008

Citizens are increasingly being asked to deal with socio-scientific issues and make informed decisions on the basis of scientific data. At the same time, there is disconcert with the current status of science education, a disconcert that relates to issues such as student motivation, educational curricula, existing tools, as well as how to best support teachers in adopting new learning and teaching practices. There is a growing interest in university-school-educational authority partnerships developing web-based science inquiry environments as one way of addressing these challenges. Such environments can couple data-rich scientific rigor with the flexibility and modifiability that is needed for widespread adoption and use. CoReflect proposes to develop a European-wide network of Local Working Groups (LWG), involving university researchers, practising teachers and educational authority administrators. These LWGs will develop web-based, inquiry learning environments and accompanying materials on data-rich, socio-scientific debates (e.g. global warming). The LWGs will pair up, and together they will develop two web-based learning environments first in English and then in their national language. During Knowledge Sharing Workshops, they will decide on a common research and design framework. Following a series of peer-review activities, each LWG will adopt and implement their two learning environments. Each LWG will conduct research to systematically investigate specific aspects (e.g. student motivation) of the classroom implementation of the web-based inquiry learning environments, by collecting comparable qualitative and quantitative data. An existing web-based learning and teaching platform, STOCHASMOS, will be used to develop and host the inquiry learning environments. The platform was developed with national support and a Marie Curie action, is publicly accessible and offers specific tools for designing student scaffolds for reflection and collaboration.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev and Mor Research Applications Ltd. | Date: 2015-01-09

This invention is directed, inter alia, to methods and kits for rapid, easy and cost-effective methods of breast cancer prediction and diagnosis in inter alia, blood samples.

News Article | November 10, 2016

BEER-SHEVA, Israel, Nov. 10, 2016 - Male athletes are far more likely to choke under pressure than their female counterparts, according to researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) as part of a study of men's and women's Grand Slam Tennis tournament play. Their paper, Choking Under Pressure and Gender, examined these high-level athletic competitions, describing them as "a unique setting in which two professionals compete in a real-life contest with high monetary rewards," to assess how both men and women respond to competitive pressure in comparable situations. "Our research showed that men consistently choke under competitive pressure, but with regard to women the results are mixed," says Dr. Mosi Rosenboim of BGU's Department of Management. "However, even if women show a drop in performance in the more crucial stages of the match, it is still about 50 percent less than that of men." "The purpose of this study is to shed additional light on how men and women respond to competitive pressure and use its conclusions to better understand the labor market," says Dr. Danny Cohen-Zada of BGU's Department of Economics. "For example, our findings do not support the existing hypothesis that men earn more than women in similar jobs because they respond better than women to pressure." "For this purpose, we use game-level tennis data on all the first sets of all four Grand Slam tournaments in 2010 and examine, within each tennis match, whether and how much each gender deteriorates or improves at crucial stages of the match," says Dr. Cohen-Zada. "The analysis is based on 4,127 women's and 4,153 men's tennis games." The study does, however, explain that caution should be exercised in applying its findings directly to the labor market. "For one thing, while we analyzed how female tennis players respond to pressure in a contest that is homogeneous with regard to gender, in the labor market women are required to respond to competitive pressure in a different setting where, for example, they compete with men," says paper co-author Dr. Alex Krumer, of the Swiss Institute for Empirical Economic Research at the University of St. Gallen. "In addition, tennis players may have different preferences and characteristics that may not necessarily make them a representative subject. Nonetheless, the fact that we have uncovered such robust evidence that women can respond better than men to competitive pressure calls for further investigation in other real-life tournament settings." According to the researchers, stress influenced by an onset of heightened cortisol levels is one of the possible culprits, and cite other researchers' sports-centric studies that have already shown that high amounts of cortisol correlate with poor second serves in tennis and worse golf performance. "This literature indicates that in response to achievement challenges, cortisol levels increase more rapidly among men than among women, and that high levels can harm the mind's critical abilities," says paper co-author Dr. Offer Moshe Shapir of the Center for Business Education and Research at NYU Shanghai. About American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU) plays a vital role in sustaining David Ben-Gurion's vision: creating a world-class institution of education and research in the Israeli desert, nurturing the Negev community and sharing the University's expertise locally and around the globe. As Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) looks ahead to turning 50 in 2020, AABGU imagines a future that goes beyond the walls of academia. It is a future where BGU invents a new world and inspires a vision for a stronger Israel and its next generation of leaders. Together with supporters, AABGU will help the University foster excellence in teaching, research and outreach to the communities of the Negev for the next 50 years and beyond. Visit to learn more. AABGU, headquartered in Manhattan, has nine regional offices throughout the United States. For more information, https:/ .

Relevance: WINTHER project focuses on the development and validation, in 24 months, of industry supported new tools and computational methods, to predict efficacy of drugs in cancer patients Current medical needs: Selection of cancer targeted therapies based on molecular abnormalities (mutations /amplifications/ translocations) benefit today only to 10-40% of patients. For the remaining majority, therapeutic decision is still based according to decade-old protocols with limited efficacy. Drug development depends on efficiency of clinical trials, with a staggering 95% failure rate The objective: WINTHER proposes a fundamental change in trial design, through: 1. investigation of the tumour simultaneously with the normal matched tissue 2. development of a comprehensive database and genomic based algorithms and computational tools to predict the efficacy of drugs at individual level, in all patients, irrespective of cancer type 3. increase efficacy of therapeutics and clinical outcome, Impact: Optimization of the portfolio of existing drugs and new compounds in clinical trials by matching the right drug to the right patient. In particular, it permits to avoid use of expensive drugs for patients that would not benefit from such treatments. WINTHER will made available to community as a clinically validated industry tool (website, database and algorithms) to assist clinicians in the analysis of genomic information based on the comparison of tumour and matched normal tissue and to increase the number of the patients to benefit from individualized rational selection of therapies.

News Article | November 1, 2016

BEER-SHEVA, ISRAEL...November 1, 2016 - A new theory regarding how the brain first learns basic math could alter approaches to identifying and teaching students with math learning disabilities. Published in the Behavioral and Brain Sciences journal, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) researchers offer a better understanding of how, when and why people grasp every day math skills. The most widely accepted theory today suggests people are born with a "sense of numbers," an innate ability to recognize different quantities, like the number of items in a shopping cart, and that this ability improves with age. Early math curricula and tools for diagnosing math-specific learning disabilities such as dyscalculia, a brain disorder that makes it hard to make sense of numbers and math concepts, have been based on that consensus. Ph.D. students Naama Katzin and Maayan Harel and Prof. Avishai Henik, all from the BGU Department of Psychology and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, collaborated with Dr. Tali Leibovich from the Numerical Cognition Laboratory at the Department of Psychology & Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario. Dr. Leibovich was formerly a Ph.D. researcher at BGU's Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and the Zlotowski Center. "If we are able to understand how the brain learns math, and how it understands numbers and more complex math concepts that shape the world we live in, we will be able to teach math in a more intuitive and enjoyable way," says Dr. Leibovich. "This study is the first step in achieving this goal." The study challenges the prevalent "sense of numbers" theory. Other theories suggest that a "sense of magnitude" that enables people to discriminate between different "continuous magnitudes," such as the density of two groups of apples or total surface area of two pizza trays, is even more basic and automatic than a sense of numbers. The researchers argue that understanding the relationship between size and number is critical for the development of higher math abilities. By combining number and size (e.g., area, density and perimeter), we can make faster and more efficient decisions. Take for example the dilemma over choosing the quickest checkout line at the grocery store. While most people intuitively get behind someone with a less filled-looking cart, a fuller-looking cart with fewer, larger items may actually be quicker. The way we make these kinds of decisions reveals that people use the natural correlation between number and continuous magnitudes to compare magnitudes. The researchers also urge colleagues to consider the roles other factors, such as language and cognitive control, play in acquiring numerical concepts. While the theoretical models presented in this review may raise more questions than answers, the researchers hope their hypothesis will reveal new ways of identifying dyscalculia, which can currently only be diagnosed in school-aged children. By this stage, children with the disorder are already lagging behind their peers. "This new approach will allow us to develop diagnostic tools that do not require any formal math knowledge, thus allowing diagnosis and treatment of dyscalculia before school age," says Dr. Leibovich. The study, "From 'sense of number' to 'sense of magnitude' - The role of continuous magnitudes in numerical cognition," was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement 295644 to AH. http://dx. American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU) plays a vital role in sustaining David Ben-Gurion's vision: creating a world-class institution of education and research in the Israeli desert, nurturing the Negev community and sharing the University's expertise locally and around the globe. As Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) looks ahead to turning 50 in 2020, AABGU imagines a future that goes beyond the walls of academia. It is a future where BGU invents a new world and inspires a vision for a stronger Israel and its next generation of leaders. Together with supporters, AABGU will help the University foster excellence in teaching, research and outreach to the communities of the Negev for the next 50 years and beyond. Visit to learn more. AABGU, headquartered in Manhattan, has nine regional offices throughout the United States. For more information, https:/ .

News Article | November 17, 2016

Immensely concentrated sunlight provides a novel method for the synthesis of many nanomaterials that possess remarkable photonic, tribological, electronic, and catalytic properties. The solar paradigm of creating singular nanomaterials that possess unprecedented photonic, tribological, electronic, and catalytic properties is arguably far less familiar than the energy-saving paradigms of solar photovoltaics and solar thermal systems. Much of the research in this field has evolved over the past decade from our collaborations (i.e., between researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel). Although the first fullerenes (hollow closed-cage nanostructures) and nanotubes were made from pure carbon, in the 1990s it was realized that a rich landscape of inorganic candidates—made from compounds that possess comparably layered crystal structures (see Figure 1)—should also exist.1 These compounds have strong covalent bonds within the plane, and weak interplane van der Waals forces that become relatively insignificant at high temperature (where thermal fluctuations can shear, bend, and fold molecular sheets into fullerene-like and tubular nanostructures).1 The first non-carbon success stories were tungsten disulfide (WS ) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS ), produced via pulsed-laser ablation and high-temperature chemistry in conventional ovens.1 Finding high-yield practical methods for the synthesis of these inorganic nanostructures, however, is a difficult challenge. Also, the previous feats notwithstanding, an array of intriguing theoretically predicted nanomaterials could not be realized experimentally, and assorted nanostructures, which would subsequently be discovered, remained undetected. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the layered crystal structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS ). The same structure is also pertinent to a variety of other metal-dichalcogenide compounds. In bulk form, the Mo and S atoms have sixfold and threefold coordination, respectively. In their nanoclusters, however, they have only fourfold (Mo) and twofold (S) coordination. This causes the planar configuration to destabilize, and it favors the formation of hollow closed-cage and tubular nanostructures. Our approach is to use immensely concentrated sunlight to create unique extreme reactor conditions that can yield nanoparticles that could not otherwise be produced, or that could only be obtained with considerable difficulty. The key to our approach is producing a combination of very high reactor temperatures and extensive sharp-gradient ultrahot annealing environments. We have attained temperatures approaching ∼3000K, at target irradiance values of thousands to tens of thousands of suns (one ‘sun’ denotes the irradiance of typical peak terrestrial solar beam radiation, i.e., 1mW/mm2). The target's affiliated thermal radiation emission naturally creates the photonically hot annealing region that is conducive to nanostructure formation. The fact that reactant temperatures approached 3000K was evidenced by accompanying phase transitions, such as the sublimation of graphite and the vaporization of molybdenum. Our experiments show that irradiation times of only a few minutes are sufficient (considerably more rapid than alternative methods) to achieve the desired nanomaterials.2–7 Our three generations of solar furnaces are summarized in Figure 2. These furnaces have evolved to progressively higher flux densities, and from an initially diverging concentrator to converging concentrators. In all cases, solar beam radiation is reflected by an outdoor, flat, dual-axis tracking heliostat into an indoor laboratory where stationary concentrators focus the radiation into quartz-ampoule reactors, and where studies can be conducted under controlled conditions. Our first solar furnace—see Figure 2(a)—comprised a Cassegrain telescope with a primary paraboloidal mirror (200mm in diameter). With this design, the solar disc is imaged into a high-transmissivity, high-numerical-aperture (NA of 0.66) quartz-core optical fiber that transports concentrated sunlight indoors, where the nanomaterial syntheses are performed.2–4 For our second solar furnace—see Figure 2(b)—we used a paraboloidal primary mirror and an ellipsoidal secondary mirror to realize a 15,000-sun Gregorian telescope (capable of delivering ∼105W onto a focal spot of ∼7mm2).5–7 Our latest solar furnace—see Figure 2(c)—is a 30,000-sun dual-mirror aplanat (an aplanat is an imaging design that completely eliminates both spherical aberrations and coma) that can deliver ∼150W onto a focal spot of ∼5mm2.6 In this case, the diameter of the primary mirror is 536mm and the target numerical aperture is 0.98. Accounting for all optical losses, this solar furnace reaches a target irradiance of 30,000 suns (30W/mm2), which is close to the thermodynamic limit (in air) for solar concentration (given the properties of manufacturable components and the accuracy of solar trackers). Figure 2. Three generations of solar furnaces. (a) Schematic diagram (left) of the first-generation furnace, which consists of a Cassegrain telescope with a primary paraboloidal mirror (200mm in diameter). The solar disc is imaged onto a high-transmissivity, high-numerical-aperture quartz-core optical fiber that transports the concentrated sunlight indoors for nanomaterial synthesis. O: Cesium oxide. Photograph in the center shows the distal end of a 20m-long optical fiber pointed at the camera before being threaded into the laboratory. Right: Irradiation of a precursor powder, via the envelope of an evacuated quartz ampoule (photographed with a neutral-density filter). Although the irradiance at the distal fiber tip reaches ∼10,000 suns, it is reduced to ∼4000 suns because of the inherent power-density dilution. (b) Schematic diagram (left) and photograph (right) of the second solar furnace. This is a 15,000-sun Gregorian telescope, i.e., a paraboloidal primary mirror and an ellipsoidal secondary mirror, that delivers ∼105W onto a focal spot of ∼7mm2.2. Three generations of solar furnaces. (a) Schematic diagram (left) of the first-generation furnace, which consists of a Cassegrain telescope with a primary paraboloidal mirror (200mm in diameter). The solar disc is imaged onto a high-transmissivity, high-numerical-aperture quartz-core optical fiber that transports the concentrated sunlight indoors for nanomaterial synthesis. 2–4 CsO: Cesium oxide. Photograph in the center shows the distal end of a 20m-long optical fiber pointed at the camera before being threaded into the laboratory. Right: Irradiation of a precursor powder, via the envelope of an evacuated quartz ampoule (photographed with a neutral-density filter). Although the irradiance at the distal fiber tip reaches ∼10,000 suns, it is reduced to ∼4000 suns because of the inherent power-density dilution. (b) Schematic diagram (left) and photograph (right) of the second solar furnace. This is a 15,000-sun Gregorian telescope, i.e., a paraboloidal primary mirror and an ellipsoidal secondary mirror, that delivers ∼105W onto a focal spot of ∼7mm 5–7 (c) Schematic diagram (left) and photograph (right) of the latest furnace. This is a 30,000-sun dual-mirror aplanat that delivers ∼150W onto a focal spot of ∼5mm 6 The primary mirror has a diameter of 536mm, and the target numerical aperture is 0.98. The red laser beam at the back of the secondary mirror is used for alignment. Several singular nanostructures that we have produced with our solar furnaces are highlighted in Figures 3 and 4. For example, we show—see Figure 3(a–c)—transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of fullerene-like cesium oxide (Cs O) nanostructures that we produced with the solar fiber-optic mini-dish concentrator shown in Figure 2(a). Cs O is used to moderate the work function of optical coatings in photodetectors and photoemitters, but this material is subject to violent reactions in air. In contrast, our closed-cage nanostructures remain stable for weeks. We have also used our solar ablation technique to produce multiwalled MoS nanotubes (known for their super-lubricant value), as shown in Figure 3(d) and (e). With this approach, it was originally just our aim to confirm our ability to reproduce earlier seminal nanomaterial syntheses.1 From the same solar ablation experiments, however, we also produced the first-ever single-walled MoS nanotubes (and thus confirmed the fundamental lower size limit for such nanostructures).3, 4 We also show TEM images of silicon (Si) nanowires, generated at high yields via solar ablation, in Figure 3(f).3,4 These nanowires develop a thin passivating film of SiO when they are exposed to air. Although such Si nanostructures had been previously synthesized, our work was the first time they were realized from a pure SiO precursor, and without toxic chemistry and long reaction times. Figure 3. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of (a–c) fullerene-like Cs O nanostructures, produced with the solar fiber-optic mini-dish concentrator shown in Figure  nanotubes and (f) silicon nanowires, all generated via solar ablation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of (a–c) fullerene-like CsO nanostructures, produced with the solar fiber-optic mini-dish concentrator shown in Figure 2 (a), 2 as well as (d, e) multiwalled MoSnanotubes and (f) silicon nanowires, all generated via solar ablation. 3,4 A high-resolution TEM image of a hybrid MoS nanoparticle, which had—prior to our work—been unpredicted and unrecognized, is shown in Figure 4(a).5 This nanostructure seamlessly morphs from a nano-octahedral core to a quasi-spherical exterior. It should, therefore, possess both metallic and semiconductor properties (in the core and exterior, respectively) within a single nanoparticle. Lastly, we illustrate—see Figure 4(b)—the first-ever closed-cage nanosuperstructure (50nm in diameter) made from alternating layers of lead sulfide (PbS) and tin sulfide (SnS ), which we generated with our solar furnace method.7 As these two semiconductor materials have noticeably different bandgaps, we expect the misfit PbS-SnS nanostructures to reveal interesting optical absorption in the visible range (which could spawn applications in photocatalysis and photodetection). Figure 4. (a) Drawing and high-resolution TEM image of the type of hybrid MoS nanoparticle that had previously remained unrecognized and unpredicted. ). (a) Drawing and high-resolution TEM image of the type of hybrid MoSnanoparticle that had previously remained unrecognized and unpredicted. 5 The diameter of the nanoparticle shown here is 26nm. The nanostructure seamlessly morphs from a nano-octrahedral core to a quasi-spherical exterior, and should therefore possess both metallic and semiconductor properties, respectively, within a single nanoparticle. (b) TEM image and molecular model of the (solar-generated) first-ever closed-cage nanosuperstructure (50nm in diameter) that consists of alternating layers of lead sulfide (PbS) and tin sulfide (SnS). 7 In summary, we have demonstrated a novel solar paradigm for the synthesis of singular inorganic nanomaterials. We have developed a series of solar furnaces to immensely concentrate sunlight and create extreme reactor conditions conducive to nanostructure formation. We have highlighted a number of the singular nanostructures that we produced with this approach. Our results illustrate the eclectic array of new, and often unanticipated, nanomaterials that can thus be realized. Our work also serves as ongoing motivation for the pursuit of novel and valuable nanomaterials through this tantalizing paradigm. So far, we have demonstrated that this solar route is a relatively simple, inexpensive, fast, and reproducible photothermal method. Our future activities will subsume the solar synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles (such as Pb@GaS fullerenes and nanotubes, i.e., that have a lead core and gallium sulfide exterior layers). We will also identify reactor and irradiation schemes that provide high yields of extraordinary nanostructures, such as single-wall MoS nanotubes and MoS nano-octahedra (for which achieving more-than-sparse yields has so far proven elusive). Lastly, we plan to develop solar ablation as a new, safe, rapid, high-yield, and scalable method for the production of graphene and graphene-like MoS . Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Jeffrey Gordon is professor of solar energy and environmental physics. His research and pedagogical interests include solar energy science, materials science, biomedical optics, desalination, the physics of cooling, concentrator and illuminator optics, photovoltaic physics, and thermodynamics. Department of Solar Energy and Environmental PhysicsBen-Gurion University of the Negev 1. R. Tenne, Inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like materials of metal dichalcogenide and related layered compounds, in Y. Gogotsi ed., Nanomaterials Handbook, CRC Press, 2006. 2. A. Albu-Yaron, T. Arad, M. Levy, R. Popovitz-Biro, R. Tenne, J. M. Gordon, D. Feuermann, E. A. Katz, M. Jansen, C. Mühle, Synthesis of fullerene-like Cs O nanoparticles by concentrated sunlight, Adv. Mater. 18, p. 2993-2996, 2006. 4. M. Levy, A. Albu-Yaron, R. Tenne, D. Feuermann, E. A. Katz, D. Babai, J. M. Gordon, Synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like nanostructures by concentrated solar and artificial light, Israel J. Chem. 50, p. 417-425, 2010. 5. A. Albu-Yaron, M. Levy, R. Tenne, R. Popovitz-Biro, M. Weidenbach, M. Bar-Sadan, L. Houben, et al., MoS hybrid nanostructures: from octahedral to quasi-spherical shells within individual nanoparticles, Angew. Chem. Int'l Ed. 50, p. 1810-1814, 2011. 6. H.-B. Lu, B. C. Y. Chan, X. Wang, H. T. Chua, C. L. Raston, A. Albu-Yaron, M. Levy, et al., High-yield synthesis of silicon carbide nanowires by solar and lamp ablation, Nanotechnology 24, p. 335603, 2013.

News Article | December 6, 2016

LAS VEGAS...December 6, 2016--Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) is partnering with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce on the first joint Israel/U.S. water conference, BusinessH2O Summit, at the Bellagio Hotel in Las Vegas on December 12. The summit will bring together policy experts, entrepreneurs, business leaders, and investors to discuss best practices in water policy. Water experts from BGU's Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research will discuss proven practices for promoting corporate water stewardship and public policies in Israel and the U.S. that address the growing demand for water. Featured speakers from BGU include Zuckerberg Institute Director Prof. Noam Weisbrod, Prof. Amit Gross and Prof. Jack Gilron, co-founder of Rotec, which develops novel technologies for sensing, monitoring and preventing mineral scaling on the surface of membranes and pipes used in the water treatment industry. "BGU is proud to be a platinum sponsor of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's BusinessH2O Summit featuring some of our top researchers who will share their research, innovation and expertise," says Prof. Weisbrod. "We are looking forward to sharing technological know-how and finding new opportunities to partner with stakeholders in the global effort to mitigate water issues in the U.S. and worldwide." Israel is the only country where the desert is receding because of water management practices and innovations. BGU scientist Sidney Loeb pioneered modern desalination techniques in the early 1960s and the University has since developed many water technologies that ensure the country has more than enough water to serve its population and agriculture. Currently, BGU has partnerships with major U.S. universities, including the University of Chicago and Arizona State University, and continues to advance international water research. Zuckerberg Institute benefactor Roy J. Zuckerberg will present a keynote address on "Investing in Water Research," outlining his vision for water industry research in Israel and around the world. Zuckerberg is a senior director of the Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., a former vice chairman of Goldman Sachs and a chairman emeritus of the University's Board of Governors. He currently serves as chairman of Samson Capital Advisors. Earlier this year, the Zuckerberg Institute benefitted as a recipient of a $400 million gift to BGU by the late Howard and Lottie Marcus. The Marcus bequest is believed to be the largest gift ever made to an Israeli university or institution of any kind. A significant portion was earmarked for water research. Click here to register for "BusinessH2O: Water Management Best Practices from the United States and Israel" by Dec. 5. The conference website is: http://www. The Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, Israel's largest and leading water institute, conducts interdisciplinary, cutting-edge research and graduate education in water sciences aimed at improving human well-being through technologies and policies for sustainable use of water resources. World-renowned Zuckerberg researchers focus on desalination technologies and groundwater production, water quality and microbiology, as well as water resource economics and management. Zuckerberg graduate programs attract students from all corners of the world who are involved in research projects and collaborations with both developed and underdeveloped countries. Named for New York philanthropist Roy J. Zuckerberg, the Institute was founded in 2002 within the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research at the Sede Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. For more information, visit http://www. American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU) plays a vital role in sustaining David Ben-Gurion's vision: creating a world-class institution of education and research in the Israeli desert, nurturing the Negev community and sharing the University's expertise locally and around the globe. As Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) looks ahead to turning 50 in 2020, AABGU imagines a future that goes beyond the walls of academia. It is a future where BGU invents a new world and inspires a vision for a stronger Israel and its next generation of leaders. Together with supporters, AABGU will help the University foster excellence in teaching, research and outreach to the communities of the Negev for the next 50 years and beyond. Visit to learn more.

News Article | November 12, 2016

Male athletes are far more likely to choke under pressure than their female counterparts, according to researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) as part of a study of men's and women's Grand Slam Tennis tournament play. Their paper, "Choking Under Pressure and Gender," examined these high-level athletic competitions, describing them as "a unique setting in which two professionals compete in a real-life contest with high monetary rewards," to assess how both men and women respond to competitive pressure in comparable situations. "Our research showed that men consistently choke under competitive pressure, but with regard to women the results are mixed," says Dr. Mosi Rosenboim of BGU's Department of Management. "However, even if women show a drop in performance in the more crucial stages of the match, it is still about 50 percent less than that of men." "The purpose of this study is to shed additional light on how men and women respond to competitive pressure and use its conclusions to better understand the labor market," says Dr. Danny Cohen-Zada of BGU's Department of Economics. "For example, our findings do not support the existing hypothesis that men earn more than women in similar jobs because they respond better than women to pressure." "For this purpose, we use game-level tennis data on all the first sets of all four Grand Slam tournaments in 2010 and examine, within each tennis match, whether and how much each gender deteriorates or improves at crucial stages of the match," says Dr. Cohen-Zada. "The analysis is based on 4,127 women's and 4,153 men's tennis games." The study does, however, explain that caution should be exercised in applying its findings directly to the labor market. "For one thing, while we analyzed how female tennis players respond to pressure in a contest that is homogeneous with regard to gender, in the labor market women are required to respond to competitive pressure in a different setting where, for example, they compete with men," says paper co-author Dr. Alex Krumer, of the Swiss Institute for Empirical Economic Research at the University of St. Gallen. "In addition, tennis players may have different preferences and characteristics that may not necessarily make them a representative subject. Nonetheless, the fact that we have uncovered such robust evidence that women can respond better than men to competitive pressure calls for further investigation in other real-life tournament settings." According to the researchers, stress influenced by an onset of heightened cortisol levels is one of the possible culprits, and cite other researchers' sports-centric studies that have already shown that high amounts of cortisol correlate with poor second serves in tennis and worse golf performance. "This literature indicates that in response to achievement challenges, cortisol levels increase more rapidly among men than among women, and that high levels can harm the mind's critical abilities," says paper co-author Dr. Offer Moshe Shapir of the Center for Business Education and Research at NYU Shanghai.

News Article | March 1, 2017

BEER-SHEVA, Israel...March 1, 2017 - Research conducted at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) has determined that psychological momentum significantly affects performance among men but not among women, which may account for exaggerated risk-taking in financial and business endeavors among males. Psychological momentum is defined as a state-of-mind where an individual or a team feels things are going unstoppably their way and is known to be caused, among other factors, by shifts in testosterone levels. The study, "Psychological Momentum and Gender," is published in the March volume of the Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. According to Dr. Danny Cohen-Zada, a lecturer in the BGU Department of Economics, "The purpose of our study was twofold: to estimate the causal effect of psychological momentum on performance in real tournament settings, and to examine whether there are any gender differences in the corresponding response." The researchers analyzed two different samples of men's and women's judo competitions from 2009 to 2013. In the first, they looked at the bronze medal fights of each tournament. While competitors in this fight won the same number of total bouts, some had won their most recent bout while others did not. Those who reached the bronze medal fight following a win have a potential momentum advantage. The authors examined this unique setting to determine whether the contestants with the momentum advantage had a higher probability to win the fight. "Our results showed that based on a cross-section analysis of 106 men's and 111 women's fights from eight major annual judo events, having a psychological momentum advantage significantly increases the winning probability in men's contests but not in women's," says Dr. Alex Krumer of the Swiss Institute for Empirical Economic Research (SEW), University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. In the second part of the study, based on the head-to-head history of the pairs from the first sample and analyzing 225 men's and 231 women's fights, the researchers obtained similar results by analyzing how the performance of the same pair of judokas (judo experts) is affected by varied momentum statuses in different tournaments. As expected, the results of these specifications indicate that the psychological momentum effect exists among men, but not among women. The researchers believe that their findings have implications for business. "We can connect our findings to the effect of psychological momentum in financial markets of which 90 percent are men," says Dr. Ze'ev Shtudiner from the Department of Economics and Business Administration, Ariel University, Israel. Drs. Krumer and Shtudiner earned their doctoral degrees in economics from BGU. "Such an effect may lead male traders, driven by an increase in testosterone due to a successful investment, to take exaggerated risks, which, in turn, create price bubbles," says Dr. Shtudiner. "By increasing the number of women in financial markets, it may be possible to stabilize these markets since women have less dramatic shifts in testosterone levels, which can make them less prone to the momentum effect. This argument is consistent with our results that momentum effects are generated only among men, since it is only among them that testosterone levels increase after success." According to Dr. Krumer, "An increased frequency of positive feedback from managers after successful actions may turn into a positive psychological momentum and thus increase productivity. Similarly, managers should exert efforts to reduce the influence of unsuccessful actions of their workers to avoid productivity losses." Given these findings, Dr. Cohen-Zada believes additional research would be beneficial focusing on the role of psychological effects on performance in male-dominated positions, such as stockbrokers, high-profile managers, politicians, and military commanders. About American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU) plays a vital role in sustaining David Ben-Gurion's vision: creating a world-class institution of education and research in the Israeli desert, nurturing the Negev community and sharing the University's expertise locally and around the globe. As Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) looks ahead to turning 50 in 2020, AABGU imagines a future that goes beyond the walls of academia. It is a future where BGU invents a new world and inspires a vision for a stronger Israel and its next generation of leaders. Together with supporters, AABGU will help the University foster excellence in teaching, research and outreach to the communities of the Negev for the next 50 years and beyond. Visit to learn more. AABGU, which is headquartered in Manhattan, has nine regional offices throughout the United States. For more information, visit http://www.

Yip E.C.,Cornell University | Yip E.C.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Rayor L.S.,Cornell University
Biological Reviews | Year: 2014

While most spiders are solitary and opportunistically cannibalistic, a variety of social organisations has evolved in a minority of spider species. One form of social organisation is subsociality, in which siblings remain together with their parent for some period of time but disperse prior to independent reproduction. We review the literature on subsocial and maternal behaviour in spiders to highlight areas in which subsocial spiders have informed our understanding of social evolution and to identify promising areas of future research. We show that subsocial behaviour has evolved independently at least 18 times in spiders, across a wide phylogenetic distribution. Subsocial behaviour is diverse in terms of the form of care provided by the mother, the duration of care and sibling association, the degree of interaction and cooperation among siblings, and the use of vibratory and chemical communication. Subsocial spiders are useful model organisms to study various topics in ecology, such as kin recognition and the evolution of cheating and its impact on societies. Further, why social behaviour evolved in some lineages and not others is currently a topic of debate in behavioural ecology, and we argue that spiders offer an opportunity to untangle the ecological causes of parental care, which forms the basis of many other animal societies. © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

Gao Y.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Riklin-Raviv T.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Bouix S.,Harvard University
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2014

In the last two decades, the statistical analysis of shape has become an actively studied field and finds applications in a wide range of areas. In addition to algorithmic development, many researchers have distributed end-user orientated toolboxes, which further enable the utilization of the algorithms in an "off the shelf" fashion. However, there is little work on the evaluation and validation of these techniques, which poses a rather serious challenge when interpreting their results. To address this lack of validation, we design a validation framework and then use it to test some of the most widely used toolboxes. Our initial results show inconsistencies and disagreement among four different methods. We believe this type of analysis to be critical not only for the community of algorithm designers but also perhaps more importantly to researchers who use these tools without knowing the algorithm details and seek objective criteria for tool selection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Tang L.,Rice University | Sun Y.,Texas Instruments | Gurewitz O.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Johnson D.B.,Rice University
Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM | Year: 2011

This paper presents PW-MAC (Predictive-Wakeup MAC), a new energy-efficient MAC protocol based on asynchronous duty cycling. In PW-MAC, nodes each wake up to receive at randomized, asynchronous times. PW-MAC minimizes sensor node energy consumption by enabling senders to predict receiver wakeup times; to enable accurate predictions, PW-MAC introduces an on-demand prediction error correction mechanism that effectively addresses timing challenges such as unpredictable hardware and operating system delays and clock drift. PW-MAC also introduces an efficient prediction-based retransmission mechanism to achieve high energy efficiency even when wireless collisions occur and packets must be retransmitted. We evaluate PW-MAC on a testbed of MICAz motes and compare it to X-MAC, WiseMAC, and RI-MAC, three previous energy-efficient MAC protocols, under multiple concurrent multihop traffic flows and under hidden-terminal scenarios and scenarios in which nodes have wakeup schedule conflicts. In all experiments, PW-MAC significantly outperformed these other protocols. For example, evaluated on scenarios with 15 concurrent transceivers in the network, the average sender duty cycle for X-MAC, WiseMAC, and RI-MAC were all over 66%, while PW-MAC's average sender duty cycle was only 11%; the delivery latency for PW-MAC in these scenarios was less than 5% that for WiseMAC and X-MAC. In all experiments, PW-MAC maintained a delivery ratio of 100%. © 2011 IEEE.

Grego A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Muller A.,Bielefeld University | Weinstock I.A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Unprecedented information concerning how the relative roles of different hydrophobic effects evolve during multistep hydrophobic assembly processes is provided by using a unique type of experiment to resolve the underlying energetics of individual growth steps in the formation of a structurally well-defined micelle-like organic aggregate of n-butyrate ions within a porous inorganic-oxide nanocapsule. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Acharya S.,Indian Association for The Cultivation of Science | Das B.,Indian Association for The Cultivation of Science | Thupakula U.,Indian Association for The Cultivation of Science | Ariga K.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

Two-dimensional (2D) sheets are currently in the spotlight of nanotechnology owing to high-performance device fabrication possibilities. Building a free-standing quantum sheet with controlled morphology is challenging when large planar geometry and ultranarrow thickness are simultaneously concerned. Coalescence of nanowires into large single-crystalline sheet is a promising approach leading to large, molecularly thick 2D sheets with controlled planar morphology. Here we report on a bottom-up approach to fabricate high-quality ultrathin 2D single crystalline sheets with well-defined rectangular morphology via collective coalescence of PbS nanowires. The ultrathin sheets are strictly rectangular with 1.8 nm thickness, 200-250 nm width, and 3-20 μm length. The sheets show high electrical conductivity at room and cryogenic temperatures upon device fabrication. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that a single row of delocalized orbitals of a nanowire is gradually converted into several parallel conduction channels upon sheet formation, which enable superior in-plane carrier conduction. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Deutsch V.R.,The Haematology Institute | Tomer A.,The Haematology Institute | Tomer A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Tomer A.,Soroka University Medical Center
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Megakaryocytopoiesis involves the commitment of haematopoietic stem cells, proliferation and terminal differentiation of megakaryocytic progenitors (MK-p) and maturation of megakaryocytes (MKs) to produce functional platelets. This complex process occurs in specialized niches in the bone marrow where MKs align adjacent to vascular endothelial cells, form proplatelet projections and release platelets into the circulation. Thrombopoietin (THPO, TPO) is the primary growth factor for the MK lineage and necessary at all stages of development. THPO is constitutively produced in the liver, and binds to MPL (c-Mpl) receptor on platelets and MKs. This activates a cascade of signalling molecules, which induce transcription factors to drive MK development and thrombopoiesis. Decreased turnover rate and platelet number result in increased levels of free THPO, which induces a concentration-dependant compensatory response of marrow-MKs to enhance platelet production. Newly developed thrombopoietic agents operating via MPL receptor facilitate platelet production in thrombocytopenic states, primarily immune thrombocytopenia. Other drugs are available for attenuating malignant thrombocytosis. Herein, we review the regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production in normal and disease states, and the innovative drugs and therapeutic modalities to stimulate or decrease thrombopoiesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Arnon S.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Arnon S.,Cornell University
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2012

Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging communication technology for short-range applications, especially indoors. This technology uses light, emitted from super-illuminating semiconductors for the primary purpose of illumination, to carry information in addition. One of the major challenges faced in implementing VLC technology is to find a way to achieve communication without affecting the illumination. In this paper, we describe an inverse pulse position modulation method that encapsulates communication data in the time domain without affecting the illumination property, which is conveyed in the amplitude domain. Due to the fact that this modulation method requires accurate synchronization, we have studied the effect of clock time shift and jitter on the system bit-error-rate performance and have derived models that could be used to define the minimum requirements of the synchronization system. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

Lemmerer A.,University of Witwatersrand | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Spackman M.A.,University of Western Australia
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

The tetrahedral arrangement of hydrogen bonding donor and acceptor groups is used to rationalise the design of a diamondoid network; however, a single proton transfer renders the four sites inequivalent, and results in two polymorphs of the title molecular salt utilizing similar intermolecular synthons. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Ben - Gurion University of the Negev, Slavin and Gazit | Date: 2015-01-21

The present invention is directed to use of a series of compounds represented by the structure of formula I and compositions comprising the same for activating telomerase and treating diseases, disorders and/or conditions related thereto:

The main goal of our proposal is to develop a novel optical nanobiosensor based on extraordinary vibrational signal enhancement of the proteins to be detected. To reach vibrational signal enhancement, we will exploit the optical properties of specially designed metallic nanoparticles which should act as nanoantenna and the associated field enhancement to obtain a direct detection of proteins bound to the nanoparticle. Thus, our sensor will reach high sensitivity provided by the recently established large enhancement of vibration signals due to the resonant excitation of the nanoantenna device used as substrates. The aim is to detect only a few proteins with concentration much lower than 1pM and finally to reach detection threshold such as femtomole or lower. High molecular selectivity will be reached with the functionalisation of the nanoantenna. Such functionalisation will selectively favour the immobilisation of the protein to be detected at the vicinity of the nanoparticle surface, providing the best enhancement and then the detection of the targeted protein. Our nanobiosensor will include two main components: the nanoantenna device which corresponds to our sensor transducer and the functionalisation which corresponds to its bioreceptor. And then, each functionalised nanoantenna device used as vibrational signal enhanced system is an individual and specific nanosensor of proteins. As a consequence, our nanobiosensor integrated in a vibrational spectroscope will allow the detection and the analysis of the enhanced vibrational signal from the targeted proteins and thus corresponds to our diagnosis instrument. Our nanobiosensor will be validated on the detection of proteins on body fluids.These proteins have been chosen since they have been identified as specific biomarkers of common pathologies. This validation will be applied it to improve their detection (better sensitivity, decrease of the detection threshold) and open the way to the early diagnosis.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.16M | Year: 2008

Background: The DNA damage response (DDR) is a specialised stress response fundamental to maintaining genome integrity and suppressing tumour formation. Traditional molecular and cellular biology, combined with genetics and biochemistry, have led to an understanding of the architecture of the DDR in a variety of model organisms and in human cells. These studies have employed populations of cells/molecules and their results are of necessity an average of the response. High sensitivity imaging technologies make it feasible to study events in single cells and to do experiments with small numbers of molecules in vitro. These can now be applied to the DDR. Project Objectives: To provide an interdisciplinary training in single cell and single molecule studies to graduate students in Physics, Chemistry, LS, Maths and Computer sciences. The focus of the research will be the study of the DDR and genome stability. The main technologies to be developed concern high resolution molecular imaging methodologies. Specific aims: To train eight early stage researchers to doctoral level to utilize an interdisciplinary approach to address specific scientific questions and to communicate between disciplines. Study Design: We will achieve our objective by building a network comprising four local groups, each a collaboration between an imaging specialist and a cell biologist / molecular geneticists engaged in research on genome stability. The collaborating scientists will serve as co-advisors and will develop a personalised interdisciplinary research training programme for each recruit. Local training will be augmented by specially designed network-wide summer schools, workshops and meetings encompassing all network participants and invited experts. An industrial partner is integral to the network in order to share methods and provide secondments and input into workshops to train researchers in technology exploitation.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2007-1.1-1;NMP-2007-2.1-2 | Award Amount: 5.00M | Year: 2008

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), cardiovascular diseases cause half the deaths in the EU. It is also the main cause of years of life lost (over 30 per cent) in early death thus causing huge pressure on the labour force and family earnings. The problem is becoming more acute in Central and Eastern European countries. Due to the ageing population in the EU, osteoporosis related bone fractures have almost doubled in the last decade. It is estimated that 40 percent of women over 50 years in age will suffer from fractures due to low density bone. The European Commission considers the application of nanotechnology an important research strategy to address these problems. For this, design and control of biomaterial at the nanometer scale is set as a strategic research priority. Europe is, however, seriously under-represented in the global market for nanotherapeutics, where the United States dominates with three-quarter of the market share. While the drive for nanoscale understanding of biological interaction can be high, the application of this knowledge in marketable devices should also be prioritised. Here, we propose electrical modification of biomaterials surface to manipulate surface charge that will mediate bio/non bio interactions in vivo. We propose novel nanoscale techniques to probe this surface charge at the nanometer scale so that we have a quantitative insight to biological interaction at the biomedical device surfaces. Such an approach will help us to scale up electrical modification in cardiovascular stents, urological stents, orthopedic implants and photosterilisation devices. The research proposed here will not only provide nanoscale understanding of biological interactions on biomaterials surface but also result in novel applications and devices, which will penetrate into the market in short to medium term.

Fishov I.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Norris V.,University of Rouen
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012

The bacterial membrane is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of lipids and proteins and of higher level structures termed hyperstructures. The causes of this heterogeneity include lipid-lipid, protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. The coupling of transcription, translation and insertion of nascent proteins into membrane, transertion, creates large membrane domains that are proposed to be important in the regulation and execution of the cell cycle and in other functions. In describing membrane heterogeneity, we suggest here that transertion is a global regulator coupling metabolism to the cell cycle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pinhas M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Shaki S.,Ariel University | Fischer M.H.,University of Potsdam
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2014

Mental arithmetic shows systematic spatial biases. The association between numbers and space is well documented, but it is unknown whether arithmetic operation signs also have spatial associations and whether or not they contribute to spatial biases found in arithmetic. Adult participants classified plus and minus signs with left and right button presses under two counterbalanced response rules. Results from two experiments showed that spatially congruent responses (i.e., right-side responses for the plus sign and left-side responses for the minus sign) were responded to faster than spatially incongruent ones (i.e., left-side responses for the plus sign and right-side responses for the minus sign). We also report correlations between this novel operation sign spatial association (OSSA) effect and other spatial biases in number processing. In a control experiment with no explicit processing requirements for the operation signs there were no sign-related spatial biases. Overall, the results suggest that (a) arithmetic operation signs can evoke spatial associations (OSSA), (b) experience with arithmetic operations probably underlies the OSSA, and (c) the OSSA only partially contributes to spatial biases in arithmetic. © 2014 © 2014 The Experimental Psychology Society.

Lublinsky M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Lublinsky M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Zahed I.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavor anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is briefly noted. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Eichler J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Maupin-Furlow J.,University of Florida
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

As an ever-growing number of genome sequences appear, it is becoming increasingly clear that factors other than genome sequence impart complexity to the proteome. Of the various sources of proteomic variability, post-translational modifications (PTMs) most greatly serve to expand the variety of proteins found in the cell. Likewise, modulating the rates at which different proteins are degraded also results in a constantly changing cellular protein profile. While both strategies for generating proteomic diversity are adopted by organisms across evolution, the responsible pathways and enzymes in Archaea are often less well described than are their eukaryotic and bacterial counterparts. Studies on halophilic archaea, in particular Haloferax volcanii, originally isolated from the Dead Sea, are helping to fill the void. In this review, recent developments concerning PTMs and protein degradation in the haloarchaea are discussed. In this review, the latest findings on the post-translational modification and regulated degradation of archaeal proteins, as learned from studies of the haloarchaea, in particular Haloferax volcanii, are presented. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

Orvieto R.,Barzilai Medical Center | Orvieto R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Patrizio P.,Yale University
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2013

The availability of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists for ovarian stimulation protocols has generated many meta-analyses comparing it to GnRH agonist long protocols. These meta-analyses have yielded conflicting results for pregnancy rate, with a tendency toward a better outcome for GnRH agonists. Recently, a Cochrane review seems to have settled the conflicts by demonstrating no evidence of statistically significant differences in the rates of live births or ongoing pregnancies when comparing GnRH agonist long protocols with GnRH antagonist protocols. This paper disputes the equivalence of these two protocols as discussed in the latest meta-analysis and argue that the GnRH agonist still has a demonstrable superiority over GnRH antagonist protocols. © 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd.

Pohl M.,German Electron Synchrotron | Pohl M.,University of Potsdam | Eichler D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We investigate the temporal and spectral correlations between flux and anisotropy fluctuations of TeV-band cosmic rays in light of recent data taken with IceCube. We find that for a conventional distribution of cosmic-ray sources, the dipole anisotropy is higher than observed, even if source discreteness is taken into account. Moreover, even for a shallow distribution of galactic cosmic-ray sources and a reacceleration model, fluctuations arising from source discreteness provide a probability only of the order of 10% that the cosmic-ray anisotropy limits of the recent IceCube analysis are met. This probability estimate is nearly independent of the exact choice of source rate, but generous for a large halo size. The location of the intensity maximum far from the Galactic Center is naturally reproduced. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2009.3.2.1 | Award Amount: 869.00K | Year: 2010

AquaFUELS intends to focus on establishing the state of the art on research, technological development and demonstration activities regarding the exploitation of various algal and other suitable non-food aquatic biomasses for 2nd generation biofuels production. In this frame an overall assessment, critical thinking and reasoning are necessary to draft the lines of future developments. This will respond to the need of understanding the place of algae and aquatic biomass in the present and future renewable energy sources portfolio in EU, with a careful eye to sustainability and social implications. Such action can be effective only involving major stakeholders, defining the present situation in a realistic perspective and this way providing a valuable contribution to shape future developments. AquaFUELS aims to draw the detailed, comprehensive and concrete picture of the actual status quo of EU and international initiatives on algae biofuels. Based on this work, AquaFUELS will successively elaborate an overall assessment on the technology, and identify major research and industrial needs. The surveys and assessments produced by AquaFUELS will address the full life cycle analysis - from collection to fuel use - in terms of environmental, economic and social sustainability. A major mean to reach project goals will be the coordination of a critical mass of ongoing research activities, that will be actively involved in the preparation of surveys as well as in the elaboration of the assessment studies and identification of future needs. Creating and maximizing synergies among these initiatives is one of major project results. Finally, the project will establish the first European Algae Association that will promote mutual interchange and cooperation in the field of algal biomass research, production and use

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 7.03M | Year: 2013

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the leading causes of death and disability and the main cause of death among the under-45s. Most patients with moderate to severe TBI are admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) The PROSAFE ICU network was recently established in 6 European countries through EU funding (PHEA 2007331), and has continued to collect high-quality data beyond the grant duration. In 2011, 225 ICUs had joined PROSAFE, recruiting a total of 73,163 patients, 2,694 of whom were admitted for TBI. Hence the network can expect to enrol 7-9,000 moderate to severe TBI patients in 4 years. The PROSAFE consortium has already focused attention on TBI and has just started collecting additional information on this condition in order to develop a prognostic model to identify centres of excellence in TBI management Aims of proposal are to consolidate the existing network in order to better describe the epidemiology of moderate-severe TBI in 7 countries (Greece has now joined the consortium); build a prognostic model based on short- and long-term outcome measures; identify most effective clinical interventions for optimally treating TBI patients, and recognize the determinants of optimal vs suboptimal performance All TBI-CDEs endorsed by InTBIR will be collected, along with other items needed to develop a sensible prognostic model, permitting the consortium to join forces with international collaborative initiatives in the field Availing of the coordinating institutes biobank and consolidated expertise in biochemical and genetic biomarkers, the aim is to identify prognostic markers and underlying genetic factors influencing response to treatment and final outcome The PROSAFE consortium is thus in a position to guarantee superior quality data collection in 7 countries and ensure it continues beyond the life of the project. These conditions are essential if the consortium is to contribute to Europe playing a key role in the success of the InTBIR initiative

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.9 | Award Amount: 3.44M | Year: 2013

The ultimate aim of the proposed research is to make ultra-sensitive matter-interferometry available in a compact and eventually portable device. Specifically, we seek to test the ideas in a guided matter-wave interferometer based on ultracold bosonic atoms. We will explore matter-wave interferometry in macroscopic traps as well as on atom-chips. Such device has the potential to induce a step change in the sensitivity with which acceleration and rotation can be measured. The expected impact extends well beyond fundamental research, for example to geoscience and navigation.En route to the ultimate goal of a portable matter-wave interferometer, we hope to break new ground in the understanding of important aspects of matter-wave interferometry with interacting atomic gases. We will strive to master the coherence preserving manipulation of matter-waves in wave-guides and the miniaturisation eventually down to the size of a microchip. In addition, we will address the challenge of combining all these ingredients in a mobile device.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST-2007-4.1-02 | Award Amount: 2.56M | Year: 2009

In recent years, a variety of driver support and information management systems have been designed and implemented with the objective of improving safety as well as the performance of vehicles. While the crucial issues at a technical level have been mostly solved, their consequences on driver activity remains open and needs to be fully explained. Of particular importance are their effects on driver behaviour and strategies, and their impact on the operation and safety of the traffic system. The aim of the proposed project is to develop and validate a unified model of driver behaviour and driver interaction with innovative technologies in emergency situations. This model will be applicable to and validated for all the surface transport modes. Drivers age, gender, education and experience and culture are factors that will be considered together with influences from the environment and the vehicle. A unified model of driver behaviour will be of great use when designing innovative technologies since it will allow for assessment and tuning of the systems in a safe and controllable environment. At the concept stage, the model could guide designers in identifying potential problem areas whilst at the prototype stage, the model could inform on the scenarios to be used in system evaluation. In this way the systems will be better adapted to the drivers before being available on the market and will provide better support to the driver in emergency situations. Along the same lines, the model could be of use for authorities as a guide in assessing and approving innovative technologies without performing extensive simulator experiments or large scale field trials. As far as the proposes are aware, there has not to date been any research taking the bold step of attempting to create a unified model of driver behaviour applicable across the modes, still less a functioning piece of software to represent that model and the validation of that software.

THUNDER BAY, ON--(Marketwired - November 30, 2016) - Zenyatta Ventures Ltd. ("Zenyatta" or "Company") (TSX VENTURE: ZEN) ( : ZENYF) announces that Dr. Yoshihiko Arao and Professor Masatoshi Kubouchi at the Tokyo Institute of Technology ('Tokyo Tech') in Japan demonstrated the ease and high-yield conversion of Albany graphite to graphene. The results from Dr. Arao also endorse an outcome announced in the Company's news release dated 16 May 2016 from Dr. Oren Regev, (Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel). Dr. Regev stated that they regularly use various types of commercially available natural flake graphite, but found Albany graphite to easily exfoliate under sonication and with much higher yields of graphene nano-particles than any other natural graphite types that were tested. Dr. Arao, Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Tokyo Tech, stated "Zenyatta's high-purity graphite material was tested by our scientific team on mechanical conversion to graphene and discovered it converted much easier and with higher yields of graphene than our reference material. We have tested many types of natural graphite but found Zenyatta's graphite material to have better exfoliation performance and produce better graphene particles than the reference material. We believe that this is an unique material and we would like to carry out further collaborative work with Zenyatta on graphene applications." Tokyo Tech is the top national university for science and technology in Japan with a history spanning more than 130 years. It is the largest institution for higher education in Japan dedicated to science and technology, and is considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in Japan and the world. Tokyo Tech continues to develop global leaders in the fields of science and technology, and contributes to the betterment of society through its research, focusing on solutions to global issues. The Institute's long-term goal is to become the world's leading science and technology university. Dr. Bharat Chahar, VP of Market Development for Zenyatta stated, "It is very important to receive further independent confirmation from Tokyo Tech of the superior performance of Albany graphite's conversion to graphene. The obstacle to widespread use of graphene since discovery is the high manufacturing cost. A lower-cost and disruptive approach is to use high-purity natural graphite, like Albany material, as the starting point to get high yields of graphene. We are eager to start another phase of testing at a world class facility like Tokyo Tech using our high-purity graphite material for various innovative graphene applications." Earlier this year the Company also announced in a news release dated 27 January 2016 positive results from Dr. Aicheng Chen, (Professor of Chemistry and Canada Research Chair in Materials and Environmental Chemistry at Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada) related to the production of graphene oxide. Dr. Chen's results indicated that high quality graphene oxide can easily be produced from Albany graphite. Additionally, the graphene oxide produced can be converted to graphene via a simple reduction process with a very high yield. Zenyatta continues to develop its unique Albany graphite deposit in Ontario, Canada. The Company's highly crystalline graphite deposit is situated 30 km north of the Trans-Canada Highway, power line and natural gas pipeline near the communities of Constance Lake First Nation and Hearst. A rail line is located 70 km away with an all-weather road approximately 10 km from the graphite deposit. The world trend is to develop products for technological applications that need extraordinary performance using ultra-high purity graphite powder at an affordable cost. High-purity and highly crystalline graphite material is gaining prominence in the cleantech sector at a time when Zenyatta discovered an extremely rare igneous hosted, fluid derived graphite deposit. Albany graphite can be upgraded with very good crystallinity without the use of aggressive acids (hydrofluoric) or high temperature thermal treatment. Dr. Bharat Chahar, P.E., VP Market Development for Zenyatta, is a Qualified Person for the purposes of National Instrument 43-101 and has reviewed, prepared and supervised the preparation of the technical information in this news release. To find out more on Zenyatta Ventures Ltd. or graphene and its end-use markets, please visit the website or contact the Company at or Tel. 807-346-1660. CAUTIONARY STATEMENT: Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release may contain forward looking information and Zenyatta cautions readers that forward looking information is based on certain assumptions and risk factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations of Zenyatta included in this news release. This news release includes certain "forward-looking statements", which often, but not always, can be identified by the use of words such as "believes", "anticipates", "expects", "estimates", "may", "could", "would", "will", or "plan". These statements are based on information currently available to Zenyatta and Zenyatta provides no assurance that actual results will meet management's expectations. This testing does not represent a statistically large sample size. Furthermore, these positive results do not mean that Zenyatta can extract and process Albany graphite for high-purity graphite applications on an economic basis. Without a formal independent feasibility study, there is no assurance that the operation will be economic. Forward-looking statements include estimates and statements with respect to Zenyatta's future plans, objectives or goals, to the effect that Zenyatta or management expects a stated condition or result to occur, including the expected timing for release of a pre-feasibility or feasibility studies, the expected uses for graphite in the future, and the future uses of the graphite from Zenyatta's Albany deposit. Since forward-looking statements are based on assumptions and address future events and conditions, by their very nature they involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Actual results relating to, among other things, results of metallurgical processing, ongoing exploration, project development, reclamation and capital costs of Zenyatta's mineral properties, and Zenyatta's financial condition and prospects, could differ materially from those currently anticipated in such statements for many reasons such as, but are not limited to: failure to convert estimated mineral resources to reserves; the preliminary nature of metallurgical test results; the inability to identify target markets and satisfy the product criteria for such markets; the inability to complete a prefeasibility study; the inability to enter into offtake agreements with qualified purchasers; delays in obtaining or failures to obtain required governmental, environmental or other project approvals; political risks; uncertainties relating to the availability and costs of financing needed in the future; changes in equity markets, inflation, changes in exchange rates; fluctuations in commodity prices; delays in the development of projects; capital and operating costs varying significantly from estimates and the other risks involved in the mineral exploration and development industry; and those risks set out in Zenyatta's public documents filed on SEDAR. This list is not exhaustive of the factors that may affect any of Zenyatta's forward-looking statements. These and other factors should be considered carefully and readers should not place undue reliance on Zenyatta's forward-looking statements. Although Zenyatta believes that the assumptions and factors used in preparing the forward-looking information in this news release are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on such information, which only applies as of the date of this news release, and no assurance can be given that such events will occur in the disclosed time frames or at all. Zenyatta disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, other than as required by law.

Etzioni Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Horovitz B.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Le Doussal P.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We study a particle on a ring in presence of a dissipative Caldeira-Leggett environment and derive its response to a dc field. We find, through a 2-loop renormalization group analysis, that a large dissipation parameter η flows to a fixed point ηR=ηc= /2π. We also reexamine the mapping of this problem to that of the Coulomb box and show that the relaxation resistance, of recent interest, is quantized for large η. For finite η>ηc we find that a certain average of the relaxation resistance is quantized. We propose a box experiment to measure a quantized noise. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Lichtenstein R.G.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Rabinovich G.A.,CONICET | Rabinovich G.A.,Laboratorio Of Glicomica Funcional
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2013

Although one typically thinks of carbohydrates as associated with cell growth and viability, glycosylation also has an integral role in many processes leading to cell death. Glycans, either alone or complexed with glycan-binding proteins, can deliver intracellular signals or control extracellular processes that promote initiation, execution and resolution of cell death programs. Herein, we review the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins as essential components of the cell death machinery during physiologic and pathologic settings. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Abraham I.,Microsoft | Neiman O.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing | Year: 2012

We prove that any graph G=(V,E) with n points and m edges has a spanning tree T such that Σ (u,v)ε E(G)d T(u,v) = O(m log n log log n). Moreover such a tree can be found in time O(m log n log log n). Our result is obtained using a new petal-decomposition approach which guarantees that the radius of each cluster in the tree is at most 4 times the radius of the induced subgraph of the cluster in the original graph. © 2012 ACM.

Palii A.,Moldova Academy of Sciences | Tsukerblat B.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Klokishner S.,Moldova Academy of Sciences | Dunbar K.R.,Texas A&M University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

In this critical review we review the problem of exchange interactions in polynuclear metal complexes involving orbitally degenerate metal ions. The key feature of these systems is that, in general, they carry an unquenched orbital angular momentum that manifests itself in all their magnetic properties. Thus, interest in degenerate systems involves fundamental problems related to basic models in magnetism. In particular, the conventional Heisenberg-Dirac-Van Vleck model becomes inapplicable even as an approximation. In the first part we attempt to answer two key questions, namely which theoretical tools are to be used in the case of degeneracy, and how these tools can be employed. We demonstrate that the exchange interaction between orbitally degenerate metal ions can be described by the so-called orbitally-dependent exchange Hamiltonian. This approach has shown to reveal an anomalously strong magnetic anisotropy that can be considered as the main physical manifestation of the unquenched orbital angular momentum in magnetic systems. Along with the exchange coupling, a set of other interactions (such as crystal field effects, spin-orbit and Zeeman coupling), which are specific for the degenerate systems, need to be considered. All these features will be discussed in detail using a pseudo-spin-1/2 Hamiltonian approach. In the second part, the described theoretical background will be used to account for the magnetic properties of several magnetic metal clusters and low-dimensional systems: (i) the dinuclear face-sharing unit [Ti2Cl9]3-, which exhibits a large magnetic anisotropy; (ii) the rare-earth compounds Cs3Yb 2Cl9 and Cs3Yb2Br9, which, surprisingly, exhibit a full magnetic isotropy; (iii) a zig-zag Co II chain exhibiting unusual combination of single-chain magnet behavior and antiferromagnetic exchange coupling; (iv) a trigonal bipyramidal Ni3Os2 complex; (v) various CoII clusters encapsulated by polyoxometalate ligands. In the two last examples a pseudospin-1/2 Hamiltonian approach is applied to account for the presence of exchange anisotropy (150 references). © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Willett S.D.,ETH Zurich | McCoy S.W.,ETH Zurich | McCoy S.W.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | McCoy S.W.,University of Nevada, Reno | And 4 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

Henrich C.C.,Georgia State University | Shahar G.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: The effects of Israeli adolescents' exposure to rocket attacks over time were examined, focusing on anxiety, depression, aggression, and violence commission. Method: A sample of 362 adolescents from southern Israel was followed from 2008 through 2011 with four annual assessments. Measures included exposure to rocket attacks (gauging whether children were affected by rocket attacks, both directly and indirectly, through friends and family), anxiety (items from the State Anxiety Inventory), depression (the Center for Epidemiological Studies Child Depression Scale), aggression (the Orpinas Aggression Scale), and violence commission (from the Social and Health Assessment). Results: Concurrent and longitudinal findings differed. Wave 1 exposure to rockets attacks was associated with Wave 1 anxiety, depression, and aggression. Longitudinal results evinced only modest effects of exposure on anxiety and depression, no effects on aggression, but robust effects on violence commission. Exposure to terror attacks before the study predicted increased odds of violence commission at the fourth and final wave, controlling for violence commission at the first, second, and third wave. Exposure to rocket attacks in the second wave predicted increased odds of violence commission at the third wave. Conclusion: This is the first longitudinal study attesting to the prospective longitudinal effect of exposure to terrorism on adolescent violence. Findings should serve as a red flag for health care practitioners working in civil areas afflicted by terrorism and political violence. © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Barenboim L.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Elkin M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Pettie S.,University of Michigan | Schneider J.,ETH Zurich
Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS | Year: 2012

We present new bounds on the locality of several classical symmetry breaking tasks in distributed networks. A sampling of the results include 1) A randomized algorithm for computing a maximal matching (MM) in O(log Δ + (log log n)4) rounds, where Δ is the maximum degree. This improves a 25-year old randomized algorithm of Israeli and Itai that takes O(log n) rounds and is provably optimal for all log Δ in the range [(log log n)4, √log n]. 2) A randomized maximal independent set (MIS) algorithm requiring O(log Δ√log n) rounds, for all Δ, and only 2{O(√log log n) rounds when Δ = poly(log n). These improve on the 25-year old O(log n)-round randomized MIS algorithms of Luby and Alon, Babai, and Itai when log Δ ≪ √log n. 3) A randomized (Δ + 1)-coloring algorithm requiring O(log Δ + 2 O(√ log log n)) rounds, improving on an algorithm of Schneider and Wattenhofer that takes O(log Δ + √log n) rounds. This result implies that an O(Δ)-coloring can be computed in 2 O(√log log n) rounds for all Δ, improving on Kothapalli et al.'s O(√log n})-round algorithm. We also introduce a new technique for reducing symmetry breaking problems on low arboricity graphs to low degree graphs. Corollaries of this reduction include MM and MIS algorithms for low arboricity graphs (e.g., planar graphs and graphs that exclude any fixed minor) requiring O(√log n) and O(log2/3 n) rounds w.h.p., respectively. © 2012 IEEE.

Cao L.,University of Maryland University College | Sekutor M.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Zavalij P.Y.,University of Maryland University College | Mlinaric-Majerski K.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

Host×guest complexes between cucurbit[7] (CB[7]) or CB[8] and diamantane diammonium ion guests 3 or 6 were studied by 1Ha. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Cruz-Cabeza A.J.,Roche Holding AG | Reutzel-Edens S.M.,Eli Lilly and Company | Bernstein J.,Abu Dhabi University | Bernstein J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol-1, conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol-1 in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Nan L.,Shenzhen VisuCA Key Laboratory SIAT | Xie K.,Shenzhen VisuCA Key Laboratory SIAT | Sharf A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2012

We present an algorithm for recognition and reconstruction of scanned 3D indoor scenes. 3D indoor reconstruction is particularly challenging due to object interferences, occlusions and overlapping which yield incomplete yet very complex scene arrangements. Since it is hard to assemble scanned segments into complete models, traditional methods for object recognition and reconstruction would be inefficient. We present a search-classify approach which interleaves segmentation and classification in an iterative manner. Using a robust classifier we traverse the scene and gradually propagate classification information. We reinforce classification by a template fitting step which yields a scene reconstruction. We deform-to-fit templates to classified objects to resolve classification ambiguities. The resulting reconstruction is an approximation which captures the general scene arrangement. Our results demonstrate successful classification and reconstruction of cluttered indoor scenes, captured in just few minutes. © 2012 ACM.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.2-5 | Award Amount: 3.57M | Year: 2009

A key problem in repair and functional regeneration following myocardial infarction is the inability of heart muscle tissue to regenerate itself and appropriate vascularization under conditions of increased strain caused by the reduced contractibility of the damaged heart. This frequently leads to continuous loss of functional cells, further increase of the infarct area and finally complete loss of heart function. We propose to explore possibilities for cell therapy using different procedures and sources of stem and progenitor cells. First, we will investigate factors stimulatory for stem/progenitor cell release from the bone marrow, their recruitment to the heart and the activation of resident heart stem cells. Second, we will evaluate adoptive transfer of stem/progenitor cells of different sources, from bone marrow, adult and cord blood, adipose tissue and heart tissue itself. The use of ex vivo cultured and differentiated cells including embryonic stem cells will be tested. Third, we will test genetic modification of these cells for improved differentiation, homing and tissue repair. Fourth, we will use a unique artificial scaffold material as a slow release device for factors and as a structural support material for providing the different cell preparations to the damaged areas. This scaffold will aso be used for tissue engineering in vitro followed by insertion of artficial tissue onto the infarct area. This project of high clinical importance is designed to further support the research and development needs of two SMEs, one is determined to become a supplier of growth factor cocktails for clinical stem cell culture, a second is based on the generation and supply of stem cells for clinical use. It will evaluate whether induction of repair by factors, adoptive transfer of stem/progenitor cells or engineered tissue has benefit for heart regeneration and has potential to become a future clinical standard therapy.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2007-6.1-03 | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2008

The outcome of this project will be an audit instrument - a Scorecard and relevant Guides - as a tool for ensuring effective crisis communication strategies and implementation. The Scorecard will enable public authorities to measure and improve their readiness for crisis communication. The Guides facilitate effective media relations and crisis communication strategies for various public groups. This will be made available for public authorities on a digital platform together with support materials. By this proposal we pursue to improve crisis communication, by identifying critical factors in media relations and relations with civilians and miscellaneous groups (survivors, casualties, deceased victims, family to workers, first responders and affected communities) before, during and after crisis situations. These crises may be the result of acts of nature, or acts of man (both intended, such as terrorism, or unintended, such as major accidents and infrastructure failure). We will study communication strategies in various recent cases and analyse the reception of information in stressful situations.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2011.2.1-3 | Award Amount: 11.96M | Year: 2012

Today most of HCPV (High Concentration PhotoVoltaic) generators are built with refractive lenses. A few companies have developed efficient solutions and set up manufacturing lines for these kind of products, but there arent effective reflective optics HCPV systems in Europe. ECOSOLE regards the realization and demonstration of an innovative HCPV generator made of: New high efficiency,very high concentration, photovoltaic modules made of high acceptance refractive optics with high performance coatings, new III-V spectrum tuned quantic effect multi-junction solar cells and novel heat and humidity management systems. New high efficiency DC-AC module converters with radio communication and specific fast MPPT algorithms. A low cost, high precision solar tracker with improved reliability moving parts and lightweight structures. The project will focus on the integrated design of the new HCPV generator and on the study and demonstration of new methods for its large scale low cost manufacturing. The project will also focus on the study and testing of the generators reliability. The generators will be tested in outdoor conditions in different sites and a system performance model will be developed. The products cost and performance are strictly affected by the manufacturing methods, and the products market competitiveness is dependent upon the manufacturing method and its automation level. The manufacturing process will be capable of very high production rates as high as 1 HCPV module per minute to guarantee the high throughput necessary to drop the manufacturings cost. The new HCPV generator and its manufacturing methods will enable the setup of large production scale processes that will make it possible to deploy the new generators for the realization of huge photovoltaic power stations, preferably in desert areas and in the southern European regions, due to their higher application efficiency compared to standard PV systems.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-07-2014 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2015

MIKELANGELO is a project, targeted to disrupt the core underlying technologies of Cloud computing, enabling even bigger uptake of Cloud computing, HPC in the Cloud and Big Data technologies under one umbrella. The vision of MIKELANGELO is to improve responsiveness, agility and security of the virtual infrastructure through packaged applications, using lean guest operating system OSv and superfast hypervisor SuperKVM. In short, the work will concentrate on improvement of virtual I/O in KVM, using additional virtio expertise, integrated with the light-weight operating system OSv and with enhanced Security. The HPC in the Cloud focus will be provided through involvement of a large HPC centre, with the ability and business need to cloudify their HPC business. The Consortium consists of hand-picked experts (e.g., the original creator of KVM - Avi Kivity) who participate in the overall effort to reduce one of the last performance hurdles in the virtualisation (I/O). Other layers of inefficiency are addressed through OSv (thin operating system) and all packaged under the OpenStack or OpenNebula. Such approach will allow for use of MIKELANGELO stack on heterogeneous infrastructures, with high responsiveness, agility and better security. The targeted audience are primarily SMEs (e.g. simulation dependent SMEs). Finally, the use-cases have clear owners, thus directly contributing to the exploitation.

Schoknecht K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | David Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Heinemann U.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2015

The blood-brain barrier is part of the neurovascular unit and serves as a functional and anatomical barrier between the blood and the extracellular space. It controls the flow of solutes in and out of the brain thereby providing an optimal environment for neuronal functioning. Paracellular transport between endothelial cells is restricted by tight junctions and transendothelial transport is reduced and more selective compared to capillaries of other organs. Further, the blood-brain barrier is involved in controlling blood flow and it is the site for signaling damage of the nervous system to the peripheral immune system. As an important player in brain homeostasis, blood-brain barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many brain diseases including stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. In this article - highlighting recent advances in basic science - we review the features of the blood-brain barrier and their significance for neuronal homeostasis to discuss clinical implications for neurological complications following cerebral ischemia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gruenbaum Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Medalia O.,University of Zürich | Medalia O.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Lamins are nuclear intermediate filament (IF) proteins. They assemble to fibrous structures that are positioned between the inner nuclear membrane and the peripheral chromatin. A small fraction of lamins is also present in the nucleoplasm. Lamins are required to maintain the nuclear structure and, together with their associated proteins, are involved in most nuclear activities. Mutations in lamins cause >14 distinct diseases, called laminopathies, that include heart, muscle, fat and early aging diseases. However, it is not clear how lamins are organized in vivo and how the disease mutations affect lamin organization and functions. Here, we will review structural aspects of lamin assembly, discuss differences between peripheral and nucleoplasmic lamins and describe the protein complexes that lamins form. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kidron G.J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Vonshak A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Geoderma | Year: 2012

Previous work at the Hallamish dunefield in the western Negev Desert defined and mapped 5 mature types of microbiotic crusts (MCs). Crust definition and sampling were based on 4 × 4. m pixels. Yet within these pixels, microhabitats with different crust types could be noted. This was also the case within crust type A that extends over the south-facing slope and the sandy interdune. There, close examination mainly at < 0.5 × 0.5. m pixels revealed a high variability in crust types, as was also the case at fine-grained playa surfaces, scattered within the sandy interdune. These microhabitats belonged to two groups: habitats that received water from an additional source (runoff or subsurface flow), i.e., water-enriched habitats (WE) and habitats having a better water regime due to shading (SH), such as by shrubs. Daylight wetness duration and crust biomass were monitored during 1991-1994 in 12 habitats. WE habitats, which exhibited the highest biomass also exhibited longer wetness duration in comparison to SH habitats. Both groups exhibited higher biomass and wetness duration than the control. When the relation between daylight wetness duration and the chlorophyll content of the crust was compared, a positive linear relation with a good correlation (r2=0.74) was found. The findings indicate that crust biomass may be used as a biomarker for surface wetness duration and may thus point to habitats subjected to particular hydrological processes such as water ponding and subsurface flow. They may also point to soil patches having high moisture content and therefore long wetness duration. Higher moisture content that lasted for a longer duration was indeed recorded during preliminary measurements that were carried out at 0-40cm soil patches subjected to subsurface flow (as indicated by their MC) during the end of the winter season of 1994/95 and 1996/97. The findings may attest to differential rates of pedogenesis, thus highlighting the use of MCs as possible biomarkers for small soil habitats with variable pedogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Katz B.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Rosen J.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Kelner R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Brooker G.,Johns Hopkins University
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) records holograms under incoherent illumination. FINCH was implemented with two focal length diffractive lenses on a spatial light modulator (SLM). Improved image resolution over previous single lens systems and at wider bandwidths was observed. For a given image magnification and light source bandwidth, FINCH with two lenses of close focal lengths yields a better hologram in comparison to a single diffractive lens FINCH. Three techniques of lens multiplexing on the SLM were tested and the best method was randomly and uniformly distributing the two lenses. The improved quality of the hologram results from a reduced optical path difference of the interfering beams and increased efficiency. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Keshet U.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Balberg S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The explosion of a core-collapse supernova can be approximated by the breakdown of steady-state solutions for accretion onto a proto-neutron star (PNS). We analytically show that as the neutrino luminosity exceeds a critical value L c, the neutrinosphere pressure exceeds the hydrostatic limit even for an optimal shock radius R. This yields L cM2T2 (with logarithmic corrections) and RM/T, in agreement with numerical results, where M and T are the PNS mass and neutrino temperature, respectively. The near-critical flow can be approximated as a ballistic shell on top of an isothermal layer. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Chandran A.,Princeton University | Erez A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Gubser S.S.,Princeton University | Sondhi S.L.,Princeton University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Near a critical point, the equilibrium relaxation time of a system diverges and any change of control/thermodynamic parameters leads to nonequilibrium behavior. The Kibble-Zurek problem is to determine the dynamical evolution of the system parametrically close to its critical point when the change is parametrically slow. The nonequilibrium behavior in this limit is controlled entirely by the critical point and the details of the trajectory of the system in parameter space (the protocol) close to the critical point. Together, they define a universality class consisting of critical exponents, discussed in the seminal work by Kibble and Zurek, and scaling functions for physical quantities, which have not been discussed hitherto. In this article, we give an extended and pedagogical discussion of the universal content in the Kibble-Zurek problem. We formally define a scaling limit for physical quantities near classical and quantum transitions for different sets of protocols. We report computations of a few scaling functions in model Gaussian and large-N problems and prove their universality with respect to protocol choice. We also introduce a protocol in which the critical point is approached asymptotically at late times with the system marginally out of equilibrium, wherein logarithmic violations to scaling and anomalous dimensions occur even in the simple Gaussian problem. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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