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Beltsville, MD, United States

Panickar K.S.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Panickar K.S.,Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


This paper analyzes the accuracy of metabolic rate calculations performed in the whole room indirect calorimeter using the molar balance equations. The equations are treated from the point of view of cause-effect relationship where the gaseous exchange rates representing the unknown causes need to be inferred from a known, noisy effect-gaseous concentrations. Two methods of such inference are analyzed. The first method is based on the previously published regularized deconvolution of the molar balance equation and the second one, proposed in this paper, relies on regularized differentiation of gaseous concentrations. It is found that both methods produce similar results for the absolute values of metabolic variables and their accuracy. The uncertainty for O2 consumption rate is found to be 7% and for CO2 production--3.2%. The uncertainties in gaseous exchange rates do not depend on the absolute values of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In contrast, the absolute uncertainty in respiratory quotient is a function of the gaseous exchange rates and varies from 9.4% during the night to 2.3% during moderate exercise. The uncertainty in energy expenditure was found to be 5.9% and independent of the level of gaseous exchange. For both methods, closed form analytical formulas for confidence intervals are provided allowing quantification of uncertainty for four major metabolic variables in real world studies. Source


Byrdwell W.C.,Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAG). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionization (ESI) MS. Critical Ratio 1 (CR1), the [MH]+/∑[DAG]+ or [MNH4]+/∑[DAG]+ ratio, does not exhibit the same strongly sigmoidal shape as it does by APCI-MS. CR1 varies more widely for APPI-MS than by APCI-MS, having a maximum value of 11.8, indicating a much greater effect of unsaturation on ion ratios in APPI-MS than APCI-MS. Critical Ratio 2, the [AA]+/[AB]+ ratio for Type II TAG or [AC]+/([AB]++[BC]+) ratio for Type III TAG, allows quantification of regioisomers of TAG, and shows good agreement for APPI-MS to regioisomer quantification determined by APCI-MS. Critical Ratio 3, the [BC]+/[AB]+ ratio for Type III TAG, reveals new trends relating the degree of unsaturation by APPI-MS, and shows that structural assignments made by ESI-MS are in good agreement to APCI-MS data. In addition to providing valuable structural information, the Critical Ratios also constitute a reduced data set that allows APPI-MS or ESI-MS mass spectra to be reconstructed when processed through the UBUS. Quantification by APPI-MS of Vitamin D in the gelcaps gave values of 42.90 ± 0.83 μg, or 1716 ± 33 international units, in good agreement with APCI-MS. © 2015 AOCS (outside the USA). Source


Panickar K.S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Panickar K.S.,Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2013

Polyphenols are natural substances and are enriched in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, tea, and wine. Some polyphenols have insulin-potentiating and anti-inflammatory effects, both of which are important in obesity. Dietary supplementation with polyphenolic compounds is associated with reduced diet-induced obesity and/or metabolic syndrome in animal and human studies. Insights into mechanisms that regulate food intake and satiety have led to an increased understanding of obesity but the pathogenesis underlying obesity is lacking. Food intake is subject to a complex regulation by the hypothalamus and other brain centers including the brain stem and the hippocampus. An intricate network of interacting feedback mechanisms that involve the aforementioned neural centers along with the stomach, gut, liver, thyroid, and adipose tissue in the periphery, influence the eventual outcome of food intake and satiety. Key peripheral signals, such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, have been linked to hypothalamic neuropeptide systems in energy regulation. This review will examine the neural centers important in food intake, the role of various neuropeptides, and the neurohormonal influence on food intake. The potential role of polyphenols in influencing the neuroregulatory factors, the neural signaling pathways and/or the peripheral feedback mechanisms that modulate food intake will also be examined. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wu M.,University of Maryland University College | Kang M.M.,University of Maryland University College | Schoene N.W.,Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center | Cheng W.-H.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Selenium chemoprevention by apoptosis has been well studied, but it is not clear whether selenium can activate early barriers of tumorigenesis, namely senescence and DNA damage response. To test this hypothesis, we treated normal and cancerous cells with a gradient concentration of sodium selenite, methylseleninic acid and methylselenocysteine for 48 h, followed by a recovery of 1-7 days. Here we show that selenium compounds at doses of ≤LD 50 can induce cellular senescence, as evidenced by the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation, in normal but not cancerous cells. In response to clastogens, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is rapidly activated, which in turn initiates a cascade of DNA damage response. We found that the ATM pathway is activated by the selenium compounds, and the kinase activity is required for the seleniuminduced senescence response. Pretreatment of the MRC-5 non-cancerous cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1- oxyl suppresses the seleniuminduced ATM activation and senescence. Taken together, the results suggest a novel role of selenium in the activation of early tumorigenesis barriers specific in non-cancerous cells, whereby selenium induces an ATM-dependent senescence response that depends on reactive oxygen species. Source

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