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Luciano J.S.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Luciano J.S.,Belmont Inc. | Cumming G.P.,University of Aberdeen | Wilkinson M.D.,Technical University of Madrid | Kahana E.,Case Western Reserve University
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2013

The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.

Panozzo D.,ETH Zurich | Baran I.,Belmont Inc. | Baran I.,Adobe Research | Baran I.,Disney Research | And 2 more authors.
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2013

We consider the problem of generalizing affine combinations in Euclidean spaces to triangle meshes: computing weighted averages of points on surfaces. We address both the forward problem, namely computing an average of given anchor points on the mesh with given weights, and the inverse problem, which is computing the weights given anchor points and a target point. Solving the forward problem on a mesh enables applications such as splines on surfaces, Laplacian smoothing and remeshing. Combining the forward and inverse problems allows us to define a correspondence mapping between two different meshes based on provided corresponding point pairs, enabling texture transfer, compatible remeshing, morphing and more. Our algorithm solves a single instance of a forward or an inverse problem in a few microseconds. We demonstrate that anchor points in the above applications can be added/removed and moved around on the meshes at interactive framerates, giving the user an immediate result as feedback. Copyright © ACM 2013.

Nowrouzezahrai D.,University of Montreal | Baran I.,Belmont Inc.
Computer Graphics Forum | Year: 2014

At each shade point, the spherical visibility function encodes occlusion from surrounding geometry, in all directions. Computing this function is difficult and point-sampling approaches, such as ray-tracing or hardware shadow mapping, are traditionally used to efficiently approximate it. We propose a semi-analytic solution to the problem where the spherical silhouette of the visibility is computed using a search over a 4D dual mesh of the scene. Once computed, we are able to semi-analytically integrate visibility-masked spherical functions along the visibility silhouette, instead of over the entire hemisphere. In this way, we avoid the artefacts that arise from using point-sampling strategies to integrate visibility, a function with unbounded frequency content. We demonstrate our approach on several applications, including direct illumination from realistic lighting and computation of pre-computed radiance transfer data. Additionally, we present a new frequency-space method for exactly computing all-frequency shadows on diffuse surfaces. Our results match ground truth computed using importance-sampled stratified Monte Carlo ray-tracing, with comparable performance on scenes with low-to-moderate geometric complexity. © 2013 Disney Enterprises Inc. Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gowaty P.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Gowaty P.A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Gowaty P.A.,Belmont Inc.
Fly | Year: 2012

Polyandry is a paradox: why do females mate multiple times when a single ejaculate often provides enough sperm for lifetime egg production? Gowaty et al. addressed explanations for polyandry in Drosophila pseudoobscura from the perspective of hypotheses based on sex differences in costs of reproduction (CoR). Contrary to CoR, Gowaty et al. showed that (1) a single ejaculate was inadequate for lifetime egg production. (2) polyandry provided fitness benefits to females beyond provision of adequate sperm and (3) fitness benefits of polyandry were not offset by costs. Here, I discuss predictions of the ad hoc hypotheses of CoR and three alternative hypotheses to CoR to facilitate a discussion and further development of a strong inference approach to experiments on the adaptive significance of polyandry for females. Each of the hypotheses makes testable predictions. simultaneous tests of the predictions will provide a strong inference approach to understanding the adaptive significance of multiple mating. I describe a sex-symmetric experiment meant to evaluate variation in fitness among lifelong virgins (V). monogamous females and males with one copulation (MOC). monogamous females and males with multiple copulations (MMC). PAND, polyandrous females. and PGYN, polygynous males. Last, I recommend the study of many different species, while taking care in choice of study species and attention to the assumptions of specific hypotheses. I particularly urge the study of many more Drosophila species both in laboratory and the wild to understand the "nature of flies in nature," where opportunities and constraints mold evolutionary responses. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

Lontok E.,University of California at Berkeley | Harrington P.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Howe A.,Merck And Co. | Kieffer T.,Vertex Pharmaceuticals | And 7 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has resulted in treatment regimens composed of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. While the new regimens are potent and highly efficacious, the full clinical impact of HCV drug resistance, its implications for retreatment, and the potential role of baseline resistance testing remain critical research and clinical questions. In this report, we discuss the viral proteins targeted by HCV direct-acting antivirals and summarize clinically relevant resistance data for compounds that have been approved or are currently in phase 3 clinical trials. Conclusion: This report provides a comprehensive, systematic review of all resistance information available from sponsors' trials as a tool to inform the HCV drug development field. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

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