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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Costa Valles C.,Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research IDIBELL | Manez Mendiluce R.,Bellvitge University Hospital
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

A dvances in immunosuppressive treatments reached in the last decades of the 20th century have made solid organ transplantation the treatment of choice for cases of irreversible organ failure. However, the availability of human cadaver organs is limited and the demand for transplants is still on the rise. Also, there is a recognised lack of cells and human tissues for generalised use in transplantation for the treatment of diseases that are characterised by failure of specialised cells (such as pancreatic cells to cure diabetes). Xenotransplantation, which is the transplant of cells, tissues or organs from other species, became the focus of attention in the nineteen-nineties as a solution to the lack of organs and tissues for transplantation. Previous clinical studies using nonhuman primates produced poor outcomes (survival from days to a few months) and confirmed the difficulty of obtaining organs from these species. Since then, progress in xenotransplantation has been slow and still now various immunological and non-immunological barriers need to be overcome. These barriers are reviewed in this chapter and the various approaches explored to date to overcome them, in particular those based on the genetic modification of pigs. Also, cell transplant studies such as those of pancreatic islets in monkeys have led to even more hopeful results. The range of possibilities offered by this technology will be unlimited, making it possible for xenotransplantation to be a clinical reality in a not very distant future. © 2012 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media.

Trape J.,Laboratory Medicine | Filella X.,Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Service CDB | Alsina-Donadeu M.,Clinical Analysis Laboratory | Juan-Pereira L.,Clinical Analysis Service | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2011

Tumour markers are a very heterogeneous group of molecules that are generally found in very small concentrations in the plasma and serum of healthy individuals. In the process of neoplastic differentiation the cell can synthesize, release, or induce synthesis of other cells, thus increasing their concentration in plasma and serum. These substances may also increase their plasma concentration in patients without cancer due to processes that increase the release or reduce catabolism, and so give rise to false positives. An understanding of the main physiopathological processes that increase the concentrations of these substances could improve our interpretation of tumour markers and their clinical application. In this study we review the physiopathological processes that may increase the plasma concentrations of tumour markers. We performed a bibliography review in PubMed, searching for causes of false positives for the following tumour markers: α-Fetoprotein, CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, CA 72-4, carcinoembryonic antigen, CYFRA 21-1, squamous cell carcinoma, prostatic specific antigen, β 2- microglobulin, choriogonadotropin (β chain), chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase, HER2-neu, progastrin releas-ing peptide, S-100, and thyroglobulin. The results favour the use of tests which can identify pathological processes that may increase tumour marker concentrations. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.

Perez-Cruz M.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute | Costa C.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute | Manez R.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute | Manez R.,Bellvitge University Hospital
Journal of Innate Immunity | Year: 2014

Natural antibodies include a subset described as xenoantibodies considered to be directed at microorganisms and also cross-react with antigens of unrelated species. In this study, we generated T-cell-independent (TI) and T-cell-dependent (TD) xenoantibodies in Lewis rats with hamster and pig blood injections. TI anti-hamster and anti-pig IgM and IgG xenoantibodies cross-reacted with Enterococcus faecalis but not with Escherichia coli isolated from the blood of Lewis rats after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TI anti-pig IgM xenoantibodies also showed some reactivity with two human blood isolates of E. faecalis. In contrast, TD xenoantibodies did not show any reactivity with rat or human bacteria. TI and TD anti-hamster and anti-pig IgM and IgG xenoantibodies showed cross-reactivity with lymphocytes and endothelial cells from species distinct to that used for immunization. Glycan array analysis and inhibition assays identified antibodies against melibiose and L-rhamnose as mediators of anti-hamster and anti-porcine xenoantibody cross-reactivity with E. faecalis. A rise in TI anti-hamster and anti-pig xenoantibodies was accompanied by decreased survival of Lewis rats in a low-severity sepsis model of CLP. Therefore, TI xenoantibodies in the rat include anti-carbohydrate antibodies reactive to bacteria of endogenous flora. Enhancement of these antibodies may result in more severe infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Caseras X.,University of Cardiff | Caseras X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Murphy K.,University of Cardiff | Mataix-Cols D.,Kings College London | And 5 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

The anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are regarded as key brain structures associated with the integration of perceived phobic characteristics of external stimuli and the perception of ones own body responses that leads to emotional feelings. To test to what extent the activity in these two brain structures anatomically and functionally overlap during phobic reactions and interoception, we submitted the same group of phobic participants (n = 29; either spider or blood-injection-injury (BII) phobics) and controls (n = 17) to both type of experimental paradigms. Results showed that there was a clear anatomical overlap in the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) responses within the anterior insula and ACC elicited during phobic symptom provocation and during interoceptive awareness. The activity within these two brain structures also showed to be correlated in the spider phobia group, but not in the BII phobic participants. Our results seem to support the idea that the activity within these two brain areas would be associated with the integration of perceived stimuli characteristics and bodily responses that lead to what we label as "fear." However, that seems not to be the case in BII phobia, where more research is needed in order to clarify to what extent that could be associated with the idiosyncratic physiological response that these patients present in front of phobic stimuli (i.e., drop in heart rate and blood pressure). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Conde-Sala J.L.,University of Barcelona | Turro-Garriga O.,Institute DAssistencia Sanitaria | Pinan-Hernandez S.,University of Barcelona | Portellano-Ortiz C.,University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Objectives Neuropsychiatric symptoms and anosognosia are known to influence the perceived quality of life of patients (QoL-p) with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study analysed their impact on patient and caregiver ratings of QoL-p and how these ratings changed in relation to the severity of dementia. Methods A baseline sample of 221 patients and caregivers was followed up over 24 months. Instruments: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Anosognosia Questionnaire - Dementia (AQ-D), Quality of life - Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) and the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Longitudinal data were analysed using generalized linear models. Results In the multivariate analysis, greater anosognosia was always associated with higher ratings of QoL-p among patients, especially at 24 months (p < 0.001), and with more negative ratings among caregivers, especially at baseline (p < 0.001). A higher total NPI score was associated with a more negative rating of QoL-p among caregivers (p < 0.001), and it also had a smaller negative effect on patients' self-ratings (p = 0.001). The neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI) associated with a more negative view of QoL-p were depression, for patients' self-ratings, and apathy and agitation for caregiver ratings. The discrepancy between patient and caregiver ratings increased in line with the severity of dementia. Conclusion Neuropsychiatric symptoms had a similarly negative effect on the QoL-p ratings of both patients and caregivers, whereas the effect of anosognosia differed according to the rater (positive for patients, negative for caregivers). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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