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South Sioux City, NE, United States

Bellevue University is a private, non-profit university located in Bellevue, Nebraska. It opened in 1966 and from the outset has focused on providing adult education and educational outreach. As of 2011, 80% of their undergraduates were aged 25 and over. The university has over 10,000 students enrolled in a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs. Wikipedia.

Dai H.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Hao J.,Bellevue University
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016

Background Vape shops have been spreading rapidly in the USA since 2008, catering to the fast-growing market for electronic cigarettes. Little is known about the geographic density and proximity of vape shops near colleges. Methods Names and addresses of vape shops were collected from 3 online directories: Yelp.com, Yellowpages.com and Guidetovaping.com. We identified the prevalence of US-based vape shops and their density and proximity to colleges using a geographic information system. General linear model and negative binomial regression were performed to examine the factors associated with proximity and density of vape shops near colleges. Results We identified 9945 vape shops in the USA as of December 2015, a nearly threefold increase from 2013. Among the 2755 colleges included in this study, 66.5% had at least 1 vape shop within a 3-mile radius. The median proximity of the nearest vape shop to each college/university was 1.8 miles. Proximity increased by student population, private as compared to public institutions, and location (city vs rural). Within a 1-mile radius, colleges with smoke-free campus policies had a lower density of vape shops (RR=0.6, p=0.002) than those without smoke-free campus policies. Private institutions had a higher density of vape shops (RR=7.8, p<0.0001) than did public institutions. Colleges with campus housing had a lower density of vape shops (RR=0.4, p<0.0001) than those without campus housing, and colleges located in cities had a much higher density of vape shops than those located in rural areas (RR=6.6, p<0.0001). Smoke-free and e-cigarettefree campus policies had significant interactions with college type ( private vs public) and campus housing in reducing vape shop density. Conclusions Vape shops are more likely to be located near private institutions and colleges in cities as opposed to rural areas. Smoke-free and e-cigarette-free campus policies have had significant effects in reducing the density of vape shops but have not reduced the proximity of vape shops to colleges. Regulations on the sale and advertisement of e-cigarettes to youth and young adults are critically needed. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Source

Dai H.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Hao J.,Bellevue University
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016

Background There is an ongoing debate about harm and benefit of e-cigarettes, usage of which has rapidly increased in recent years. By separating non-commercial (organic) tweets from commercial tweets, we seek to evaluate the general public's attitudes towards ecigarettes. Methods We collected tweets containing the words 'e-cig', 'e-cigarette', 'e-liquid', 'vape', 'vaping', 'vapor' and 'vaporizer' from 23 July to 14 October 2015 (n=757 167). A multilabel Naïve Bayes model was constructed to classify tweets into 5 polarities (against, support, neutral, commercial, irrelevant). We further analysed the prevalence of e-cigarette tweets, geographic variations in these tweets and the impact of socioeconomic factors on the public attitudes towards e-cigarettes. Results Opinions from organic tweets about e-cigarettes were mixed (against 17.7%, support 10.8% and neutral 19.4%). The organic-against tweets delivered strong educational information about the risks of e-cigarette use and advocated for the general public, especially youth, to stop vaping. However, the organic-against tweets were outnumbered by commercial tweets and organic-support tweets by a ratio of over 1 to 3. Higher prevalence of organic tweets was associated with states with higher education rates (r=0.60, p<0.0001), higher percentage of black and African-American population (r=0.34, p=0.01), and higher median household income (r=0.33, p=0.02). The support rates for e-cigarettes were associated with states with fewer persons under 18 years old (r=-0.33, p=0.02) and a higher percentage of female population (r=0.3, p=0.02). Conclusions The organic-against tweets raised public awareness of potential health risks and could aid in preventing non-smokers, adolescents and young adults from using e-cigarettes. Opinion polarities about ecigarettes from social networks could be highly influential to the general public, especially youth. Further educational campaigns should include measuring their effectiveness. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Source

Shreves W.B.,University of Alabama | Hart W.,University of Alabama | Adams J.M.,University of Alabama | Guadagno R.E.,National Science Foundation | Eno C.A.,Bellevue University
Cognition | Year: 2014

We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

McNally J.,Bellevue University
8th International Conference on Information Warfare and Security, ICIW 2013 | Year: 2013

A critical threat to US economic as well as national security lies in the inability of the private and public sectors to collaborate on cyber defence. Their competing interests, the profit motive and national security, have historically impeded any sharing of cyber attack information or defensive tools and strategies. As most critical infrastructure in the US is owned and managed by private companies, lacking access to corporate networks and being unable to compel companies to report cyber events prevents the government from collecting sufficient data on attacks to analyse and develop better defences. The cost of this inability is the continued rate of loss of monies from hacked financial data; loss of work product from billions of dollars of research and development loss; loss of future economic competitiveness as a result of lost future earnings on that work product; and threats to future military dominance and national security from the theft of intellectual property. To overcome the competing drivers of the public and private sector for a workable partnership on cyber defence, there must be better incentives for companies to share cyber event information. Lack of data is the leading impediment to meaningful analysis of trends and anomalies in cyber events. While industry-specific voluntary reporting associations have attempted to attract companies to report breaches in exchange for analytical products from that data, competition concerns lead companies to underreport, not report, and/or free-ride the system, resulting in a narrow pool of data. Market tools like insurance have been posed as a possible solution, but its purpose is primarily risk redistribution and indemnification of losses. Companies are only self-interested in reporting events for which there is coverage and resist full access to networks by insurance auditors for data breach assessment out of privacy and security concerns. Neither solution accounts for the desire of businesses to protect shareholder value and brand reputation by concealing data breaches. A potential solution would be a national cyber event database to which companies could anonymously submit relevant cyber event information for analysis, without revealing identifying information that might compromise corporate interests. By decreasing the risk of information sharing by addressing privacy concerns, while offering the benefits of information sharing and analysis, this system could vastly increase the size and scope of data collection. Source

Morales-Sanchez D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Tinoco-Valencia R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Kyndt J.,Bellevue University | Martinez A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2013

Background: In comparison with phototrophic growth, heterotrophic conditions can significantly increase growth rates, final cell number and cell mass in microalgae cultures. Neochloris oleoabundans is a microalga of biotechnological interest that accumulates lipids under phototrophic and nitrogen-limited conditions. Heterotrophic flask culture experiments were conducted to identify carbon sources that can be metabolized by N. oleoabundans, and bioreactor batch and fed-batch (nitrate pulse additions) cultures supplemented with glucose were performed to study the cellular composition of the microalgae under balanced and high C/N ratios (glucose/nitrate). Results: N. oleoabundans was able to grow using glucose and cellobiose as sole carbon sources under strict heterotrophic conditions. Under a balanced C/N ratio of 17 and using bioreactor batch cultures containing 3 g/L glucose, a maximal cell mass of 1.72 g/L was found, with protein being the major cell component (44% w/w). A maximal cell mass of 9.2 g/L was obtained using batch cultures at a C/N ratio of 278. Under these conditions, lipid accumulation was promoted (up to 52% w/w) through N-limitation, resulting in high lipid productivity (528.5 mg/L/day). Fed-batch cultures were performed at a C/N ratio of 278 and with nitrate pulse additions. This condition allowed a maximal cell mass of 14.2 g/L to be achieved and switched the metabolism to carbohydrate synthesis (up to 54% of dry weight), mainly in the form of starch. It was found that transmembrane transport under these conditions was dependent on a proton-motive force, indicating that glucose is transported by a symporter. Conclusions: N. oleoabundans was able to grow under strict heterotrophic culture conditions with glucose or cellobiose as the only carbon source. The glucose used is transported by a symporter system. Batch cultures with a balanced C/N ratio accumulate proteins as the major cellular component; a high C/N ratio significantly increased the dry cell mass and resulted in a high lipid content, and a high cell density was achieved using fed-batch cultures promoting carbohydrate accumulation. These results suggest heterotrophic batch cultures of N. oleoabundans as an alternative for the production of proteins or lipids with simple culture strategies and minimal-mineral media supplemented with glucose. © 2013 Morales-Sánchez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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