Bell Laboratories is the research and development subsidiary of Alcatel-Lucent. Bell Laboratories operates its headquarters in Murray Hill, New Jersey, United States, and has research and development facilities throughout the world.The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau created by Alexander Graham Bell. Bell Labs was also at one time a division of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company , half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary.Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device , information theory, the UNIX operating system, the C programming language, S programming language and the C++ programming language. Eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories.On May 20, 2014, Bell Labs announced the Bell Labs Prize, a competition for innovators to offer proposals in information and communications technologies, with cash awards of up to $100,000 for the grand prize. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 16, 2017
The MP3 is officially "no more". Well - that's according to a statement from one of the main developers of the digital audio coding format in Germany. The Fraunhofer Institute says it has "terminated" its licensing programme with Technicolor because its patents are expiring. MP3s led to the development of hundreds of music-listening devices, which took over from CD players, including Apple's iPod, the Sony Walkman MP3, Microsoft Zune and Samsung Galaxy Player. The Fraunhofer Institute says the quality of the format is also inferior to its current standard. In a statement, it said: "Although there are more efficient audio codecs with advanced features available today, mp3 is still very popular amongst consumers. "However, most state-of-the-art media services such as streaming or TV and radio broadcasting use modern ISO-MPEG codecs such as the AAC family or in the future MPEG-H. "Those can deliver more features and a higher audio quality at much lower bitrates compared to mp3." The supposed "death" of the MP3 won't have much of an impact because of streaming and most new portable players now use different formats anyway. But you'll still be able to listen to the MP3s that you've ripped or bought in the past - and companies like Amazon Music, Google Play and Windows use the format. It just means Fraunhofer/Technicolor won't be paid any more licensing fees. Before MP3 players, people actually had to carry round any music they wanted to listen to - often in a tatty travel case - and they weighed a tonne. Some people still had portable cassette players as well, but the tapes kept getting eaten by the machines. This is what a cassette looks like... This group of nerds in Germany came up with the original MP3 format, including researcher Karlheinz Brandenburg (the man holding headphones below) who's credited with inventing it. It was developed to convert audio into digital form. Karlheinz had been working on it since 1982. It basically compressed music into a file size that made it easier to transmit. But Karlheinz Brandenburg said the world almost didn't get MP3s. "In 1991, the project almost died," he told Intel. "During modification tests, the encoding simply did not want to work properly. Two days before submission of the first version of the MP3 codec, we found the compiler error." Other international companies including CCETT, Matsushita, Philips, Sony, AT&T-Bell Laboratories and Thomson-Brandt also worked on the original MP3 format. Suzanne Vega song Tom's Diner was the first song used by Karlheinz Brandenburg to develop it. Warning: Third party content might contain ads MP3s work by stripping out sounds in a song which human ears can't hear. This is the audio that's lost when Tom's Diner is compressed for the MP3 format. Warning: Third party content might contain ads The result was that MP3 files were around 11 times smaller than uncompressed music tracks. But some people say the quality isn't great compared to CDs and modern file formats. The international standard for MP3s - or MPEG-2 Audio Layer-3 - was agreed in 1991. A US patent for the format was issued in 1996 but it took companies a few years to work out how to use the new format. The first company to distribute music tracks digitally was SubPop in 1999, but it was overshadowed by the first large peer-to-peer filesharing network, Napster, in the same year. Its technology allowed fans to share and swap music files on MP3 formats - for free. But after being sued for copyright infringement - most notably by Metallica and Dr Dre - Napster had to shut down in July 2001 and went bankrupt in 2002. Despite a UK engineer patenting a Digital Audio Player way back in 1981, the first useable hardware starting appearing in 1997 and 1998. But portable digital music players didn't become internationally popular until the launch of Apple's iPod in October 2001, just under a year after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released. Sales didn't take off until 2004 but the company transformed the market, despite it not using the MP3 format for its music files. The company launched the first iPhone in 2007, which could play tracks downloaded from iTunes. Now all phones can play music - and do just about everything else as well. Find us on Instagram at BBCNewsbeat and follow us on Snapchat, search for bbc_newsbeat
News Article | May 15, 2017
HOUSTON -- (May 15, 2017) -- Rice University plasmonics pioneer Naomi Halas has won a 2017 Weizmann Women and Science Award from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel. The biennial award, which was established in 1994, honors internationally renowned women scientists who have made significant contributions, both in their respective fields and to the larger scientific community. The award is designed to promote women in science by providing strong role models to motivate and encourage the next generation of young women scientists. It includes a $25,000 research grant. Halas, a pioneer in the study of the fundamental properties and potential applications of light-activated nanoparticles, is Rice's Stanley C. Moore Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and professor of chemistry, bioengineering, physics and astronomy, and materials science and nanoengineering. In announcing the honor, the institute recognized Halas "for pioneering and seminal contributions to the field of plasmonics, which have profoundly influenced modern optics -- both in basic understanding and in applications." Halas and fellow 2017 honoree Ursula Keller of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich will accept their honors and deliver a series of lectures June 7 at the Weizmann Institute. "Ursi Keller has been a friend of mine since our postdoctoral days at AT&T Bell Laboratories, and I am thrilled to win this award with her," Halas said. Halas pursues research in light-nanoparticle interactions and their applications in biomedicine, optoelectronics, chemical sensing, photocatalysis and sustainability. She has explored how light-activated nanomaterials can be used for applications ranging from the treatment of cancer and molecular sensing to biomimetic photodetection and off-grid solar-powered sterilization. Halas is the first person in the university's history to be elected to both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering for research done at Rice. She has authored more than 300 refereed publications, and her work has been cited more than 45,000 times. She also is the founding director of Rice's Smalley-Curl Institute, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Materials Research Society, the Optical Society, the American Physical Society, the International Society for Optical Engineering and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The Weizmann Institute of Science is a leading multidisciplinary basic research institution in the natural and exact sciences. Located near Tel Aviv, it was established in 1934 and renamed in 1949 in honor of its founder and Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann. A high-resolution IMAGE is available for download at: Rice's 'antenna-reactor' catalysts offer best of both worlds -- July 18, 2016 http://news. Rice scientists use light to probe acoustic tuning in gold nanodisks -- May 7, 2015 http://news. Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,879 undergraduates and 2,861 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for happiest students and for lots of race/class interaction by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. To read "What they're saying about Rice," go to http://tinyurl. .
News Article | May 4, 2017
In Western history, the concept of the password can be traced as far back as the so-called “ shibboleth incident ” in the 12th chapter of the biblical Book of Judges. In the chaos of battle between the tribes of Gilead and Ephraim, Gileadite soldiers used the word “shibboleth” to detect their enemies, knowing that the Ephraimites pronounced it slightly differently in their dialect. The stakes were life and death, we’re told, in a confrontation between Gileadites and a possible Ephraimite fugitive : “Then said they unto him, ‘Say now Shibboleth’; and he said ‘Sibboleth’; for he could not frame to pronounce it right; then they laid hold on him, and slew him at the fords of the Jordan.” The literary history of the password also includes the classic tale “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,” invented in the 18th century by the French Orientalist Antoine Galland. Used in the tale to open a magically sealed cave, the invocation “Open, Sesame!” enjoys broad currency as a catchphrase today, not only in other literary, cinematic, and television adaptations of the tale itself, but in many other contexts as well. Password security was introduced to computing in the Compatible Time-Sharing System and Unics (Unix) systems developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bell Laboratories in the 1960s. Today we use passwords to restrict access to our personal computers and computing devices, and to access remote computing services of all kinds. But a password is not a physical barrier or obstacle, like a lock on a gate. Rather, it is a unit of text: that is to say, written language. As an important part of the linguistic history of computers, password security links my research in the history of writing to my interest in the early history of computing. But it is an episode in that history that may now be coming to an end. In the earliest civilizations, writing was used to record financial and other administrative transactions, ensuring that records could be consulted in the case of disputes over debt, land ownership, or taxation. Soon, there was another use for writing: what we now call mail. Writing made it possible to communicate without being physically present, because a written message could stand in the writer’s place. When I use a password, it also stands in my place. The password represents me within a virtual or nonphysical system, regardless of whether I am physically present, entering a passcode on a smartphone or a PIN code at an ATM, or physically absent, connecting remotely to my bank with a web browser. Anyone else who knows my password can also use it this way. Related story: Everything You Know About Passwords Is Wrong
News Article | April 25, 2017
WASHINGTON, April 25, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Following is the daily "Profile America" feature from the U.S. Census Bureau: A HIGHER POWER Profile America — Tuesday, April 25th. On this date in 1954, Bell Laboratories in New York announced the prototype manufacture of a...
Gettys J.,Bell Laboratories
IEEE Internet Computing | Year: 2011
Bufferbloat is the existence of excessively large (bloated) buffers into systems, particularly network communication systems. Systems suffering from bufferbloat will have bad latency under load under some or all circumstances, depending on if and where the bottleneck in the communication's path exists. Bufferbloat encourages network congestion; it destroys congestion avoidance in transport protocols such as HTTP, TCP, Bittorrent, and so on. Network congestion-avoidance algorithms depend on timely packet drops or ECN; bloated buffers invalidate this design presumption. Without active queue management, these bloated buffers will fill, and stay full. Bufferbloat is an endemic disease in today's Internet. © 2011 IEEE.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SOFTWARE & HARDWARE FOUNDATION | Award Amount: 145.50K | Year: 2016
Software is embedded into our daily activities. Ensuring that the software is trustworthy - does what is intended - and secure - is not vulnerable to attack - is a prime concern. Much attention has been devoted to establishing the correctness of high-level programs. This project is focused on the important task of ensuring that the, often complex and opaque, transformations carried out by a compiler do not degrade the trustworthiness and security guarantees of its input program.
The key innovation pursued in this project is self-certification which guarantees the correctness and security of compilation. A self-certifying compiler creates a tangible, independently-checkable proof, justifying the correctness of the compilation run. By linking in information from external analysis tools certificates can also aid in obtaining better machine code. In particular, they allow for automatic insertion of defensive measures, which protect the program from common security attacks. This work builds on existing theoretical ideas and compiler implementations, while extending them in new directions. The self-certifying compiler is implemented in the popular LLVM framework, making it suitable for immediate adoption by programmers, and its security benefits available to end users in a transparent fashion. Provable program correctness is a true Grand Challenge for computing. By developing both theory and implementation of a self-certifying compiler, this project is taking a significant step forward in meeting that challenge.
Bell Laboratories | Date: 2015-04-17
An insect toxic bait dispenser has a top with a downwardly opening compartments in which toxic bait fluids may be retained by an underlying foil barrier. The top is supported on a base with posts positioned beneath the barrier. Base prongs extend into a top shaft with ledges at different heights, preventing part separation when the barrier is intact above the posts, and, when the top is closed on the base, piercing the foil seal and dispensing liquids into fluid retaining members held in base pockets. To use, a peripheral tear strip is removed from the base, permitting the top to descend on the base causing the posts to puncture the seal, compressing the fluid retaining members against the barrier to receive and dispense toxic bait liquid while retarding the rate of liquid evaporation. The top may be hinged to the base, or urged downwardly by a threaded cap.
Bell Laboratories | Date: 2014-04-16
A rodent bait station for retention of sachet bait, which is a malleable bait retained within a porous bag or package having sidewardly protruding flaps. The bait station may be a molded plastic structure with a lid hinged to a base. Base walls define a bait compartment sized to receive the sachet bait such that the flaps overlie the opposed bait compartment base walls. The lid has downwardly protruding bait compartment walls which overlie the base bait compartment walls. Undulating or jagged teeth are formed on the lid and base bait compartment walls. When the lid is closed on the base, the teeth projecting from the lid cooperate with the teeth protruding from the base, thereby engaging and clamping a retained sachet bait package flaps to thus retain the package with the bait station even after a rodent has broken into the package to access the poison contained therein.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RES IN NETWORKING TECH & SYS | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2016
Providing services such as voice, web, cloud computing, social networking, video on demand, live streaming and augmented reality requires the ability to globally handle massive amounts of data, which must be efficiently processed, stored, and delivered to end users. The medium of delivery is shifting from wireline to wireless; it is predicted that mobile traffic will account for nearly two-thirds of the total data traffic by 2018 and nearly three fourths of the mobile data traffic will be video by 2019. This puts a tremendous pressure on the limited wireless bandwidth and necessitates revolutionary approaches that exploit alternative resources available in the network. Motivated by the decreasing cost and abundance of storage capacity, this project considers joint design of storage and transmission schemes for the efficient delivery of video-based services over next generation heterogeneous wireless networks, by specifically taking into account the unique nature of video content and the wireless channel.
In order to accomplish this ambitious task, the work is organized into the three research thrusts that develop next generation of wireless caching networks for video delivery:
-Thrust 1: Fundamental limits and practical schemes for cache-aided video delivery:
This thrust takes into account properties of video applications and their associated requirements for efficient and robust caching and delivery techniques particularly suited for such demands.
-Thrust 2: Video delivery over future cache-aided heterogeneous wireless networks:
This thrust builds upon the foundations developed in Thrust 1 and expands the cache-aided video delivery schemes to consider and take advantage of heterogeneous wireless channel conditions and network topologies.
- Thrust 3: Technology validation and experimentation: This thrust includes proof-of-concept prototyping efforts to validate the designs developed in this project.
The broader impacts resulting from the activity in this project will include significant enhancement of video delivery mechanisms over wireless channels beyond the current state of the art. This of key importance since the total global mobile traffic was about 885 petabytes per month at the end of 2012, and is expected to keep increasing. As the storage capacity becomes cheaper, the techniques developed in this project will be able to alleviate the spectrum crunch by trading off memory for bandwidth. Industry outreach and dissemination will be done through Bell Labs Nokia and other industrial partners at NYU. The PIs are committed to and have an excellent track record in increasing participation of as well as mentoring women and underrepresented minorities in the STEM fields. This grant will help to support these efforts.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: RES IN NETWORKING TECH & SYS | Award Amount: 35.09K | Year: 2016
Software defined radio (SDR) is emerging as a key technology to satisfy rapidly increasing data rate demands on the nations mobile wireless networks while ensuring coexistence with other spectrum users. When SDRs are in the hands and pockets of average people, it will be easy for a selfish user to alter his device to transmit and receive data on unauthorized spectrum, or ignore priority rules, making the network less reliable for many other users. Further, malware could cause an SDR to exhibit illegal spectrum use without the users awareness. The FCC has an enforcement bureau which detects interference via complaints and extensive manual investigation. The mechanisms used currently for locating spectrum offenders are time consuming, human-intensive, and expensive. A violators illegal spectrum use can be too temporary or too mobile to be detected and located using existing processes. This project envisions a future where a crowdsourced and networked fleet of spectrum sensors deployed in homes, community and office buildings, on vehicles, and in cell phones will detect, identify, and locate illegal use of the spectrum across a wide areas and frequency bands. This project will investigate and test new privacy-preserving crowdsourcing methods to detect and locate spectrum offenders. New tools to quickly find offenders will discourage users from illegal SDR activity, and enable recovery from spectrum-offending malware. In short, these tools will ensure the efficient, reliable, and fair use of the spectrum for network operators, government and scientific purposes, and wireless users. New course materials and demonstrations for use in public outreach will be developed on the topics of wireless communications, dynamic spectrum access, data mining, network security, and crowdsourcing.
There are several challenges the project will address in the development of methods and tools to find spectrum offenders. First, the project will enable localization of offenders via crowdsourced spectrum measurements that do not decode the transmitted data and thus preserve users? data and identity privacy. Second, the crowd-sourced sensing strategy will implicitly adapt to the density of traffic and explicitly adapt to focus on suspicious activity. Next, the sensing strategy will stay within an energy budget, and have incentive models to encourage participation, yet have sufficient spatial and temporal coverage to provide high statistical confidence in detecting illegal activity. Finally, the developed methods will be evaluated using both simulation and extensive experiments, to quantify performance and provide a rich public data set for other researchers.