Bell Laboratories is the research and development subsidiary of Alcatel-Lucent. Bell Laboratories operates its headquarters in Murray Hill, New Jersey, United States, and has research and development facilities throughout the world.The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau created by Alexander Graham Bell. Bell Labs was also at one time a division of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company , half-owned through its Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary.Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the charge-coupled device , information theory, the UNIX operating system, the C programming language, S programming language and the C++ programming language. Eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories.On May 20, 2014, Bell Labs announced the Bell Labs Prize, a competition for innovators to offer proposals in information and communications technologies, with cash awards of up to $100,000 for the grand prize. Wikipedia.
Gettys J.,Bell Laboratories
IEEE Internet Computing | Year: 2011
Bufferbloat is the existence of excessively large (bloated) buffers into systems, particularly network communication systems. Systems suffering from bufferbloat will have bad latency under load under some or all circumstances, depending on if and where the bottleneck in the communication's path exists. Bufferbloat encourages network congestion; it destroys congestion avoidance in transport protocols such as HTTP, TCP, Bittorrent, and so on. Network congestion-avoidance algorithms depend on timely packet drops or ECN; bloated buffers invalidate this design presumption. Without active queue management, these bloated buffers will fill, and stay full. Bufferbloat is an endemic disease in today's Internet. © 2011 IEEE.
Bell Laboratories | Date: 2013-01-10
A rodent trap covered base defines an enclosed interior accessible through a sliding plastic tunnel defining a passageway for rodents into the interior. The tunnel has a projecting strike member, and is biased by an underlying spring to a retracted position. A trigger engaging member extends from the tunnel to be retained by a catch on a trigger mounted to the base. When a rodent passes through the tunnel into the base interior, it is directed by barriers towards a rodent attracting bait. To reach the bait, the rodent must press against a pivotably mounted trigger, thereby dislodging the trigger from the trigger engaging member which releases the tunnel to be driven by the spring to retract along parallel tracks to bring the strike plate forcibly against the rodent within the trap, usually killing it, and closing the trap, which is then presented covered within the trap for disposal.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SOFTWARE & HARDWARE FOUNDATION | Award Amount: 145.50K | Year: 2016
Software is embedded into our daily activities. Ensuring that the software is trustworthy - does what is intended - and secure - is not vulnerable to attack - is a prime concern. Much attention has been devoted to establishing the correctness of high-level programs. This project is focused on the important task of ensuring that the, often complex and opaque, transformations carried out by a compiler do not degrade the trustworthiness and security guarantees of its input program.
The key innovation pursued in this project is self-certification which guarantees the correctness and security of compilation. A self-certifying compiler creates a tangible, independently-checkable proof, justifying the correctness of the compilation run. By linking in information from external analysis tools certificates can also aid in obtaining better machine code. In particular, they allow for automatic insertion of defensive measures, which protect the program from common security attacks. This work builds on existing theoretical ideas and compiler implementations, while extending them in new directions. The self-certifying compiler is implemented in the popular LLVM framework, making it suitable for immediate adoption by programmers, and its security benefits available to end users in a transparent fashion. Provable program correctness is a true Grand Challenge for computing. By developing both theory and implementation of a self-certifying compiler, this project is taking a significant step forward in meeting that challenge.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RES IN NETWORKING TECH & SYS | Award Amount: 103.77K | Year: 2011
Broadband cellular networks are emerging to be the most common means for mobile data access worldwide. Predictions from industry analysts indicate that the volume of data through cellular data networks will increase exponentially in near future. Understanding of the mobile data traffic via measurement and analysis is critical for the development of resource management techniques for these networks. While spectrum resources are of great concern, this project specifically focuses on the energy required to operate the cellular network infrastructure, specifically base stations. The project undertakes a significant modeling exercise with two goals. One goal is intellectual, driven towards understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of mobile traffic and discovering possible structure or relationships. The project uses state-of-the-art machine learning tools to develop models using large-scale data collected directly from the operators networks. Such modeling will bring new insights that in turn will help to deploy and manage future generation cellular data networks. The second goal is utilitarian. Here, techniques are developed to predict base station loads for use in resource management, specifically energy. Algorithms are designed to exploit energy-optimization opportunities to turn off specific network resources based on the forecasted load.
The project has significant broader impact. It develops technologies to appreciably reduce energy consumption in cellular networks. Overall, this exercise will both reduce cost, and contribute to the environment. The project also contributes to several green initiatives in both institutions and to the education and training of graduate students.
Bell Laboratories | Date: 2015-04-17
An insect toxic bait dispenser has a top with a downwardly opening compartments in which toxic bait fluids may be retained by an underlying foil barrier. The top is supported on a base with posts positioned beneath the barrier. Base prongs extend into a top shaft with ledges at different heights, preventing part separation when the barrier is intact above the posts, and, when the top is closed on the base, piercing the foil seal and dispensing liquids into fluid retaining members held in base pockets. To use, a peripheral tear strip is removed from the base, permitting the top to descend on the base causing the posts to puncture the seal, compressing the fluid retaining members against the barrier to receive and dispense toxic bait liquid while retarding the rate of liquid evaporation. The top may be hinged to the base, or urged downwardly by a threaded cap.
Bell Laboratories | Date: 2014-04-16
A rodent bait station for retention of sachet bait, which is a malleable bait retained within a porous bag or package having sidewardly protruding flaps. The bait station may be a molded plastic structure with a lid hinged to a base. Base walls define a bait compartment sized to receive the sachet bait such that the flaps overlie the opposed bait compartment base walls. The lid has downwardly protruding bait compartment walls which overlie the base bait compartment walls. Undulating or jagged teeth are formed on the lid and base bait compartment walls. When the lid is closed on the base, the teeth projecting from the lid cooperate with the teeth protruding from the base, thereby engaging and clamping a retained sachet bait package flaps to thus retain the package with the bait station even after a rodent has broken into the package to access the poison contained therein.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RES IN NETWORKING TECH & SYS | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2016
Providing services such as voice, web, cloud computing, social networking, video on demand, live streaming and augmented reality requires the ability to globally handle massive amounts of data, which must be efficiently processed, stored, and delivered to end users. The medium of delivery is shifting from wireline to wireless; it is predicted that mobile traffic will account for nearly two-thirds of the total data traffic by 2018 and nearly three fourths of the mobile data traffic will be video by 2019. This puts a tremendous pressure on the limited wireless bandwidth and necessitates revolutionary approaches that exploit alternative resources available in the network. Motivated by the decreasing cost and abundance of storage capacity, this project considers joint design of storage and transmission schemes for the efficient delivery of video-based services over next generation heterogeneous wireless networks, by specifically taking into account the unique nature of video content and the wireless channel.
In order to accomplish this ambitious task, the work is organized into the three research thrusts that develop next generation of wireless caching networks for video delivery:
-Thrust 1: Fundamental limits and practical schemes for cache-aided video delivery:
This thrust takes into account properties of video applications and their associated requirements for efficient and robust caching and delivery techniques particularly suited for such demands.
-Thrust 2: Video delivery over future cache-aided heterogeneous wireless networks:
This thrust builds upon the foundations developed in Thrust 1 and expands the cache-aided video delivery schemes to consider and take advantage of heterogeneous wireless channel conditions and network topologies.
- Thrust 3: Technology validation and experimentation: This thrust includes proof-of-concept prototyping efforts to validate the designs developed in this project.
The broader impacts resulting from the activity in this project will include significant enhancement of video delivery mechanisms over wireless channels beyond the current state of the art. This of key importance since the total global mobile traffic was about 885 petabytes per month at the end of 2012, and is expected to keep increasing. As the storage capacity becomes cheaper, the techniques developed in this project will be able to alleviate the spectrum crunch by trading off memory for bandwidth. Industry outreach and dissemination will be done through Bell Labs Nokia and other industrial partners at NYU. The PIs are committed to and have an excellent track record in increasing participation of as well as mentoring women and underrepresented minorities in the STEM fields. This grant will help to support these efforts.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 50.00K | Year: 2012
The exponential growth of mobile data is a major challenge to the operators of cellular networks. Looking beyond conventional capacity-improving approaches such as adding more cells and acquiring more spectrum, this project seeks to fundamentally improve the spectral efficiency of cellular data networks. The project investigates LAWN (Large number of Antenna based Wireless Networking), a radically new cellular network architecture, in which a large number of antennas simultaneously serve a relatively much smaller number of wireless terminals using multiuser beamforming. The project has two inter-related thrusts. The first investigates a novel LAWN base station design and prototype that can cost-effectively scale to hundreds of antennas and exploit physical-layer tradeoffs between computational complexity and network capacity. The second thrust studies the resulting new network architecture that efficiently schedules terminals, intelligently allocates transmission power, and coordinates pilot signal transmissions to mitigate inter-cell interference.
The project targets improving the spectral and power efficiency of cellular networks by many fold, leading to not only fast wireless data networks but also longer battery lifetime of mobile terminals. Results from the project are likely to provide fresh insights for new theoretical development, bringing large-scale multi-user beamforming one significant leap closer to practical deployment in cellular data networks. In addition to academic publications, the project will produce an open platform, including hardware, software, and documentation available on-line, for teaching and researching base station design. It will actively involve undergraduate students as well as students from under-represented populations.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: RES IN NETWORKING TECH & SYS | Award Amount: 35.09K | Year: 2016
Software defined radio (SDR) is emerging as a key technology to satisfy rapidly increasing data rate demands on the nations mobile wireless networks while ensuring coexistence with other spectrum users. When SDRs are in the hands and pockets of average people, it will be easy for a selfish user to alter his device to transmit and receive data on unauthorized spectrum, or ignore priority rules, making the network less reliable for many other users. Further, malware could cause an SDR to exhibit illegal spectrum use without the users awareness. The FCC has an enforcement bureau which detects interference via complaints and extensive manual investigation. The mechanisms used currently for locating spectrum offenders are time consuming, human-intensive, and expensive. A violators illegal spectrum use can be too temporary or too mobile to be detected and located using existing processes. This project envisions a future where a crowdsourced and networked fleet of spectrum sensors deployed in homes, community and office buildings, on vehicles, and in cell phones will detect, identify, and locate illegal use of the spectrum across a wide areas and frequency bands. This project will investigate and test new privacy-preserving crowdsourcing methods to detect and locate spectrum offenders. New tools to quickly find offenders will discourage users from illegal SDR activity, and enable recovery from spectrum-offending malware. In short, these tools will ensure the efficient, reliable, and fair use of the spectrum for network operators, government and scientific purposes, and wireless users. New course materials and demonstrations for use in public outreach will be developed on the topics of wireless communications, dynamic spectrum access, data mining, network security, and crowdsourcing.
There are several challenges the project will address in the development of methods and tools to find spectrum offenders. First, the project will enable localization of offenders via crowdsourced spectrum measurements that do not decode the transmitted data and thus preserve users? data and identity privacy. Second, the crowd-sourced sensing strategy will implicitly adapt to the density of traffic and explicitly adapt to focus on suspicious activity. Next, the sensing strategy will stay within an energy budget, and have incentive models to encourage participation, yet have sufficient spatial and temporal coverage to provide high statistical confidence in detecting illegal activity. Finally, the developed methods will be evaluated using both simulation and extensive experiments, to quantify performance and provide a rich public data set for other researchers.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: EARS | Award Amount: 45.46K | Year: 2013
The objective of this project is to enable more efficient and reliable operation of autonomous femtocell networks with agile spectrum access, autonomous interference control, as well as intelligent network self-organization and self-optimization. This project falls into four interacted thrusts: 1) Incorporate cognition into the femtocell networks to cognitively reuse the available spectrum sensed; 2) Develop distributed, dynamic and cooperative interference management schemes exploiting antenna techniques and based on sensed environmental conditions; 3) Investigate the scenarios and schemes that femtocells can be exploited to facilitate macrocell transmissions, and the potential gains in capacity, coverage and reliability; 4) Incorporate interference cancellation for data multicast, and develop techniques to support multiuser video streaming. The project also develops a testbed with open source programmable wireless platforms, for prototyping and evaluating the effectiveness of various techniques developed.
The proposed research has the potential to significantly increase the capacity and resilience of existing and future wireless networks. The agility and resilience of the system will also make it instrumental to support communications and applications that are important for national security and economy. The PIs will facilitate technology transfer through their industrial partners and industry affiliate programs. Complementary to the research agenda, the project will carry out a broad range of education and outreach activities, including integration of research findings into the courses, promoting underrepresented and undergraduate populations, and engaging with the K-12 schools to raise the level of student interests in pursuing advanced education and career in the areas of engineering and mathematics.