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Van Houdt R.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center | Michiels C.W.,Catholic University of Leuven
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

The ability of many bacteria to adhere to surfaces and to form biofilms has major implications in a variety of industries including the food industry, where biofilms create a persistent source of contamination. The formation of a biofilm is determined not only by the nature of the attachment surface, but also by the characteristics of the bacterial cell and by environmental factors. This review focuses on the features of the bacterial cell surface such as flagella, surface appendages and polysaccharides that play a role in this process, in particular for bacteria linked to food-processing environments. In addition, some aspects of the attachment surface, biofilm control and eradication will be highlighted. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

Vandenhove H.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2013

The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Vives I Batlle J.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2012

In the present paper, a two-age-class group, logistic growth model for generic populations of nonhuman biota is described in order to assess non-stochastic effects of low linear energy-transfer radiation using three endpoints: repairable radiation damage, impairment of reproductive ability and, at higher radiation dose rates, mortality. This model represents mathematically the exchange between two life stages considering fecundity, growth and mortality. Radiation effects are modeled with a built-in self-recovery pool whereupon individuals can repair themselves. In acute effects mode, the repairing pool becomes depleted due to radiation and the model tends to lethality mode. A base calibration of the model's two free parameters is possible assuming that in acute mode 50 % of the individuals die on 30 days when a radiation dose equal to the LD 50/30 is applied during that period. The model, which requires 10 species-dependent life-history parameters, was applied to fish and mammals. Its use in the derivation of dose-rate screening values for the protection of non-human biota from the effects of ionizing radiation is demonstrated through several applications. First, results of model testing with radiation effects data for fish populations from the EPIC project show the predictive capability of the model in a practical case. Secondly, the model was further verified with FREDERICA radiation effects data for mice and voles. Then, consolidated predictions for mouse, rabbit, dog and deer were generated for use in a population model comparison made within the IAEA EMRAS II project. Taken together, model predictions suggest that radiation effects are more harmful for larger organisms that generate lower numbers of offspring. For small mammal and fish populations, dose rates that are below 0.02 Gy day -1 are not fatal; in contrast, for large mammals, chronic exposure at this level is predicted to be harmful. At low exposure rates similar to the ERICA screening dose rate of 2.4 × 10 -4 Gy day -1, long-term effects on the survivability of populations are negligible, supporting the appropriateness of this value for radiological assessments to wildlife. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Batlle J.V.I.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2011

The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, precipitated by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck the northeastern coast of Japan in March 2011, has raised concerns about the potential impact to marine biota posed by the release of radioactive water and radionuclide particles into the environment. The Fukushima accident is the only major nuclear accident that has resulted in the direct discharge of radioactive materials into a coastal environment. This article briefly summarizes what is currently understood about the effects of radioactive wastewaters and radionuclides to marine life. © 2011 SETAC. Source

Gusarov A.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center | Hoeffgen S.K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Technological Trend Analysis
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science | Year: 2013

Fiber Bragg and long period gratings are photonic components that find numerous applications in telecommunication and sensing. In some cases, such as space, high-energy physics, and nuclear industry, those applications include the presence of ionizing radiation. It is therefore essential to evaluate their radiation response. In this paper, we review radiation effects on various types of fiber gratings. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

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