Kubarko A.,Belarusian State Medical University |
Firago V.,Belarusian State University |
Hotra O.,Lublin University of Technology
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2014
The computer methods for determining the map of colour-contrast sensitivity of the retina, suitable for mass screening of the earlier disturbances of visual and circulatory systems of humans, are discussed. The expressions for calculation, and the results of the determination of the threshold values of the photon fluxes at which young people detect the light stimulus in the shape of the red square with the side 2 mm, formed on the screen of CRT display, are given.
Kirillov V.,Belarusian State Medical University
Diagnostic Cytopathology | Year: 2013
The technology of building an expert system for diagnosing malignant nature of invasive tumors of the mammary gland based on a set of quantitative features of the cell nuclei has been developed. Its peculiarity was the presence of weighting coefficients in all the features. Quantitative features were obtained by transforming the initial morphometric data with the help of simple (evaluation of mean values and building of histograms) and complex (regression analysis) mathematical operations. The expert system consisted of one-dimensional X-matrix used for investigations and two-dimensional standard S-matrix. The X-matrix elements were assigned for filling with the quantitative features of the studied sample with a nonestablished diagnosis. The S-matrix elements contained threshold values of quantitative features from the system of diagnostic decision criteria for malignant forms of diseases and their weighting coefficients. Threshold values of nuclear features (larger or smaller) were determined taking into account the range of their values in the groups of malignant and benign pathology. Significance of quantitative features in diagnosing diseases has been assessed. The presence of weighting coefficients allowed diagnosing malignant and benign pathology in a quantitative form by the diagnostic index value. Diagnostic index was calculated by the sum of weighting coefficients of features of the studied sample, which fell within the range of system of the S-matrix diagnostic decision criteria. Clinical trials revealed high efficiency of the developed approach while diagnosis of breast cancer invasive forms at a preoperative stage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Welcome M.O.,Belarusian State Medical University
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2011
Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical intelligence as the backbone of the health sector is necessary, besides adequate management couple with strong leadership principles.
Kirillov V.,Belarusian State Medical University |
Emeliyanova O.,Belarusian State Medical University
Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology | Year: 2012
Objective: To develop expert systems for classification of follicular thyroid tumor at a preoperative stage. Study design: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland with a histologic conclusion of follicular cancer and follicular adenoma were the object of the morphometric study. General sample size was 4,500 nuclei and 3,000 aggregates. Results: Quantitative regularities of pathologic changes in thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates in follicular cancer and follicular adenoma were revealed. Threshold values and weighting coefficients of quantitative features of thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates characterizing cancer made the basis of the two expert systems. Expert systems included standard 2-D S-matrix containing threshold values of nuclei and aggregates in cancer and their weighting coefficients as well as 1-D scientific X-matrix designed for filling with quantitative features of the studied object. The diagnosis was verified by the value of a diagnostic index by means of comparing feature values in the corresponding elements of S- and X-matrices. After that, a diagnostic index was calculated taking into account the features' weighting coefficient. Conclusion: The developed expert systems based on a set of quantitative features of thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates will allow assessing the malignant potential of a follicular thyroid tumor at a preoperative stage. © Science Printers and Publishers, Inc.
Shakhbazau A.,University of Calgary |
Potapnev M.,Belarusian State Medical University
Cytotherapy | Year: 2016
Stem cell therapy for incurable central nervous system disorders has long been viewed as a promising therapeutic option. In this review, we discuss the existing data and approaches on cell transplantation in the context of the neural differentiation potential of adult autologous stem cells, focusing on those of mesenchymal origin as easily accessible and well studied. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population with a remarkable therapeutic plasticity, demonstrated by their ability to dampen inflammation, inhibit pathogenic immune responses and secrete neuroprotective factors. To demonstrate and discuss the broad therapeutic potential of MSCs, this review focuses on two examples of neurological conditions: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and epilepsy. We review the lessons from animal models and clinical trials, and consider encouraging newly published clinical data on therapeutic applications of neurally induced MSCs. © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy
Khrustalev V.V.,Belarusian State Medical University |
Barkovsky E.V.,Belarusian State Medical University |
Khrustaleva T.A.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus |
Lelevich S.V.,Grodno State Medical University
Gene | Year: 2014
Total GC-content in the platelet phosphofructokinase gene of Zebra Finch (. Taeniopygia guttata) is low (37.53. ±. 0.51%), while there are short areas (about 300 nucleotides in length) with increased GC-content overlapping its exon 4 and exon 17. GC-content in third codon positions (3GC) of those two exons is equal to 88.42 and 80.00%, respectively, while overall 3GC of the coding region is equal to 49.9%. Similar distribution of GC-content has been found in platelet phosphofructokinase genes of other birds from Passeriformes order. According to the results of phylogenetic analysis, formation of those areas with high G. +. C started from 91.4 to 47.1. million. years ago, since there are no such peaks of GC-content in homologous genes of other birds and reptiles. There are clusters of transcription factor binding sites in those areas with higher GC-content, as well as microRNA precursors conserved in Zebra Finch and Flycatcher genes. According to our hypothesis those intragenic isochores (intrachores) may be consequences of autonomous microRNA precursor transcription at certain period(s) of embryogenesis and gametogenesis, when the platelet phosphofructokinase gene itself is not expressed. Transcription-associated mutational pressure existing during those periods may cause the increase in rates of AT to GC mutations in those genes which are transcribed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Rzheutskaya R.E.,Belarusian State Medical University
Critical Care Research and Practice | Year: 2012
Purpose. To define specific features of central hemodynamic parameter changes in patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) and in patients with clinically established brain death and to determine the required course of treatment for their correction. Data and Research Methods. A close study of central hemodynamic parameters was undertaken. The study involved 13 patients with isolated STBI (group STBI) and 15 patients with isolated STBI and clinically established brain death (group STBI-BD). The parameters of central hemodynamics were researched applying transpulmonary thermodilution. Results. In the present study, various types of hemodynamic reaction (normodynamic, hyperdynamic, and hypodynamic) were identified in patients with isolated STBI in an acute period of traumatic disease. Hyperdynamic type of blood circulation was not observed in patients with isolated STBI and clinically established brain death. Detected hemodynamic disorders led to the correction of the ongoing therapy under the control of central hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions. Monitoring of parameters of central hemodynamics allows to detect the cause of disorders, to timely carry out the required correction, and to coordinate infusion, inotropic, and vasopressor therapy. © 2012 Ryta E. Rzheutskaya.
Welcome M.O.,Belarusian State Medical University
The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse | Year: 2011
Alcohol abuse is a major problem among students in Belarus. Alcohol-related problems might vary among students of different cultural backgrounds. To examine the different patterns in alcohol use and related problems among students of different cultural groups--the Slavs and Arabs, in major Belarusian universities. 1465 university students (1345 Slavs and 120 Arabs) from three major universities in Minsk, Belarus, were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Cut, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye questionnaire, and the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, including other alcohol-related questions. Overall, 91.08% (n = 1225) Slavs and 60.83% (n = 73) Arabs were alcohol users. A total of 16.28% (n = 219) Slavs and 32.50% (n = 39) Arabs were identified as problem drinkers. Different patterns of alcohol use and related problems were characterized for the Slavs and Arabs. The level of alcohol-related problems was higher among the Arabs, compared to the Slavs. Significant differences in the pattern of alcohol use and related problems exist among the students of various cultural groups--the Slavs and Arabs in Minsk, Belarus. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first empirical study to investigate the prevalence of alcohol use and related problems among the Arab and Slav students in Belarus.
Kirillov V.,Belarusian State Medical University |
Akimova L.,Belarusian State Medical University
Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the differences in the parameters of the second order regression curve with a cluster of experimental points on scattergrams showing the dependence of the perimeter on the area of tumor cell nuclei between ductal carcinoma and fibroadenoma of the mammary gland. STUDY DESIGN: Punctate smears taken from patients with ductal carcinoma and fibroadenoma of the mammary gland with coincident histologic and cytologic conclusion were studied and selected. Karyometry of tumor cells was performed with the help of a semiautomatic computer analyzer of digital images. RESULTS: It has been shown that the cluster of experimental points on scattergrams showing the dependence of the perimeter on the area of tumor cell nuclei can be well described by a second order regression curve, which is a parabola. The differences in parabola parameters (coefficients of the parabola equation) characterizing the population of tumor cells in ductal carcinoma and fibroadenoma of the mammary gland were revealed. Boundary values of these parameters in the groups of comparison were ascertained. CONCLUSION: Parameters of the regression curve to a cluster of experimental points on scattergrams showing the dependence of the perimeter on the area of tumor cell nuclei can be used as an additional diagnostic criterion for breast cancer. © Science Printers and Publishers, Inc.
Puchinskaya M.V.,Belarusian State Medical University
Arkhiv Patologii | Year: 2015
The paper gives general information about the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), its morphological manifestations, altered expression of a number of proteins, types of EMT, and its role in embryogenesis and human diseases, including that about EMT as a mechanism by which the tumor cell acquires prometastatic potential. EMT is a process that is essential in health for gastrulation and the formation of neural crest cells; however, it is also important for the development of abnormalities, among other processes, organ fibrosis and tumor metastases. An understanding of the role of EMT in cancer spread has led to active studies of the process in the past decades. Despite the fact that there are sufficiently many publications on different aspects of EMT, the exact mechanisms regulating the process and the possibility for its therapeutic exposure remain unclear. There is also evidence on the possible association of EMT with the generation of cancer stem cells in tumors.