Belarusian State Medical University

www.bsmu.by
Minsk, Belarus

Belarusian State Medical University is a leading higher medical education provider in the Republic of Belarus. Wikipedia.

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Voronetsky A.N.,Belarusian State Medical University
Novosti Khirurgii | Year: 2017

Objectives. To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovideocapsule enteroscopy in children with Crohn's disease by preliminary use of a soluble capsule to assess the intestinal patency and therapy monitoring. Methods. The endoscopic method for diagnosing of the small intestine patency with using a soluble capsule «PillCam patency» and subsequent enteroscopy using endovideocapsule «PillCam» in children with Crohn's disease had been applied. This article describes two clinical observations of patients with Crohn's disease; a continuous migration of the capsule due to the presence of strictures of the small intestine took place in one of thOse patients. Results. The two-stage endoscopic examination of children with Crohn's disease is justified using clinical examples: at the first stage the intestinal patency is checked using a soluble capsule, if the intestine is passable, at the second stage enteroscopy using endovideocapsule is carried out. The delay of endovideocapsule migration during the examination has been established to be possible. It does not require an active intervention if a patient has no signs of intestinal obstruction. However, in case of the capsule migration delay, the patient must be dynamically observed in the surgical hospital. In our observation the capsule remained in the small intestine over 7 months with subsequent spontaneous elimination. One of the effective diagnostic methods of capsule delay is the performance of a plain abdominal X-ray, since the capsule batteries are radiopaque. Conclusion. One of Crohn's disease complications in children can be a narrowing of the small intestine lumen and its patency, so prior the endovideocapsule enteroscopy the intestinal patency should be checked. The unimpeded migration of a soluble capsule is thought to be a basis for the subsequent capsule endoscopy. In case of endovideocapsule delay in the intestine and preservation passage of the intestinal contents it is necessary to ensure patient's clinical dynamic observation until the elimination of the capsule.


Belugina O.,Belarusian State Medical University | Ismayilova J.,National Mental Health Center
Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2016

This publication is an overview of symposium and poster presentations of the 24th EPA Congress (March 12-15, 2016, Madrid, Spain) that cover contemporary problems of modern treatment of people with dual diagnosis.


Nedzvedz O.,Belarusian State Medical University | Ablameyko S.,Belarusian State University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2017

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for monitoring of steam cells by using integral optical flow. The algorithm is based on construction of field of integral optical flow and its structure allows one to describe stages of cell’s evolution. The algorithm allows to analyze a motion send the internal structure of the cell and cell’s conglomeration. Definition of motion of such object by integral optical flow allows one to make a detailed prognosis of evolution of such objects. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Puchinskaya M.V.,Belarusian State Medical University
Voprosy Onkologii | Year: 2016

Cancer stem cells may be a source of malignant tumors as well as their relapses after treatment and metastases. They share many features with normal tissue stem cells but also possess mutations and other genetic and epigenetic changes that make them tumorigenic and resistant to conventional cancer therapies. The source of cancer stem cells is discussed: they may originate from normal tissue stem cells as a result of their mutations or deregulation of signaling pathways or alternatively from differentiated minor cells as a result of dedifferentiation during tumor development. Cancer stem cells reside in a special tumor microenvironment (niche) that regulates their functions. A number of signaling pathways and molecules participate in regulating cancer stem cells features. And although there are some inconsistencies concerning cancer stem cells, their existence may change our view on cancer progression and help to develop new strategies of cancer treatment.


Potapnev M.P.,Belarusian State Medical University
Immunologiya | Year: 2014

The review of literature discusses the role of most essential types of cell death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis) for induction of immune response to pathogens and self antigens. The main mechanisms of cell death and biological characteristics of cellular products, released during autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis were reported. The role of autophagy as cellular self-defense system against pathogens and cellular stress was underlined. The receptor-ligand interaction for induction of immune tolerance by apoptotic cells and the role of apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns (ACAMPs) and dendritic cells were described. Brief description of mechanisms of necrotic cell-induced inflammation and immune response as well as leading role of damage-associated molecular patterns/ DAMPs were done. Interaction of DAMPs and pathogen-associated molecular patterns/PAMPs in induction of host defense against pathogens was described. It was concluded that differential type of cell death may be occurred depending on strength of danger signal affecting cells and their function.


Kirillov V.,Belarusian State Medical University
Diagnostic Cytopathology | Year: 2013

The technology of building an expert system for diagnosing malignant nature of invasive tumors of the mammary gland based on a set of quantitative features of the cell nuclei has been developed. Its peculiarity was the presence of weighting coefficients in all the features. Quantitative features were obtained by transforming the initial morphometric data with the help of simple (evaluation of mean values and building of histograms) and complex (regression analysis) mathematical operations. The expert system consisted of one-dimensional X-matrix used for investigations and two-dimensional standard S-matrix. The X-matrix elements were assigned for filling with the quantitative features of the studied sample with a nonestablished diagnosis. The S-matrix elements contained threshold values of quantitative features from the system of diagnostic decision criteria for malignant forms of diseases and their weighting coefficients. Threshold values of nuclear features (larger or smaller) were determined taking into account the range of their values in the groups of malignant and benign pathology. Significance of quantitative features in diagnosing diseases has been assessed. The presence of weighting coefficients allowed diagnosing malignant and benign pathology in a quantitative form by the diagnostic index value. Diagnostic index was calculated by the sum of weighting coefficients of features of the studied sample, which fell within the range of system of the S-matrix diagnostic decision criteria. Clinical trials revealed high efficiency of the developed approach while diagnosis of breast cancer invasive forms at a preoperative stage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Welcome M.O.,Belarusian State Medical University
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2011

Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical intelligence as the backbone of the health sector is necessary, besides adequate management couple with strong leadership principles.


Rzheutskaya R.E.,Belarusian State Medical University
Critical Care Research and Practice | Year: 2012

Purpose. To define specific features of central hemodynamic parameter changes in patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) and in patients with clinically established brain death and to determine the required course of treatment for their correction. Data and Research Methods. A close study of central hemodynamic parameters was undertaken. The study involved 13 patients with isolated STBI (group STBI) and 15 patients with isolated STBI and clinically established brain death (group STBI-BD). The parameters of central hemodynamics were researched applying transpulmonary thermodilution. Results. In the present study, various types of hemodynamic reaction (normodynamic, hyperdynamic, and hypodynamic) were identified in patients with isolated STBI in an acute period of traumatic disease. Hyperdynamic type of blood circulation was not observed in patients with isolated STBI and clinically established brain death. Detected hemodynamic disorders led to the correction of the ongoing therapy under the control of central hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions. Monitoring of parameters of central hemodynamics allows to detect the cause of disorders, to timely carry out the required correction, and to coordinate infusion, inotropic, and vasopressor therapy. © 2012 Ryta E. Rzheutskaya.


Welcome M.O.,Belarusian State Medical University
The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse | Year: 2011

Alcohol abuse is a major problem among students in Belarus. Alcohol-related problems might vary among students of different cultural backgrounds. To examine the different patterns in alcohol use and related problems among students of different cultural groups--the Slavs and Arabs, in major Belarusian universities. 1465 university students (1345 Slavs and 120 Arabs) from three major universities in Minsk, Belarus, were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Cut, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye questionnaire, and the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, including other alcohol-related questions. Overall, 91.08% (n = 1225) Slavs and 60.83% (n = 73) Arabs were alcohol users. A total of 16.28% (n = 219) Slavs and 32.50% (n = 39) Arabs were identified as problem drinkers. Different patterns of alcohol use and related problems were characterized for the Slavs and Arabs. The level of alcohol-related problems was higher among the Arabs, compared to the Slavs. Significant differences in the pattern of alcohol use and related problems exist among the students of various cultural groups--the Slavs and Arabs in Minsk, Belarus. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first empirical study to investigate the prevalence of alcohol use and related problems among the Arab and Slav students in Belarus.


Puchinskaya M.V.,Belarusian State Medical University
Arkhiv Patologii | Year: 2015

The paper gives general information about the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), its morphological manifestations, altered expression of a number of proteins, types of EMT, and its role in embryogenesis and human diseases, including that about EMT as a mechanism by which the tumor cell acquires prometastatic potential. EMT is a process that is essential in health for gastrulation and the formation of neural crest cells; however, it is also important for the development of abnormalities, among other processes, organ fibrosis and tumor metastases. An understanding of the role of EMT in cancer spread has led to active studies of the process in the past decades. Despite the fact that there are sufficiently many publications on different aspects of EMT, the exact mechanisms regulating the process and the possibility for its therapeutic exposure remain unclear. There is also evidence on the possible association of EMT with the generation of cancer stem cells in tumors.

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